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Topic: Epitaxis
Demographics
How many get it?
Who gets it? High
risk
Prevention?
Surveillance?
Etiology
Pathophysiology
at risk: local infections, systemic infections, drying of nasal mucosous membranes,
nasal inhalation of illicit drugs, trauma, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, tumor,
thrombocytopenia, aspirin, liver disease, Red-Osler-Weber syndrome.
hemorrhage from the nose caused by rupture of tiny distended vessels n the
mucosous membrane of the nose. Anterior ethmoidal, spehnopalatine arteries
and the internal maxillary vein blanches.
Presenting signs
and symptoms
Diagnostic studies
Treatments
Non invasive
applying direct pressure. Pt sits upright with head tilted forward to prevent
swallowing and aspiration of blood. Pt is to pinch the soft outer portion of the nose
against the midline septum for 5-10 min. anterior nosebleeds – area treated
w/silver nitrate applicator and gelfoam or by electrocautery. Topical
vasoconstrictors: adrenaline, cocaine, and phenylephrine may be prescribed.
cotton pledgets soaked in vasoconstricting solution: epinephrine, cocaine inserted
into the nose to reduce blood flow. Cotton tampons to see cavity. Packing may
remain in place for 48 hrs – 5-6 days if necessary.
Invasive
Palliative
Core Measures
Long term effect
Physical
Emotional
Psychological
Disabilities
Complications
Nursing
Management
Nsg Diagnosis
vs, assist control of bleeding, tissues and emesis basin to expectorate any excess
blood. Keep pt calm . assess airway and breathing.