Download System.out.println(e)

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA) wikipedia, lookup

Remote Desktop Services wikipedia, lookup

Parallel port wikipedia, lookup

Zero-configuration networking wikipedia, lookup

Internet protocol suite wikipedia, lookup

Lag wikipedia, lookup

Cracking of wireless networks wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Lecture 10: Networking using Socket
Programming
Client-Server Model


The term server applies to any program that offers a service
that can be reached over a network. A server accepts a
request over the network, performs its service, and returns
the result to the requester.
An executing program becomes a client when it sends a
request to a server and waits for a response.
Socket Interface





Sockets provide low level communication mechanism that
allow two processes to communicate on same machine or on
different machine.
Funded by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) in
1980.
Developed at UC Berkeley.
Objective is to transport TCP/IP software to UNIX
Now Socket interface has become de facto standard.
Socket




Socket is a generalization of the UNIX file access
mechanism that provides an endpoint for communication.
Program request the Operating system to create a socket
when one is needed.
The system will return a small integer value that the
program uses to reference the newly created socket.
The application can choose to supply a destination address
each time it uses the socket (e.g., when sending datagrams),
or it can choose to bind the destination address to the
socket and avoid specifying the destination repeatedly (e.g.,
when making a TCP connection).
Socket Primitives (General approach)




SOCKET Create a new communication end point
BIND Attach a local address to a socket
LISTEN Announce willingness to accept connections.
ACCEPT Block the caller until a connection attempt
arrives




CONNECT Actively attempt to establish a connection
SEND Send some data over the connection
RECEIVE Receive some data from the connection
CLOSE Release the connection
Passive/Active Socket


A passive socket is used by a server to wait for an incoming
connection.
An active socket is used by a client to initiate a connection.
SocketTest.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class SocketTest
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
try
{
Socket s = new Socket("time-A.timefreq.bldrdoc.gov",
13);
SocketTest.java (Cont.)
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader
(new InputStreamReader(s.getInputStream()));
boolean more = true;
while (more)
{
String line = in.readLine();
if (line == null) more = false;
else
System.out.println(line);
}
}
Cont.
catch (IOException e)
{
System.out.println("Error" + e);
}
}
}
Example
import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;
public class ParseURL {
public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
URL aURL = new URL("http://java.sun.com:80/docs/books/"
+ "tutorial/index.html#DOWNLOADING");
System.out.println("protocol = " + aURL.getProtocol());
System.out.println("host = " + aURL.getHost());
System.out.println("filename = " + aURL.getFile());
System.out.println("port = " + aURL.getPort());
System.out.println("ref = " + aURL.getRef());
}
}
Output
protocol = http
host = java.sun.com
filename = /docs/books/tutorial/index.html
port = 80
ref = DOWNLOADING
Socket timeouts
We can set timeout value for a socket object. If we don’t set
it then we are on the mercy of underlying operating system.
E.g., if we call a read method on a Socket object, it will block
our socket until read method will return.

SocketOpenerTest.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class SocketOpenerTest
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
String host;
if (args.length > 0) host = args[0];
else host = "www.yourcompany.com";
int port;
SocketOpenerTest.java Cont.
if (args.length > 1) port = Integer.parseInt(args[1]);
else port = 80;
int timeout = 5000;
Socket s = SocketOpener.openSocket(host, port, timeout);
if (s == null)
System.out.println("The socket could not be opened.");
else
System.out.println(s);
}
}
SocketOpenerTest.java Cont.
class SocketOpener implements Runnable
{ public static Socket openSocket(String aHost, int aPort,
int timeout)
{ SocketOpener opener = new SocketOpener(aHost, aPort);
Thread t = new Thread(opener);
t.start();
try
{ t.join(timeout);
}
SocketOpenerTest.java Cont.
catch (InterruptedException exception)
{
}
return opener.getSocket();
}
public SocketOpener(String aHost, int aPort)
{ socket = null;
host = aHost;
port = aPort;
}
SocketOpenerTest.java Cont.
public void run(){
try{
socket = new Socket(host, port);
}
catch (IOException exception){
}
}
public Socket getSocket(){
return socket;
}
private String host;
private int port;
private Socket socket;
};
Internet addresses


