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BIOL 4260
Human Evolutionary Anatomy
Lecture 15: Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh
Lecture 2: Fossil Record
Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers
—  Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand
—  Relatively large muscles that perform flexion and
extension at the joints of the fingers
—  Provide strength and crude control of the hand and
fingers
—  These muscles are found mostly on the anterior and
posterior surfaces of the forearm
—  Their tendons carpus enclosed in sheaths associated
with connective tissue thickenings called retinacula
Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers
—  Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
—  Smaller muscles that provide fine control of hand
—  Responsible for flexion and extension, and abduction
and adduction of the fingers at the
metacarpophalangeal joints
—  Responsible for opposition and reposition of the thumb
—  These muscles are found mostly in the palm or the back
of the hand
Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand
—  Flexor muscles
—  Flexor digitorum superficialis: flexion at the wrist
and some digits
—  Flexor digitorum profundus: flexion at the wrist and
some digits
—  Flexor pollicis longus: flexion of the thumb
Tendon of
biceps
brachii
Median nerve
Pronator teres (cut)
Brachial artery
Radius
Ulna
Brachioradialis
(retracted)
Flexor carpi
ulnaris (retracted)
Flexor digitorum
superficialis
Flexor pollicis
longus
Flexor digitorum
profundus
LATERAL
MEDIAL
Anterior view of the middle layer of
muscles. The flexor carpi radialis
muscle and palmaris longus muscle
have been removed.
6
Supinator
Brachialis
Cut tendons of
flexor digitorum
superficialis
Flexor digitorum
profundus
Flexor pollicis
longus
Pronator
quadratus
(see Figure
11.8f)
LATERAL
MEDIAL
Anterior view of the deep layer of muscles
8
Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand (continued)
—  Extensor/Abductor Group
—  Abductor pollicis longus: abduction of thumb
—  Extensor digitorum: extension of fingers and wrist
—  Extensor pollicis brevis: extension of thumb,
abducts the wrist
—  Extensor indicis: extension and adduction of index
finger
—  Extensor digiti minimi: extension of little finger,
extension of wrist
Summary for extensors of digits
10
Anconeus
Extensor
digitorum
Extensor
digiti minimi
Tendon of
extensor
pollicis longus
MEDIAL
Abductor
pollicis longus
Extensor
pollicis brevis
LATERAL
Posterior view of the
middle layer of muscles
Anconeus
Supinator
Abductor
pollicis longus
Extensor
pollicis longus
Extensor indicis
Extensor
pollicis brevis
Ulna
Radius
Tendon of
extensor
digiti minimi
(cut)
Tendon of
extensor
digitorum
(cut)
MEDIAL
LATERAL
Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
—  Thenar Muscles
—  Adductor pollicis : adducts the thumb
—  Abductor pollicis brevis: abducts the thumb
—  Opponens pollicis: opposition movement of the thumb
—  Flexor pollicis brevis: flex and adduct thumb
—  Hypothenar Muscles
—  Flexor digiti minimi brevis: flex little finger
—  Opponens digiti minimi: brings digits into opposition with the
small digit
—  Abductor digiti minimi: abducts little finger
—  Palmaris brevis: moves the skin on the medial side of the palm
Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
—  Midpalmar Muscles
—  Lumbricals: flexion of the digits at metacarpophalangeal joints
—  Dorsal interosseus: abduction of digits 2–4
—  Palmar interosseus: adduction of digits 2, 4, and 5
15
16
17
18
19
Tendon of flexor
digitorum profundus
Tendon of flexor
digitorum superficialis
First dorsal interosseus
Synovial
sheaths
Tendon of flexor
pollicis longus
Lumbricals
Palmar
interosseus
Adductor
pollicis
Tendons of flexor
digitorum (both
profundus and
superficialis)
Opponens digiti
minimi
Flexor pollicis
brevis
Opponens
pollicis
Flexor digiti
minimi brevis
Abductor pollicis
brevis
Palmaris brevis (cut)
Tendon of
palmaris longus
Abductor digiti
minimi
Flexor retinaculum
Tendon of flexor
carpi ulnaris
Tendon of
flexor carpi radialis
Anterior (palmar) view
Figure 11.11a Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments of the Hand
Tendon of
extensor indicis
First dorsal
interosseus
muscle
Tendon of
extensor
digiti minimi
Abductor
digiti minimi
Tendon of
extensor
pollicis longus
Tendon of extensor
pollicis brevis
Tendon of
extensor
carpi ulnaris
Extensor
retinaculum
Tendon of extensor
carpi radialis longus
Tendon of extensor
carpi radialis brevis
Posterior (dorsal) view
Muscles that move the femur
—  The muscles of the lower limbs are larger and more powerful
than those of the upper limbs.
