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Transcript
Applying linear algebra to number-sequences and countingproblems.
Any questions about the homework or the material?
Fibonacci numbers, understood via matrices
Domino tilings of 3-by-n rectangles
For all non-negative n,
let a_n = number of domino tilings of a 3-by-2n rectangle (a_0 = 1)
and let b_n = number of domino tilings of a 3-by-(2n+1) rectangle
with a bite taken out of one corner.
a_n = 2b_{n-1} + a_{n-1}
b_n = a_n+b_{n-1} = 3b_{n-1} + a_{n-1}.
Initial values: a_0 = 1, a_1 = 3, b_0 = 1, b_1 = 4.
Generating function approach: A la Wilf.
“Transfer matrix approach”: Write
a_n = 2b_{n-1} + a_{n-1}
b_n = 3b_{n-1} + a_{n-1}
in matrix form
(a_n) ( 1 2 ) (a_{n-1})
( )=(
)(
)
(b_n) ( 1 3 ) (b_{n-1})
and repeat this to obtain
n
(a_n) ( 1 2 ) (1)
( )=(
) ( )
(b_n) ( 1 3 ) (1) .
Use linear algebra to find a formula for a_n.
Alternative approach:
Find a clever way to combine the recurrence relations
so as to eliminate b
and find a recurrence relation governing a alone.