High level names are mapped with IP addresses.
You can use InetAddress class if you need to convert
between host names and internet addresses.
InetAddress address = InetAddress.getByName(“timeA.timefreq.bldrdoc.gov”) ;
This method will return 132.163.135.130

The address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for a local machine and
usually used for testing.
InetAddressTest.java
import java.net.*;
public class InetAddressTest
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
try
{
if (args.length > 0)
{ String host = args[0];
InetAddress[] addresses
= InetAddress.getAllByName(host);
for (int i = 0; i < addresses.length; i++)
System.out.println(addresses[i]);
}
Cont.
else
{ InetAddress localHostAddress
= InetAddress.getLocalHost();
System.out.println(localHostAddress);
}
}
catch (Exception e)
{ System.out.println("Error: " + e);
}
}
}
TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol standard transport level
protocol that provides the reliable, full duplex, stream
service on which many application protocols depend. TCP
allows a process on one machine to send a stream of data to
a process on another. TCP is connection-oriented in the
sense that before transmitting data, participants must
establish a connection. All data travels in TCP segments,
which each travel across the Internet in an Ip datagram.
The entire protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP
because TCP and IP are the two fundamental protocols.
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides an unfeliable
conncetionless delivery service using IP to transport messages
between machines. It uses IP to carry messages, but adds the
ability to distinguish among multiple destinations within a
fiven host computer.
Layers of Communication
Conceptual View
Usage of Ports
Definition: The TCP and UDP protocols use ports to map
incoming data to a particular process running on a
computer. In datagram-based communication such as UDP,
the datagram packet contains the port number of its
destination and UDP routes the packet to the appropriate
application, as illustrated in this figure:
Port numbers range from 0 to 65,535 because ports are
represented by 16-bit numbers. The port numbers ranging
from 0 - 1023 are restricted; they are reserved for use by
well-known services such as HTTP and FTP and other
system services. These ports are called well-known ports.
Your applications should not attempt to bind to them.
Inter Process Communication
Usage of Ports in Processes communication
Service






FTP
Telnet
SMTP Mail
HTTP (Web)
POP3 Mail
News
Port Number
21
23
25
80
110
119
Implementing Servers
Server program binds himself on a specific port no. and
listen for the client request. Then it sends information on
the Net that was requested by client.
Following will establish a server that monitors port 8189.
ServerSocket s = new ServerSocket (8189) ;
Following will tells the program to wait indefinitely until a
client connects to that port.
After connection it will return a socket object that can be used
for I/O.
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader
(new InputStreamReader(incoming.getInputStream()));
PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter
(incoming.getOutputStream(), true /* autoFlush */);

Implementing Servers Cont.

