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Topic: Epitaxis Demographics How many get it? Who gets it? High risk Prevention? Surveillance? Etiology Pathophysiology at risk: local infections, systemic infections, drying of nasal mucosous membranes, nasal inhalation of illicit drugs, trauma, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, tumor, thrombocytopenia, aspirin, liver disease, Red-Osler-Weber syndrome. hemorrhage from the nose caused by rupture of tiny distended vessels n the mucosous membrane of the nose. Anterior ethmoidal, spehnopalatine arteries and the internal maxillary vein blanches. Presenting signs and symptoms Diagnostic studies Treatments Non invasive applying direct pressure. Pt sits upright with head tilted forward to prevent swallowing and aspiration of blood. Pt is to pinch the soft outer portion of the nose against the midline septum for 5-10 min. anterior nosebleeds – area treated w/silver nitrate applicator and gelfoam or by electrocautery. Topical vasoconstrictors: adrenaline, cocaine, and phenylephrine may be prescribed. cotton pledgets soaked in vasoconstricting solution: epinephrine, cocaine inserted into the nose to reduce blood flow. Cotton tampons to see cavity. Packing may remain in place for 48 hrs – 5-6 days if necessary. Invasive Palliative Core Measures Long term effect Physical Emotional Psychological Disabilities Complications Nursing Management Nsg Diagnosis vs, assist control of bleeding, tissues and emesis basin to expectorate any excess blood. Keep pt calm . assess airway and breathing.