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The Cell: the Basic
Unit of Life
Biotech Unit 2
All living things are composed of
Made up of the same
Use same basic design and
building materials
Carry out same processes in
similar ways
Use DNA to store and
transmit information and for
Use many different types of
proteins to carry out their
many processes
Introduction to Cells YouTube
Cells grow
Increase in size and this requires building material and energy
Break down large complex food molecules
Proteins  amino acids
Peptide bonds
Lipids - fatty acids and glycerol ex. Steroid, phosolipid layer
ex. Enzymes, hemoglobin, insulin
Carbohydrate  monosaccharide
Nucleic Acid nucleotides
ex. Glucose, starch,
cellulose, glycogen
ex. DNA and RNA
Deoxyribose, phosphate nitrogen base
This process of breaking down large molecules for building
blocks and then using these materials and energy into molecular
manufacturing is known as metabolism
Cells Reproduce Themselves
Mitosis- all eukaryotic
cells except gametes
(sex cells)
Meiosis- eukaryotic
cells that are gametes
Binary fissionprokaryotic cells
Cells Maintain Their Internal
Environment- Homeostasis
Cell’s internal
environment is very
different from their
external environment.
They control amounts of
salts, chemicals and
Cells must expend
energy to maintain these
Cells Respond to their External
When salt concentration
change, they respond
In a harsh environment,
a bacteria will move
toward food and away
from toxins
A plant cell will react to
an insect eating it by
releasing a toxic chemical
Cells must sense the
change respond
Cells Communicate
EX- nerve cells give muscle
cells the signal to contract
A cell in tissue senses when it
is touching another cell and
stops growing- except in
cancer cells
Certain disease causing
bacteria signal to each other
to determine when their
population is large enough to
A hormone produced in one
organ affects certain cells
In Multi-celled Organism, Cell
Cell differentiation- during development, a
single fertilized egg divides and becomes
Cells Require a Constant Supply of
Cells breaking down, building and rebuilding
molecules and maintaining a stable internal
environment all require energy.
Cells supply energy from breaking down
Photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and cellular
Cell Processes
Involve chemical reactions- controlled by
Occur in a series of small steps beginning with a
starting material and ending up with an end
product. This is called a pathway