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```Harare Institute of Technology
School of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical and Process Systems Engineering
Course Outline
Course:
Engineering Thermodynamics
Course Code:
ECP 216
Lecturer:
Mr. F.M. Saziya
Office:
W5
Credits:
2
Contact Hours:
72 hours
1.0 Preamble
Thermodynamics is a science which deals with the storage, transformation and transfer of
energy. Energy is stored as potential energy (associated with position), internal energy
(associated with temperature), kinetic energy (due to motion), and chemical energy (due to
chemical composition).
Thermodynamics is grounded in fundamental laws of conservation, however, it doesn’t
address transient or rates of approach. Because of the nature of chemical and process systems
engineering, many problems associated with environmental or biomedical sciences also use
these basic principles.
Because thermodynamics prescribes the limitations or extent of mass relationships it is
fundamental in traditional engineering applications in separation methods such as stage
equilibrium unit operations (distillation, absorption, liquid-liquid extraction etc.) as well as
chemical reactors design.
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2.0 Course Objectives
The course deals with properties of a simple pure compressible substance, equations of state,
the first law of thermodynamics, internal energy, specific heats, enthalpy and the application
of the first law to a system or a control volume. The study of the second law of thermodynamics is also discussed leading to the discovery of entropy as a property and its
ramifications.
Objectives of the course are:
 To introduce the student to the principles of classical thermodynamics as they apply to
the physical and chemical processes.
 To cover applications of thermodynamics principles to gas and liquid mixtures, ideal
solutions, and chemically reacting systems.
 To connect the principles, concepts and laws of classical thermodynamics to applications
requiring quantitative knowledge of thermodynamics properties.
2.1 Course Outcomes
The following outcomes are expected from the course:
 To be able to state the First Law and to define heat, work, thermal efficiency and the
difference between various forms of energy and be able to identify and describe energy
exchange processes (in terms of various forms of energy, heat and work) in process
systems.
 To be able to explain how various heat engines work (e.g. a refrigerator, Rankine Cycle)
 To be able to apply the steady-flow energy equation or the First Law of Thermodynamics
to a system of thermodynamic components (heaters, coolers, pumps, etc.) to estimate
required balances of heat, work and energy flow.
 Students will be able to determine whether or not a process is possible based on the
second law of thermodynamics.
 To be able to explain the concepts of path dependence/independence and
reversibility/irreversibility of various thermodynamic processes, to represent these in
terms of changes in thermodynamic state, and to cite examples of how these would
impact the performance of chemical processes
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 To be able to apply ideal cycle analysis to simple heat engine cycles to estimate thermal
efficiency and work as a function of pressures and temperatures at various points in the
cycle.
3.0 Course Content
Unit
3.1 Introduction –
Content
Thermodynamics Systems and the Control
i.
Concepts And
Basic Principles
3.2 Properties Of
Pure Substances
Period
Week 1
Volume.
ii.
Macroscopic Description
iii.
i.
Properties Of State Of A System
P-V-T
ii.
Ideal Gas Equation Of State
iii.
Equations Of State For Non-Ideal Gas
3.3 The First Law Of
i.
Internal Energy
Thermodynamics
ii.
Formulation Of The First Law of
Week 1
Week 2
&3
Thermodynamics
iii.
State Functions
iv.
Enthalpy
v.
vi.
Equilibrium
vii.
The Phase Rule
i.
Heat Capacity And Specific Heat Capacity
ii.
Heat Capacities Of Gases
iii.
Heat Capacities Of Solids And Liquids
iv.
Heat In Phase Changes
v.
Standard Heat Of Reactions
vi.
Standard Heat Of Formation
vii.
Standard Heat Of Combustion
i.
Statements Of The 2nd Law
Of
ii.
Heat Engines And Heat Pumps
Thermodynamics
iii.
Reversibility
iv.
Carnot Engine And Efficiency
i.
Entropy for Ideal Gases.
ii.
Entropy Changes And Irreversible Process
iii.
Entropy Balance for Closed Systems
3.4 Heat Effects
3.5 The Second Law
3.6 Entropy
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Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
&7
iv.
Entropy Balance for Open Systems
v.
Reversible Work, Irreversibility And
Availability And Energy
3.7 Power Cycles
i.
Vapor Power Systems
ii.
Carnot Cycle
iii.
Rankine Cycle
iv.
Improving
Week 8
Performance—Superheat
and
Reheat
3.8 Refrigeration
i.
Vapour Refrigeration On Cycle
ii.
Air Refrigeration Cycle
iii.
Choice Of Refrigeration
iv.
The Heat Pump
3.9 Thermodynamics
i.
Single Phase System
Properties Of
ii.
Two Phase Systems
Fluids
iii.
Thermodynamics Diagrams
i.
The Reaction Coordinate
ii.
Equilibrium Of Chemical Reaction
iii.
Standard Gibbs Free Energy Change And
Cycles
3.10
Chemical
Reaction Equilibria
Week
10 & 11
The Equilibrium Constant
iv.
Equilibrium Conversions For Single Reactions
v.
Multi-Reaction Equilibrium
vi.
Combustion Systems
4.0 Course Teaching and Assessment
The course will comprise the following taught components
Teaching Method
Lectures
Tutorials
Practicals and Industrial visits
Time Allocated
36 hours
24 hours
12 hours
Assessment will be done as follows
Assessment Method
Assignments
Tests
Practicals
Final Examination
Number
2
3
3
1
Contribution
5%
10%
25%
60%
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Week 9
Week
12
5.0
Course Policy
Students should be aware of the following:
1. Any student without theory coursework or practical coursework or both is not
allowed to sit for the final exam
2. Any student who attends less than 80% of lectures, tutorial and practical
classes is not qualified to enter into final examination
3. Students should be punctual for classes, latecomers may not be allowed
4. All assignments and practical reports should be submitted before the due date
5. All tests will be written after two topics.
6.0
Text Books
1. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, J.M. Smith and H.C.
Van Ness, McGraw hill international-2005.
2. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics.
Michael J. Moran, Howard N. Shapiro: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006.
3. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics 8e
Claus Borgnakke and Richard E. Sonntag, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013
7.0
References
1. The Principles of Chemical Equilibria with Applications in Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering, Denbigh, K., Cambridge University Press (1990)
2. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics', Sandler, H.P., Prentice-Hall (1988)
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