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The Educational Touring Theatre
and the
Adventure Science Center
present
Sir Isaac Newton:
The Apple and Beyond
Study Guide
Funded under agreement with the State of Tennessee and the National Endowment for the Arts.
EDUCATIONAL
TOURING THEATRE
3006 Sutton Court
Old Hickory, TN 37138
615-773-4169
[email protected]
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide
The attached study material is designed to help prepare students to attend the Educational
Touring Theatre and Adventure Science Center’s program Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and
Beyond. Also enclosed are suggested follow up activities. The following material is included:

Common Core Standards

Pre-Visit Activities List

Attending a Live Performance (for students)

The Apple and Beyond Vocabulary List

Newton’s Laws of Motion: With Alternative Descriptions

Follow Up Activities

Explore Newton on the Web
Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide was written and prepared by the
Educational Touring Theatre and the Adventure Science Center and may only be duplicated for
study purposes.
If there are any questions about Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond, or about this Study
Guide, please contact the Educational Touring Theatre.
Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond Study Guide
c 2001 Neil Spencer
All rights reserved
The Educational Touring Theatre and the Common Core Standards
The Educational Touring Theatre's unique science theatre presentations can help schools meet
their Common Core goals in cross-disciplinary literary learning.
Combining live, informational based, theatre performances and hands-on science workshops,
ETT promotes integrated learning across multiple subject areas. Along with providing key
curriculum based scientific content and historical and social context within an artistic
framework, these presentations provide a springboard for student research and writing
opportunities.
Educational Touring Theatre performances, workshops, and study materials (provided on-line)
are designed for students in the fourth to eighth grades. They help address the following
Common Core State Standards:
Please Note: When a standard is shared by several grade levels, the text for earliest grade level
standard has been provided. Please review the Common Core Standards to see text for more
advanced grades.
English Language Arts - Speaking and Listening
Comprehension and Collaboration:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.a
Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that
preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.b
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.c
Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make
comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-8.1.d
Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the
discussion.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-6.2
Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats,
including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4-5.3
Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.
English Language Arts - Informational Text (Presentation)
Key Ideas and Details:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-8.1
Refer to details and examples in a text (presentation) when explaining what the text
(presentation) says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text (presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-8.2
Determine the main idea of a text (presentation) and explain how it is supported by key details;
summarize the text (presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.3
Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text
(presentation), including what happened and why, based on specific information in the
text(presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.3
Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in
a text (presentation) (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
Craft and Structure:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-8.4
Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text
(presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.5
Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of
events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text (presentation) or part of a text (presentation) .
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.6
Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text (presentation) and explain how it is
conveyed in the text (presentation).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.7
Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs,
diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the
information contributes to an understanding of the text (presentation) in which it appears.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.7
Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as
well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.7
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text,
video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4-5.8
Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text
(presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6-8.8
Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are
supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
English Language Arts -Science & Technical Subjects
Key Ideas and Details:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.1
Cite specific textual (presentational) evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts
(presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.2
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text (presentation); provide an accurate summary
of the text (presentation) distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.3
Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or
performing technical tasks.