—  These muscles can be divided into three groups:
—  Muscles that move the femur (thigh)
—  Muscles that move the tibia and fibula (leg)
—  Muscles that move the foot and toes
Muscles that move the femur
—  Originate on the pelvis:
—  Divided into Four groups
—  Gluteal group
—  Lateral rotator group
—  Adductor group
—  Iliopsoas group
Muscles that move the femur
— The Gluteal Group
—  Gluteus maximus: posterior extension at
the hip
—  Gluteus medius: abduction at the hip
—  Gluteus minimus: abduction at the hip
—  Tensor fasciae latae: abduction at the hip
The gluteal group
Maximus:
origin- iliac crest
and lateral
surfaces of ilium,
sacrum and
coccyx
insertion- lateral
surface of greater
trochanter
Muscles that move the femur
— The Lateral Rotator Group
—  Obturators: lateral rotation and abduction of hip
—  Piriformis: lateral rotation and abduction of hip
—  Gemelli: lateral rotation and abduction of hip
—  Quadratus femoris: lateral rotation of hip
27
Muscles that move the femur
—  The Adductor Group: origin is pubis and ischium
—  All insert on pectineal line, linea aspera, or medial surface of
tibia
—  Adductor brevis: adduction at the hip
—  Adductor longus: adduction and medial rotation at the hip
—  Adductor magnus: adduction at the hip
—  Pectineus: flexion and adduction at the hip
—  Gracilis: flexion and medial rotation at the
knee/adduction and medial rotation at the hip
Iliopsoas
Psoas
major
Iliacus
L5
Piriformis
Inguinal
ligament
Obturator
internus
Obturator
externus
Adductor
brevis
Adductor
longus
Adductor
magnus
Gracilis
Anterior view of the iliopsoas
muscle and the adductor group
Pectineus
Sartorius
(see Table 11.7)
Muscles that move the femur
Iliopsoas
— The Iliopsoas Group
—  Iliacus: flexion at
the hip
—  Psoas major:
flexion at the hip
Psoas
major
Iliacus
Muscles That Move the Tibia and Fibula (Leg)
—  Extensors of the Knee
—  Vastus intermedius: extends the lower leg
—  Vastus lateralis: extends the lower leg
—  Vastus medialis: extends the lower leg
—  Rectus femoris: extends the lower leg/flexion at
the hip
—  The three vastus muscles and the rectus femoris
muscle are collectively called the quadriceps
femoris
32
Muscles That Move the Tibia and Fibula (Leg)
—  Flexors of the Knee
—  Biceps femoris: flexes lower leg/extension at the
hip
—  Semimembranosus: flexes lower leg
—  Semitendinosus: flexes the lower leg
—  Sartorius: allows crossing of the lower leg
—  Popliteus: flexes lower leg
—  The biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and
semitendinosus are collectively called the
hamstrings
Iliac crest
Gluteal aponeurosis
over gluteus medius
Tensor fasciae
latae
Gluteus
maximus
Adductor
magnus
Biceps
femoris,
long head
Gracilis
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Iliotibial
tract
Biceps femoris,
short head
Semimembranosus
Sartorius
Popliteal artery (red)
and vein (blue)
Tibial nerve
Medial head
of gastrocnemius
Lateral head
of gastrocnemius
Posterior view of superficial
muscles of the right thigh
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot and Toes
— Muscles that originate on the lower leg but
yet move the foot and toes
—  Intrinsic Muscles of the Toes
— Muscles that originate on some aspect of
the foot but yet move the toes
SUPERFICIAL
DEEP
Patella
Iliotibial
tract
Patellar
ligament
Tibial
tuberosity
Fibula
Fibularis
longus
Tibialis
anterior
Tibia
Extrinsic Muscles