Every thing that server sends to the server output stream
becomes the input of the client program and all the output
from the client program ends up in the server input stream.
EchoServer.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class EchoServer{
public static void main(String[] args )
{
try
{
ServerSocket s = new ServerSocket(8189);
Socket incoming = s.accept( );
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader
(new
InputStreamReader(incoming.getInputStream()));
EchoServer.java Cont
PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter
(incoming.getOutputStream(), true /* autoFlush */);
out.println( "Hello! Enter BYE to exit." );
boolean done = false;
while (!done)
{ String line = in.readLine();
if (line == null) done = true;
else
{ out.println("Echo: " + line);
EchoServer.java Cont
if (line.trim().equals("BYE"))
done = true;
}
}
incoming.close();
}
catch (Exception e)
{
System.out.println(e);
}
}
}
ThreadedEchoServer.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class ThreadedEchoServer
{ public static void main(String[] args )
{ int i = 1;
try
{ ServerSocket s = new ServerSocket(8189);
for (;;)
{ Socket incoming = s.accept( );
System.out.println("Spawning " + i);
new ThreadedEchoHandler(incoming, i).start();
i++;
}
}
ThreadedEchoServer.java Cont
catch (Exception e)
{ System.out.println(e);
}
}
}
class ThreadedEchoHandler extends Thread
{
public ThreadedEchoHandler(Socket i, int c)
{
incoming = i; counter = c;
}
ThreadedEchoServer.java Cont
public void run()
{
try
{
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader
(new
InputStreamReader(incoming.getInputStream()));
PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter
(incoming.getOutputStream(), true /* autoFlush */);
out.println( "Hello! Enter BYE to exit." );
boolean done = false;
ThreadedEchoServer.java Cont
while (!done)
{ String str = in.readLine();
if (str == null) done = true;
else
{ out.println("Echo (" + counter + "): " + str);
if (str.trim().equals("BYE"))
done = true;
}
}
incoming.close();
}
ThreadedEchoServer.java Cont
catch (Exception e)
{ System.out.println(e);
}
}
private Socket incoming;
private int counter;
}
URLConnectionReader.java
import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;
public class URLConnectionReader {
public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
URL yahoo = new URL("http://www.yahoo.com/");
URLConnection yc = yahoo.openConnection();
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(
new InputStreamReader(
yc.getInputStream()));
String inputLine;
while ((inputLine = in.readLine()) != null)
System.out.println(inputLine);
in.close();
}
}
Reverse.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class Reverse {
public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
if (args.length != 1) {
System.err.println("Usage: java Reverse "
+ "string_to_reverse");
System.exit(1);
}
String stringToReverse = URLEncoder.encode(args[0]);
URL url = new URL("http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/backwards");
URLConnection connection = url.openConnection();
connection.setDoOutput(true);
Reverse.java Cont.
PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(
connection.getOutputStream());
out.println("string=" + stringToReverse);
out.close();
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(
new InputStreamReader(
connection.getInputStream()));
String inputLine;
while ((inputLine = in.readLine()) != null)
System.out.println(inputLine);
in.close();
}
}
An Example of Client-Server application
ThreadedDataObjectServer.java
import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class ThreadedDataObjectServer {
public static void main(String[] args ) {
try
{
ServerSocket s = new ServerSocket(3000);
for (;;) {
Socket incoming = s.accept( );
new ThreadedDataObjectHandler(incoming).start();
}
}
Server Cont.
catch (Exception e)
{
System.out.println(e);
}
}
}
class ThreadedDataObjectHandler extends Thread {
public ThreadedDataObjectHandler(Socket i) {
incoming = i;
}
Server Cont.
public void run() {
try
{
ObjectInputStream in = new
ObjectInputStream(incoming.getInputStream());
ObjectOutputStream out = new
ObjectOutputStream(incoming.getOutputStream());
myObject = (DataObject)in.readObject();
System.out.println("Message read: " +
myObject.getMessage());
Server Cont.
myObject.setMessage("Got it!");
System.out.println("Message written: " +
myObject.getMessage());
out.writeObject(myObject);
in.close();
out.close();
incoming.close();
}
Server Cont.
catch (Exception e) {
System.out.println(e);
}
}
DataObject myObject = null;
private Socket incoming;
}
DataObject.java
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
public class DataObject implements Serializable{
private int number;
DataObject(){
number = 2;
} public int getNumber(){
return number;
} public void setNumber(int inNumber){
number = inNumber;
}
}
Client.java
mport java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
public class Client{
public static void main(String[] arg){
try{
DataObject myObject = new DataObject();
myObject.setNumber(1);
System.out.println("Number : " + myObject.getNumber());
Socket socketToServer = new Socket("127.0.0.1", 3000);
ObjectOutputStream myOutputStream = new
ObjectOutputStream(socketToServer.getOutputStream())
;
Client
ObjectInputStream myInputStream = new
ObjectInputStream(socketToServer.getInputStream());
myOutputStream.writeObject(myObject);
myObject = (DataObject)myInputStream.readObject();
System.out.println("Number : " + myObject.getNumber());
myOutputStream.close();
myInputStream.close();
socketToServer.close();
} catch(Exception e){
System.out.println(e);
}
}
}
The End of Lecture 10