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WHAP Exam Review
Period 2
600 B.C.E. to around 600 C.E.
Chapters 7-12
Key Concepts
• The Development and Codification of
Religious and Cultural Traditions
• The Development of States and Empires
• Emergence of Transregional Networks of
Communication and Exchange
The Big Picture
Think Themes! See AP syllabus
Change---What causes change?
Human Interaction with Environment---Where do
they live? Why they move? Defense? How do
civilizations interact with others? Technology?
• Comparison---What similarities and differences
can we find between these Classical civilizations?
Classical: Mesoamerica
Maya, 300 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E.
Southern Mexico and other parts of Central America
Collection of city-states ruled by the same king
Pyramids, hieroglyphics, complex calendar, city
planning, Tikal, Chichen Itza, ball game
Religion: 3 worlds, gods made people out of maize,
sacrifices, blood-letting
Wars to acquire slaves, no beasts of burden
Social classes: most people were peasants/slaves
Cotton and maize, good agricultural practices
• Mauryan Empire: founded by Chandragupta
Maurya, grandson Ashoka Maurya was its
greatest leader (Rock and Pillar Edicts, spread
Buddhism), trade!
• Gupta Dynasty: Chandra Gupta, decentralized
and smaller than Mauryan, peace and
advances in arts and sciences (pi and ‘arabic’
numerals), women losing rights
Classical: China
• Qin Dynasty: short, strong economy based on
agriculture, powerful army, iron weapons, grew,
Great Wall of China united, legalism
– Qin Shihuangdhi---emperor, standardized laws,
currencies, weights, measures, writing--- burned
books, killed scholars (legalism)
• Han Dynasty: WuTi —warrior emperor, enlarged
China, Trade thrived on Silk Road, civil service
exam based on Confucianism, invented paper,
sundials, calendars, used metals
Classical= Greece
• Land=mountainous, peninsula, no major rivers, no large
scale agriculture, harbors, sea, mild weather
• Athens and Sparta=city-states/polises, very different
• Democracy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy
• Mythology=Many gods/polytheists
• Persian Wars leads to Golden Age of Pericles in Athens and
Delian League which leads to Peloponnesian War
• Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
• Alexander the Great: Father conquered/united Greeks, he
conquered Persian Empire, Hellenism, land split into
Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid empires
Classical= Rome
Mythology: like the Greeks, polytheists
Patricians/Plebeians (like the Greeks too)
Twelve Tables of Rome
Social Structure: pater familias, patriarchal, slavery
Roman Empire spread by military domination, Punic Wars
First Triumvirate= Pompey, Crassus, Caesar
Caesar became “emperor for life”, assassinated
Second Triumvirate= Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus---Octavius became dictator (Caesar Augustus)
Pax Romana---Can you compare this to other golden ages
in other empires?
Late Classical 200-600 c.e.
• Collapse of empires such as Han, Gupta,
Roman, Maya
• Maya: ??? Disease, drought, internal
unrest/warfare, expanding population too
much for environment?
• Han China: Wang Mang, land redistribution
unsuccessful, famines, floods, war on edge of
civilization, China is divided for a time into
regional kingdoms
Late Classical 200-600 c.e.
• Gupta India: invaded by the White Huns
• Rome: western half, remember “Who killed
Mama Roma?”, Diocletian divided it in 284,
Constantine moved capital to Byzantium,
invasions brought final end.
• Fall of Empire: Comparisons?
Silk Road
• World becoming “smaller” by trade and
• What travels on trade routes besides goods to
be traded?
• Silk Roads---over land and sea
Major Belief Systems
• Stirrup
• Architecture-temples, Greek columns, Roman
arch and aqueducts, theaters, stadiums
• Paper
• Record keeping- math, sundial
• Others?
Role of Women
All patriarchal
Upper-class/elite women more restricted
In Buddhism and Christianity, women were
equal in faith but not in Hinduism and
Big Picture
• Civilizations---Golden Ages?
• Civilizations---Falls?
• Change---trade, conquest, spread of belief
systems, technology (innovation vs. adaption)
• Human Interaction with Geography---how did
they change their surroundings to meet their
needs, human need to control/explain nature,
in religion too (protection to internal peace)