That Move the
Foot and Toes,
ANTERIOR
COMPARTMENT
Extensor
digitorum
longus
Extensor
hallucis
longus
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Lateral malleolus
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
Anterior views showing
superficial and deep muscles
of the right leg
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Anterior compartment
—  Tibialis anterior:
dorsiflexion of the
foot
—  Origin- lateral
condyle of tibia and
proximal shaft of
tibia. Insertion:1st
metatarsal
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
— Extrinsic Muscles
— Anterior compartment
—  Extensor digitorum
longus: extension of
toes 2–5
—  Origin- lateral condyle
of tibia
Insertion:superior
surfaces of phalanges
2-5st
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Anterior compartment
—  Extensor hallucis longus:
extension of hallux
—  Origin- Anterior surface of
fibula:superior of distal
phalanx of great toe
Iliotibial tract
Biceps femoris
Head of fibula
Lateral head of
gastrocnemius
Tibialis anterior
Extrinsic Muscles
That Move the
Foot and Toes,
LATERAL
COMPARTMENT
Calcaneal tendon
Fibularis longus
Soleus
Fibularis brevis
Extensor
digitorum longus
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Lateral malleolus
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
Tendon of extensor
hallucis longus
Lateral view of the superficial
muscles of the right leg
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Lateral Compartment
Fibularis (peroneus)
longus: eversion of the
foot
—  Origin- Head and
Proximal shaft of
fibula:
—  Insertion: Base of first
metatarsal bone and
medial cuneiform
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Lateral Compartment
Fibularis brevis: eversion
of the foot
—  Origin- Mid-lateral shaft
of fibula:
—  Insertion: Base of fifth
metatarsal bone
Plantaris
Extrinsic
Muscles That
Move the Foot
and Toes,
POSTERIOR
COMPARTMENT
Popliteus
Gastrocnemius,
medial head
Soleus
Gastrocnemius,
lateral head
Soleus
Gastrocnemius
(cut and removed)
Calcaneal
tendon
Calcaneus
Superficial muscles of the posterior surface of the legs; these
large muscles are primarily responsible for plantar flexion.
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Posterior Compartment
Gastrocnemius: plantar flexion
of the foot
—  Origin- Posterior of Medial and
lateral epicondyles of femur:
Insertion: calcaneous via
Achilles tendon
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Posterior Compartment Plantaris:
— 
— 
— 
— 
— 
plantar flexion
origin- lateral epicondyle of femur
insertion- Achilles tendon
Soleus: plantar flexion
origin- posterior surfaces of proximal
tibia and fibula
Insertion- calcaneous via Achilles
tendon
Head of
fibula
Tibialis
posterior
Extrinsic
Muscles That
Move the Foot
and Toes, DEEP
posterior
COMPARTMENT
Fibularis
longus
Flexor
digitorum longus
Flexor
hallucis longus
Fibularis
brevis
Tendon of
fibularis brevis
Tendon of
fibularis longus
Posterior view of deeper muscles of the leg
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Posterior Compartment
—  Flexor digitorum longus:
flexion of toes 2–5
—  origin- posterior-medial
surface of tibia
—  insertion- inferior surface of
distal phalanx of digits 2-5
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
— Extrinsic Muscles
— Posterior Compartment
—  Tibialis posterior:
inversion of foot
—  origin- Interossues
membrane and adjacent