Craft and Structure:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as
they are used in a specific scientific or technical context .
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.5
Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text (presentation), including how the major
sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.6
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing
an experiment in a text (presentation).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.8
Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text
(presentation).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.9
Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or
multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
English Language Arts - History/Social Studies
Craft and Structure:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text (presentation), including
vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5
Describe how a text (presentation) presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively,
causally).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6
Identify aspects of a text (presentation) that reveal an author's point of view or purpose (e.g.,
loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8
Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text (presentation).
Copyright 2010 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School
Officers. All rights reserved.
Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond: Pre-Visit Activities
1)
Ask students to describe what happens in each of the following scenarios.
•
You are riding in a car and the driver slams on the brakes. What
happens to you?
•
You are riding in a bus and throw a ball in the air. What happens?
•
Two people are on skates facing each other. They place their hands up
and push against each other. Who moves?
2)
Write the sentence “May the force be with you” on the board. Ask students
what they think it means. Guide them into a discussion of force, what it
means and the kinds of forces they have experienced. Come up with a class
definition of force. Ask for sentences that describe each force. Forces they
may be familiar with are: gravitational force, magnetic force, electrical
force. Other forces (contact forces) they may not be aware of are: friction,
tension, buoyancy, air resistance, spring force.
3)
Write each of the Laws of Motion on the board. Divide students into groups
and have them brainstorm events or examples that would demonstrate one or
more of the laws.
4)
Take students out onto a sports field to observe people engaged in a sport or
play activity. Look for examples of each of the Laws of Motion in their
actions.
5)
Give each group a golf ball and a ping pong ball, a rope and a balloon. Have
each group work together to use these materials to demonstrate each Law of
Motion.
6)
Explanations of the motion of objects were explored as early as the 4 th
century B.C. beginning with Aristotle. Before the presentation or after, have
students read about the theories of Aristotle (4th century B.C.), Copernicus
1473-1543), and Galileo (16th century).
Attending a Live Performance
You will soon be attending a live, theatre performance of the Educational Touring
Theatre’s (ETT) program Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond. A “live,
theatre performance” is a program in which the actors are actually there with you
when they give their performances. ETT’s program, The Apple and Beyond, is a
special type of live performance called a “mono-drama,” or “one-man play.” All of
the parts in a mono-drama are performed by only one actor.
As with many good movies and television programs, you will find The Apple and
Beyond to alternately be funny, serious, silly, and surprising. However, since The
Apple and Beyond is live, and not on film or tape, you, as an audience member,
will have a great deal of control over the quality of the performance that you will
see.
During a live performance, the actor is highly aware of everything that the
audience is doing. If the audience is listening carefully, actively focusing on
the stage, and reacting appropriately with laughter, applause, or gasps of surprise,
the actor elevates his performance and gives you a better show. If, on the other
hand, people in the audience are talking, passing notes, or engaging in other types
of inappropriate behavior, the actor will be
distracted and the performance will not be as good. If there is any excessively rude
behavior, the actor may even have to stop the flow of the performance to ask
audience members to be quiet or to leave. As you can
see, although they may not be on stage with the actor, the audience plays a key role
in the success of the performance.
ETT, in partnership with the Adventure Science Center, has devoted over a year’s
worth of work in researching, writing, and rehearsing Sir Isaac Newton: The
Apple and Beyond. Every effort has been made to find a fun and entertaining way
to introduce you to the life and science of the scientist Isaac Newton. ETT hopes
that you will also play your part in making your Apple and Beyond performance a
fun and enjoyable one.
Enjoy the show!
Vocabulary List for Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond
The following words and names are listed in the order in which they appear in Sir
Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond.
calculus: a branch of mathematics that deals with changing quantities
Neil Armstrong: (1930 – present) US Astronaut, first person on the moon
Albert Einstein: (1879-1955) German physicist and mathematician, famous
for the Theory of Relativity
Alexander Pope: (1688-1744) English poet
proportional: to keep the same ratio between objects
illiterate: unable to read or write, with little education
idle: lazy
Humphrey Newton: (? - ?) an assistant to Isaac Newton, although they
shared the same last name they were not related
catalyst: something that causes change
plague: a fatal, epidemic disease
