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Student Name: ________________________
SNC 3E
Unit #4 The Immune System and Human Health
Date: ________________
Science Wise: Succeeding in Today’s World
8.2 Diseases of the Human Immune System
Chapter Notes (pg.256-260)
Non-communicable Diseases of the Immune System
In Section 7.3 you learned about the ____________ _____________.
Recall that the immune response is the process by which your body makes
_________________ against an ___________. An antigen is usually a
______________ or part of a pathogen. The immune response helps your
body to _____________ to _____________ off the invasion of a pathogen.
Sometimes, however, the body makes a _____________ and prepares
antibodies against ______________ that are ______________. These
particles can be things in the __________________ such as ____________
_____________, or substances from _________ and ________, or they can
be parts of your own body. People whose immune system makes these
______________ will have a __________________________ disease of the
immune system.
Allergies
Do you, or someone you know, have allergies? ______________ are
very ______________, so chances are the answer is yes. An allergy is an
______________ ________________, by the body, to something that is not
usually ______________. Some of the more common allergies are allergies
to certain ______________, certain ____________, or certain foods (Figure
8.9). People who have allergies may ____________ ______________ such
as ____________ __________, ____________ __________ and
_______________ whenever they encounter the ______________. An
allergen is anything that causes an allergy.
Why is it that one person can be allergic to cats and not to dogs or
_______________, while someone else can be allergic to ragweed but not to
cats or dogs? This is because allergies are caused by the _______________
of antibodies against _______________ ______________. If someone is
allergic to ragweed, their body has made ________________ against a part
of that _____________, usually the pollen. Once your body has made
antibodies against a substance, every time you ________________ that
substance, your body will try to _____________ it.
Page 1 of 5
Student Name: ________________________
SNC 3E
Unit #4 The Immune System and Human Health
Date: ________________
Science Wise: Succeeding in Today’s World
8.2 Diseases of the Human Immune System
How is an _______________ different from an ______________?
All allergens are also antigens, because an antigen is anything that is
__________________ by an _______________. But allergens do not
usually do any ____________ to the human body. For example, people who
are _______________ to cats react to a particle produced by cats called
_______________. Dander is not _________________ and is not a
pathogen, so for people without cat allergies, it is not __________________.
For people with cat allergies, dander is both an _______________ and an
______________. In comparison, the ______________ pathogen is
________________ to the human body. Therefore, the measles pathogen is
only an antigen.
The ________________ of an allergy are caused by the
_______________ in your body that occur during the immune response.
Most people with ______________ develop _____________ symptoms
such as a ____________ _________ and _______________. Some people
can have more ______________ reactions caused by the _______________
of parts of the body. This swelling can be relatively harmless, such as
_______________ ___________ or ___________ ___________ called
_________, or it can be life-threatening, such as severe swelling of the
____________ that blocks ______________. Minor allergy symptoms can
be _______________ with ____________________ medicines such as those
in Figure 8.11, but people with severe allergies must use ________________
medicines, or visit the _________________ room to treat their symptoms.
Auto-immune Diseases
Auto-immune diseases are ______________ in which a person’s
immune system attacks ____________ in his or her own body. When
someone has an auto-immune disease, his or her immune system
_____________ some of the cells of the person’s own body for a
_____________ substance. As a result, the immune system _____________
to the cells, or parts of the cells, of the body as if the person were under
_____________ by a pathogen.
Auto-immune diseases are usually very _____________, because the
immune system will ____________ ___________ part of the body, as
shown in Figure 8.12. Describe what has happened to the person in the
diagram. ______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Page 2 of 5
Student Name: ________________________
SNC 3E
Unit #4 The Immune System and Human Health
Date: ________________
Science Wise: Succeeding in Today’s World
8.2 Diseases of the Human Immune System
Some _______________________ diseases you may have heard of are:
_______________ _____________, in which the immune system attacks
part of the ________________ system; _______________ disease, in which
the ________________ system is attacked; and _______________, in which
cells in the ___________ are attacked. Although prescription drugs are
available to treat symptoms, these diseases cannot yet be ____________.
Communicable Disease of the Immune System: AIDS
Until 1987, no pathogens were known to attack the immune system
itself. This changed with the first case of ________________ ___________
________________ ______________, or AIDS. Since then, AIDS has
become a household word. _________________ of lives have been lost
__________________ to this disease and the number of cases continues to
grow.
AIDS is caused by the ______________ _______________________
___________, or HIV. HIV attacks and destroys the __________ blood
cells that make antibodies. People with AIDS, therefore, have __________
levels of ________________ and are unable to _____________ off infection
by pathogens that would normally be _____________ destroyed. AIDS
victims usually die of other diseases because their _____________ system is
no longer able to fight off ______________.
Since _____________, medicines have been made available that can
______________ the AIDS virus from reproducing and ________________
white blood cells. These ________________ increase the expected life
__________ of people with AIDS. Although AIDS is no longer a
____________ sentence, people infected with HIV must take many different
and ________________ medicines every day. These medicines can also
have severe _____________ ______________ including ____________,
______________, _______________, ______________, _______________,
______________ or __________ ___________, ______________ and
possibly ________________. However, the medicines do not kill off the
__________ that is already in the body, so if a person stops taking the
medicines for any reason, the virus will ____________ to reproduce and
_______________ white blood cells again.
Page 3 of 5
Student Name: ________________________
SNC 3E
Unit #4 The Immune System and Human Health
Date: ________________
Science Wise: Succeeding in Today’s World
8.2 Diseases of the Human Immune System
HIV testing
When a person first becomes infected with __________, he or she is
unlikely to have any ________________ at all. It can take ____________
for symptoms to develop. However, anyone who is infected with HIV can
___________ the virus on to other people by certain kinds of
_____________. Therefore, anyone who thinks they may have become
_________________ with HIV should see a _____________ and be tested
for the virus. A person who has been infected by HIV is said to be
____________________. Someone who has not been infected by HIV is
said to be ___________________.
Avoiding Transmission of HIV
Many viruses, such as the __________________ virus, can travel
through the _________ from one person to another. However, HIV can only
________________ within body fluids such as ____________, __________,
or _____________. Because of this, AIDS can only be ________________
by _____________ contact with the body ___________ of another person.
Because AIDS is such a serious disease, __________________ around the
world have _______________ AIDS education programs to teach people
how to avoid spreading HIV.
Review and Apply
1. In 2 or 3 sentences, explain the relationship between the immune system
and allergies. Use a specific example in your answer.
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Can diseases of the immune system be cured? In your answer, explain
the difference between curing a disease and treating a disease.
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Page 4 of 5
Student Name: ________________________
SNC 3E
Unit #4 The Immune System and Human Health
Date: ________________
Science Wise: Succeeding in Today’s World
8.2 Diseases of the Human Immune System
3. In your own words, explain the difference between an allergen and an
antigen.
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Imagine you are a server in a restaurant. A customer tells you that she is
allergic to wheat and asks you to make sure that wheat is not used to
make the soup she has ordered. When you ask the cook, you are told that
only a very small amount of wheat flour is used to thicken the soup.
Would it be safe to serve this dish to the customer? Give reasons for
your answer.
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. List 3 auto-immune diseases.
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
6. Choose one 1 of the following jobs: police officer, hospital orderly, or
ambulance attendant. Given that HIV is only transmitted by direct
contact with body fluids, write a short paragraph describing how people
in the job you choose might come into contact with HIV when they are at
work.
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
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