shaft of tibia and fibula
—  insertion- posterior of
tarsals (navicular, all
three cuneiforms and
cuboid) and metatarsals
2-4
Muscles That Move the Toes
—  Extrinsic Muscles
—  Posterior Compartment
—  Flexor hallucis longus: flexion of
the hallux
—  origin- Posterior 2/3 of fibula
—  insertion- distal phalanx of hallux
—  Popliteus: Lateral rotation of
femur at knee
—  Origin: lateral epicondyle of
femur
—  Insertion: medial proximal tibia
Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Toes
—  Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Toes
—  Extensor digitorum brevis: extension of toes 1–4
—  Abductor hallucis: abduction of the hallux
—  Flexor digitorum brevis: flexion of toes 2–5
—  Abductor digiti minimi: abduction of the little toe
—  Quadratus plantae: flexion of toes 2–5
—  Lumbricals: extension of toes 2–5
Intrinsic Muscles That Move the
Toes
Tendon of
fibularis brevis
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Lateral malleolus
of fibula
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
Tendons of extensor
digitorum longus
Fibularis
brevis
Medial malleolus
of tibia
Tendon of
tibialis anterior
Extensor hallucis
brevis
Tendons of extensor
digitorum brevis
Lateral malleolus
of fibula
Inferior extensor
retinaculum
Tendon of extensor
hallucis longus
Abductor hallucis
Dorsal interossei
Superior extensor
retinaculum
Tendon of extensor
hallucis brevis
Tendons of extensor
digitorum longus
Dorsal interossei
Extensor expansion
Tendons of extensor
digitorum brevis
Dorsal views of the right foot
Medial malleolus
of tibia
Tendon of
tibialis anterior
Tendon of extensor
hallucis longus
Abductor hallucis
Tendon of extensor
hallucis brevis
Extensor expansion
Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Toes
—  Flexor hallucis brevis: flexion of the hallux
—  Adductor hallucis: adducts the hallux
—  Flexor digiti minimi brevis: flexion of the little toe
—  Dorsal interossei: abduction of toes 3 and 4
—  Plantar interossei: adduction of toes 3–5
Lumbricals
Tendons of
flexor digitorum
brevis overlying
tendons of flexor
digitorum longus
Flexor digiti
minimi brevis
Abductor
digiti minimi
Plantar
aponeurosis
(cut)
Fibrous
tendon
sheaths
Flexor
hallucis
brevis
Abductor
hallucis
Flexor
digitorum
brevis
Calcaneus
Plantar (inferior) view, superficial layer
of the right foot
Tendons of
flexor
digitorum
longus
Tendons of
flexor digitorum
brevis (cut)
Lumbricals
Abductor digiti
minimi (cut)
Flexor digiti
minimi brevis
Tendon of
fibularis brevis
Tendon of
fibularis longus
Abductor digiti
minimi (cut)
Calcaneus
Tendon of
flexor hallucis
longus
Flexor hallucis
brevis
Abductor
hallucis (cut
and retracted)
Tendon of
flexor digitorum
longus
Tendon of tibialis
posterior
Quadratus
plantae
Flexor digitorum
brevis (cut)
Abductor hallucis
(cut)
Plantar aponeurosis
(cut)
Plantar (inferior) view, deep layer of the
right foot
Adductor hallucis
(transverse head)
Abductor digiti
minimi (cut)
Plantar interossei
Flexor digiti
minimi brevis
Tendon of
fibularis brevis
Tendon of
fibularis longus
Flexor digitorum
brevis (cut)
Plantar aponeurosis
(cut)
Calcaneus
Flexor hallucis
brevis
Adductor
hallucis
(oblique head)
Tendon of
tibialis
posterior
Plantar
ligament
Tendon of
flexor
digitorum
longus (cut)
Tendon of
flexor
hallucis
longus (cut)
Plantar (inferior) view, deepest layer of
the right foot
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