NAME: OBIAKU CHISOM ELENORA SUBJECT: PHILOSOPHY ASSIGNMENT DEPARTMENT: LAW LEVEL: 100 LEVEL SUMMARIZATION OF THE CHAPTER TWO IN THE PHILOSOPHY TEXTBOOK BY ADEYEMI J. ADEYEMO The nature of philosophy is being revealed as an academic discipline. This chapter tends to shed more light on what philosophy is by examining the various problems addressed in philosophy. Understanding philosophy means taking an insight of the activities the practitioners of the discipline have undertaken since its inception. As a discipline, philosophy started off in order to give rational explanations to certain events which were puzzling in nature. The experience with the way the Milesian philosophers did philosophy is used to reveal the true nature of philosophy. The Milesian philosophers had their main preoccupation wondering and pondering about the basic constituent of nature and human existence. Prior to these set of philosophers, there were many myths about human existence and this philosophers wanted their views to be known and so offered radical and natural explanations to phenomenon to oversee the former explanations which were mostly supernatural. Wonder is mostly deduced from the nature of philosophy. This wonder made philosophers ponder on so many questions even about God as the creator of all things and how creation was done. Indeed, Bodunrin (1981:13) suggests that wonder can never be exhausted in the human life as there is always something to ponder about and this has led to philosophers continuously trying to find more rational explanations about things that are still uncertain and doubting. The second thing about philosophy that can be deduced from the milesian philosophers is that philosophy also tries to solve various puzzles in various aspects of life. The moral philosophers take care of the moral philosophy and the political philosophy which deems well on studying the best political system for the country and what causes problems affecting authorities in the political system. A philosopher believes that man should not dwell on unreasoned facts as theory has influence on practice and that a man who argues with reasoned facts is better than a man who argues on unreasoned facts that is not yet a theory. Philosophy is important as it is to ultimately provide a guide to life. Philosophy matters because “it can provide a guide to life which is capable of making life more tolerable and less painful” (Oladipo 2008:16). Philosophical problems are not studied for their own intrinsic value but have a use and a value which extends it. Osie submission reiterates Unah’s submission because Unah states there cannot be a true conception of reality, that there is always something to wonder about and ask questions in our life. Reality will continue to unfold. The point being made is that our initial concept of reality is often being tainted by stories from our culture, religion, ideology, or other things that perceive and interpret reality. It is only what we already know with the aim of providing what we know with existential challenges that confront humans. The concept of philosophy involves disagreements between the opinions of various philosophers with proves concerning each ones reason for stated facts. For example, this was witnessed when Thales put forward his fact with proves stating that the major constituent of reality is water and so also did Anaximander argue this view and stating with prove that the major constituent of reality is air. The philosophers are believed to be confused people that never all agree to the same answer to a question or doubt but prefer producing a better result overlapping the other view. Philosophy is not like the sciences that can be easily proved in laboratories but is an academic discipline that involves a careful and systematic process to thought of inquiries and involves reflective thinking and answers to doubts. There are two mainly broad categories of philosophy and they are the cardinal branches- metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and logic and the second order disciplines –philosophy of sciences, law social sciences, education, and philosophy of history among others. It is followed by a general overview of how philosophy interrogates other disciplines. Philosophy as a second order discipline is different from a first order discipline. A first order discipline mainly examines a particular subject matter and energy. Philosophy is concerned with all subject matters as they aim to criticize and justify the grounds of knowledge claims made in other disciplines. In the case of Africa other academic disciplines are critically examined in order to determine the stability of ideologies generated in other academic disciplines for Africa.