refracted: bent, deflected from a straight path
Galileo Galilei: (1562-1642) Italian astronomer and physicist
accelerate: to speed up, to increase in velocity
inertia: the property that keeps an object at rest
mass: the amount of material that makes up an object
Johannes Kepler: (1571-1630) German astronomer and mathematician
Robert Hooke: (1635-1703) English scientist
Gottfried Leibniz: (1646-1716) German mathematician and philosopher
Queen Anne: (1665-1714) English Queen from 1702-1714
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
With Alternative Descriptions
Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)
An object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in
motion in a straight line and at a constant speed unless acted upon by an
unequal force.
If no force acts on a moving object, the object will continue moving at the same
speed in the same direction. If the object is stopped, it will remain still.
Once an object is moving at a steady speed in a straight line, it will continue
moving at a steady speed in a straight line. Once an object is standing still, it will
stay still.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Force = Mass X Acceleration
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the size of the force
producing the acceleration and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.
An object accelerates because a force acts upon it. The mass of an object affects
the amount of acceleration a certain force has.
An object accelerates in the direction that you push it.
For example, if you push twice as hard, it accelerates twice as much. If the objects
mass increases by twice, it accelerates half as much.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
For every force there is an equal and opposite force.
If you push on an object, it pushes back on you.
Fun Follow-Up Activities
Newton’s Third Law
Materials:
Balloons
Tape
Car
Procedure:
1. Roll a piece of tape to make a sticky-side out loop
2. Attach the loop to the top of the car.
3. Display a medium sized balloon and blow it up.
4. Hold the opening of the balloon closed with your fingers and attach the balloon
to the top of the car.
5. Release your fingers and let the air rush out of the balloon.
6. The car should be propelled along the table and travel a short distance before it
stops.
Forces and Friction (This activity was developed by the Arizona Science Center)
Materials:
Masking tape
Scissors
Salt
Popsicle stick
Marbles
Baking soda
Round toothpicks Weights
Large rubber bands
3x5 cards
Ruler
Wax Paper
Plastic Wrap
Foil
Straws
Cardstock to make boxes or boxes already assembled
Felt squares as big as the bottom of the box
Procedure:
1. Build a box, if necessary.
2. Poke a small hole through one end of the box and thread a rubber band through
it. Wrap the rubber band around a pencil or dowel rod so that you can pull on the
rubber from outside the box and it won’t come out of the hole.
3. Fill the box with weights (scissors, glue, pencil boxes, books, stuff in their
desks); make the box hard to move.
4. Determine a starting position.
5. Pull on the rubber band and measure how far it stretches before the box moves.
Write down how far it stretches.
6. Use any of the available materials to alter the desktop (or the bottom of the box)
to change the amount of friction.
7. Put the box back to the starting position.
8. Pull on the rubber band and measure how far it stretches before the box moves.
Write down how far it stretches.
9. Repeat 6, 7, and 8. Try for the shortest rubber band stretch.
10. Compute the percentage difference. To figure out how much the friction
changed, use the following equation:
(distance rubber band is stretched in step 8) X 100 = %
(distance rubber band is stretched in step 5)
Inclined To Race – the moment of inertia
(This activity was developed by the Arizona Science Center)
Materials:
Inclined flat surface: board, playground slide, tilted tabletop or desk
Assortment of spheres: ping pong ball, tennis ball, marble, croquet ball, ball from
roll-on deodorant, super ball
Assortment of cylinders: pipe, PVC, solid dowels, coins, empty cans, thread
spools, cans with plastic lids, cardboard tube
Materials to fill spheres and cylinders: sand, rice, beans
Simple balance
Procedure:
1. Hold up two objects to race. Challenge the class to determine the winner.
2. Conduct the race. Determine the winner. Tell the class that you know how any
rolling race will turn out: win, lose, or tie. Challenge them to find the rules that
determine the outcome of any downhill rolling race.
3. Distribute materials to each team and allow races to be conducted. Have
students keep track of the wins, losses, and ties.
4. Observe the results and determine what properties the winners and losers had,
how hard or easy it was to roll or stop rolling certain objects and how these objects
moved on different surfaces.
Explore Newton on the Web!
Now that you have met Sir Isaac Newton during the Educational Touring Theatre’s
performance of Sir Isaac Newton: The Apple and Beyond, you can learn even
more about the world’s greatest scientist by exploring the world wide web. There
are many good web sites about Isaac Newton, but to get you started, here are three
of the best ones we found:
http://www.timelinescience.org/resource/students/newton/newton.htm
http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/Newton/
(For Younger Students)
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton.html
(For Older Students)
Always Practice Internet Safety!
Please get permission before surfing the web. All of the sites listed were up
and running at the time this list was made. They all presented material in a way
that was appropriate for students. However, we do not have control over these sites
or over their content. If you discover that any of these sites are inappropriate in any
way, please protect yourself and other students by exiting the site immediately and
then reporting the site to a teacher or another adult.