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The Educational Touring Theatre and the Adventure Science Center present Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide Funded under agreement with the State of Tennessee and the National Endowment for the Arts. EDUCATIONAL TOURING THEATRE 3006 Sutton Court Old Hickory, TN 37138 615-773-4169 [email protected] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide The attached study material is designed to help prepare students to attend the Educational Touring Theatre and Adventure Science Center’s program Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond. Also enclosed are suggested follow up activities. The following material is included: Common Core Standards Pre-Visit Activities List Attending a Live Performance (for students) The Apple and Beyond Vocabulary List Newton’s Laws of Motion: With Alternative Descriptions Follow Up Activities Explore Newton on the Web Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide was written and prepared by the Educational Touring Theatre and the Adventure Science Center and may only be duplicated for study purposes. If there are any questions about Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond, or about this Study Guide, please contact the Educational Touring Theatre. Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide c 2001 Neil Spencer All rights reserved The Educational Touring Theatre and the Common Core Standards The Educational Touring Theatre's unique science theatre presentations can help schools meet their Common Core goals in cross-disciplinary literary learning. Combining live, informational based, theatre performances and hands-on science workshops, ETT promotes integrated learning across multiple subject areas. Along with providing key curriculum based scientific content and historical and social context within an artistic framework, these presentations provide a springboard for student research and writing opportunities. Educational Touring Theatre performances, workshops, and study materials (provided on-line) are designed for students in the fourth to eighth grades. They help address the following Common Core State Standards: Please Note: When a standard is shared by several grade levels, the text for earliest grade level standard has been provided. Please review the Common Core Standards to see text for more advanced grades. English Language Arts - Speaking and Listening Comprehension and Collaboration: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.a Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.b Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.c Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.d Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-6.2 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-5.3 Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. English Language Arts - Informational Text (Presentation) Key Ideas and Details: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-8.1 Refer to details and examples in a text (presentation) when explaining what the text (presentation) says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text (presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-8.2 Determine the main idea of a text (presentation) and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text (presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text (presentation), including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text(presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.3 Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (presentation) (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). Craft and Structure: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-8.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text (presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text (presentation) or part of a text (presentation) . CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.6 Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text (presentation) and explain how it is conveyed in the text (presentation). Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text (presentation) in which it appears. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.7 Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.7 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text (presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. English Language Arts -Science & Technical Subjects Key Ideas and Details: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual (presentational) evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts (presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text (presentation); provide an accurate summary of the text (presentation) distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. Craft and Structure: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context . CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.5 Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text (presentation), including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.6 Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text (presentation). Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.8 Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text (presentation). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.9 Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. English Language Arts - History/Social Studies Craft and Structure: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text (presentation), including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5 Describe how a text (presentation) presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6 Identify aspects of a text (presentation) that reveal an author's point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8 Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text (presentation). Copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved. Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond: Pre-Visit Activities 1) Ask students to describe what happens in each of the following scenarios. • You are riding in a car and the driver slams on the brakes. What happens to you? • You are riding in a bus and throw a ball in the air. What happens? • Two people are on skates facing each other. They place their hands up and push against each other. Who moves? 2) Write the sentence “May the force be with you” on the board. Ask students what they think it means. Guide them into a discussion of force, what it means and the kinds of forces they have experienced. Come up with a class definition of force. Ask for sentences that describe each force. Forces they may be familiar with are: gravitational force, magnetic force, electrical force. Other forces (contact forces) they may not be aware of are: friction, tension, buoyancy, air resistance, spring force. 3) Write each of the Laws of Motion on the board. Divide students into groups and have them brainstorm events or examples that would demonstrate one or more of the laws. 4) Take students out onto a sports field to observe people engaged in a sport or play activity. Look for examples of each of the Laws of Motion in their actions. 5) Give each group a golf ball and a ping pong ball, a rope and a balloon. Have each group work together to use these materials to demonstrate each Law of Motion. 6) Explanations of the motion of objects were explored as early as the 4 th century B.C. beginning with Aristotle. Before the presentation or after, have students read about the theories of Aristotle (4th century B.C.), Copernicus 1473-1543), and Galileo (16th century). Attending a Live Performance You will soon be attending a live, theatre performance of the Educational Touring Theatre’s (ETT) program Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond. A “live, theatre performance” is a program in which the actors are actually there with you when they give their performances. ETT’s program, The Apple and Beyond, is a special type of live performance called a “mono-drama,” or “one-man play.” All of the parts in a mono-drama are performed by only one actor. As with many good movies and television programs, you will find The Apple and Beyond to alternately be funny, serious, silly, and surprising. However, since The Apple and Beyond is live, and not on film or tape, you, as an audience member, will have a great deal of control over the quality of the performance that you will see. During a live performance, the actor is highly aware of everything that the audience is doing. If the audience is listening carefully, actively focusing on the stage, and reacting appropriately with laughter, applause, or gasps of surprise, the actor elevates his performance and gives you a better show. If, on the other hand, people in the audience are talking, passing notes, or engaging in other types of inappropriate behavior, the actor will be distracted and the performance will not be as good. If there is any excessively rude behavior, the actor may even have to stop the flow of the performance to ask audience members to be quiet or to leave. As you can see, although they may not be on stage with the actor, the audience plays a key role in the success of the performance. ETT, in partnership with the Adventure Science Center, has devoted over a year’s worth of work in researching, writing, and rehearsing Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond. Every effort has been made to find a fun and entertaining way to introduce you to the life and science of the scientist Isaac Newton. ETT hopes that you will also play your part in making your Apple and Beyond performance a fun and enjoyable one. Enjoy the show! Vocabulary List for Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond The following words and names are listed in the order in which they appear in Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond. calculus: a branch of mathematics that deals with changing quantities Neil Armstrong: (1930 – present) US Astronaut, first person on the moon Albert Einstein: (1879-1955) German physicist and mathematician, famous for the Theory of Relativity Alexander Pope: (1688-1744) English poet proportional: to keep the same ratio between objects illiterate: unable to read or write, with little education idle: lazy Humphrey Newton: (? - ?) an assistant to Isaac Newton, although they shared the same last name they were not related catalyst: something that causes change plague: a fatal, epidemic disease refracted: bent, deflected from a straight path Galileo Galilei: (1562-1642) Italian astronomer and physicist accelerate: to speed up, to increase in velocity inertia: the property that keeps an object at rest mass: the amount of material that makes up an object Johannes Kepler: (1571-1630) German astronomer and mathematician Robert Hooke: (1635-1703) English scientist Gottfried Leibniz: (1646-1716) German mathematician and philosopher Queen Anne: (1665-1714) English Queen from 1702-1714 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION With Alternative Descriptions Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) An object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion in a straight line and at a constant speed unless acted upon by an unequal force. If no force acts on a moving object, the object will continue moving at the same speed in the same direction. If the object is stopped, it will remain still. Once an object is moving at a steady speed in a straight line, it will continue moving at a steady speed in a straight line. Once an object is standing still, it will stay still. Newton’s Second Law of Motion Force = Mass X Acceleration The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the size of the force producing the acceleration and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. An object accelerates because a force acts upon it. The mass of an object affects the amount of acceleration a certain force has. An object accelerates in the direction that you push it. For example, if you push twice as hard, it accelerates twice as much. If the objects mass increases by twice, it accelerates half as much. Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. For every force there is an equal and opposite force. If you push on an object, it pushes back on you. Fun Follow-Up Activities Newton’s Third Law Materials: Balloons Tape Car Procedure: 1. Roll a piece of tape to make a sticky-side out loop 2. Attach the loop to the top of the car. 3. Display a medium sized balloon and blow it up. 4. Hold the opening of the balloon closed with your fingers and attach the balloon to the top of the car. 5. Release your fingers and let the air rush out of the balloon. 6. The car should be propelled along the table and travel a short distance before it stops. Forces and Friction (This activity was developed by the Arizona Science Center) Materials: Masking tape Scissors Salt Popsicle stick Marbles Baking soda Round toothpicks Weights Large rubber bands 3x5 cards Ruler Wax Paper Plastic Wrap Foil Straws Cardstock to make boxes or boxes already assembled Felt squares as big as the bottom of the box Procedure: 1. Build a box, if necessary. 2. Poke a small hole through one end of the box and thread a rubber band through it. Wrap the rubber band around a pencil or dowel rod so that you can pull on the rubber from outside the box and it won’t come out of the hole. 3. Fill the box with weights (scissors, glue, pencil boxes, books, stuff in their desks); make the box hard to move. 4. Determine a starting position. 5. Pull on the rubber band and measure how far it stretches before the box moves. Write down how far it stretches. 6. Use any of the available materials to alter the desktop (or the bottom of the box) to change the amount of friction. 7. Put the box back to the starting position. 8. Pull on the rubber band and measure how far it stretches before the box moves. Write down how far it stretches. 9. Repeat 6, 7, and 8. Try for the shortest rubber band stretch. 10. Compute the percentage difference. To figure out how much the friction changed, use the following equation: (distance rubber band is stretched in step 8) X 100 = % (distance rubber band is stretched in step 5) Inclined To Race – the moment of inertia (This activity was developed by the Arizona Science Center) Materials: Inclined flat surface: board, playground slide, tilted tabletop or desk Assortment of spheres: ping pong ball, tennis ball, marble, croquet ball, ball from roll-on deodorant, super ball Assortment of cylinders: pipe, PVC, solid dowels, coins, empty cans, thread spools, cans with plastic lids, cardboard tube Materials to fill spheres and cylinders: sand, rice, beans Simple balance Procedure: 1. Hold up two objects to race. Challenge the class to determine the winner. 2. Conduct the race. Determine the winner. Tell the class that you know how any rolling race will turn out: win, lose, or tie. Challenge them to find the rules that determine the outcome of any downhill rolling race. 3. Distribute materials to each team and allow races to be conducted. Have students keep track of the wins, losses, and ties. 4. Observe the results and determine what properties the winners and losers had, how hard or easy it was to roll or stop rolling certain objects and how these objects moved on different surfaces. Explore Newton on the Web! Now that you have met Sir Isaac Newton during the Educational Touring Theatre’s performance of Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond, you can learn even more about the world’s greatest scientist by exploring the world wide web. There are many good web sites about Isaac Newton, but to get you started, here are three of the best ones we found: http://www.timelinescience.org/resource/students/newton/newton.htm http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/Newton/ (For Younger Students) http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton.html (For Older Students) Always Practice Internet Safety! Please get permission before surfing the web. All of the sites listed were up and running at the time this list was made. They all presented material in a way that was appropriate for students. However, we do not have control over these sites or over their content. If you discover that any of these sites are inappropriate in any way, please protect yourself and other students by exiting the site immediately and then reporting the site to a teacher or another adult.