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Transcript
4/18/2016
RBC Blood Group Genotyping in Transfusion-Service Patients
• Sickle cell disease—broad phenotyping; Rh C status
When Should Transfusion Services Request
Blood Group DNA Testing?
• Complex antibody problems
• Multiple and/or unidentified antibodies
• High-frequency-antigen antibodies
• Autoantibodies
Illinois Association of Blood Banks, Spring 2016
Glenn Ramsey, MD
Medical Director, Blood Banks
Northwestern Memorial Hospital
Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago
gramsey@nm.org
• Antibody-antigen discrepancies
• Obstetrical problems
• Maternal weak D and RhIG candidacy
• Fetal typing; paternal D zygosity
Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine
Northwestern University
Crystal Cove State Park
Laguna Beach, CA / GR
Chicago, IL
• Allogeneic stem cell transplant antibody problems
2
Disclosure
• Fetal RhD Genotyping
• Spouse’s sister: pathologist
• Former medical director of LabCorp
• On board of directors of Sequenom, Inc.
• Vendor for fetal D typing from maternal blood
3
DNA Analysis Methods - Overview
Overview of RBC Genotyping Available In/For Chicago
4
Lake Michigan, Fort Sheridan
/ GR
Analytic Test Limitations
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Amplification
• Other nucleotide variants not tested for may affect:
• Serological phenotype; e.g.:
• Null variants elsewhere in exons, splice sites, promoter
regions
• Interactions with other blood groups or genes
• Typing sera reactivity
• DNA genotype results
• Specificity sites of primers, probes, restriction enzymes
• May cause false-negatives (allele dropout)
Or misinterpretations by analysis software
• RBC phenotypes are PREDICTED in genotyping
Restriction-Fragment- Allele-Specific RT-PCR
Novel Commercial
Length Polymorphism
Variants
Boccoz SA, Methods 2013;64:241
5
6
1
4/18/2016
RBC Blood Group DNA Testing In/For Chicagoland
(alphabetical order)
Beads: BioArray and Progenika
• American Red Cross, National Molecular Lab, Philadelphia, PA
• BioArray HEA, RHD, RHCE, and lab-developed tests
• Hybridization of amplified patient DNA with selected probe
sequences identifying polymorphisms
• Heartland -> Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
• Lab-developed tests: www.bcw.edu
• Bead-based microarrays
• BioArray HEA—multiple blood groups, including RHCE
• BioArray RHD and RHCE variants
• LifeSource -> Virginia Blood Services, Richmond, VA
• Progenika ID Core XT ->
• Grifols Immunohematology Center, San Marco, TX
• Lab-developed tests
• Liquid bead suspension
• Progenika ID CORE XT-multiple blood groups, including RHCE
• Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL
• BioArray HEA, and (spring 2016) RHD for weak D
7
Immucor BioArray BeadChipTM
Test DNA:
Extracted
Amplified
8
BeadChip Readout
• Beads with amplified DNA fluoresce
• Fluorescent image obtained of each patient’s chip
• Image transmitted to BioArray to match up with bead map of that chip
Boccoz SA, Methods 2013;64:241
9
BeadChip HEA Genotyping Signal Report
• Analysis returned from BioArray
Progenika BLOODchipsTM: Europe, Canada
Rh Colton Diego Dombrock Duffy MNS Kidd Kell Lutheran LW Scianna
• DNA processing
• Labeling
• Hybridization
• Scan, analyze signals
• 24 sets of probes, mostly single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) pairs (blue/green)
11
• Avent ND, Br J Haematol 144:3, 2008
• Canadian Blood Services, Jan 2014
12
2
4/18/2016
Progenika ID Core XT System
Progenika BLOODchipsTM
Grifols brochure, Spain
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extract
Amplify
Probe
Read
Analyze
ABO, H (Bombay)
RHD zygosity
RHD variants
RHCE variants
Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS
Diego, Dombrock, Colton, Cartwright, Lutheran
• HPA platelet antigens
13
14
Goldman M, Immunohematol 2015;31:62
Grifols Progenika ID Core XT
Immucor BioArray PreciseType HEA
Progenika ID Core XT: Allele Probes on Luminex Beads
Phenotypes Predicted In Both Assays (high-frequency)
Bead with probe
Patient/donor DNA
SAPE binds to positives
Red laser identifies beads
Green laser reads positives
15
Goldman M, Immunohematol 2015;31:62
ISBT Blood Group
Antigens/Phenotypes (nucleotide markers)
002 MNS
M, N, S, s, U
004 RhCE
C, c, E, e
005 Lutheran
Lua, Lub
006 Kell
K, k, Kpa, Kpb, Jsa, Jsb
008 Duffy
Fya, Fyb
009 Kidd
Jka,
010 Diego
Dia, Dib
014 Dombrock
Doa, Dob, Hy, Joa
015 Colton
Coa, Cob
Grifols Progenika ID Core XT
Immucor BioArray PreciseType HEA
S-s-U-
S-s-U+var
VS, V (733G, 1006T)
Fy(a-b-) (GATA -67C) Fy(b+) wk
Jkb
16
Blood Center of Wisconsin
Common and RhCE Variant Panels
PCR-hybridization probes
Differences Between Assays: FDA Status and Phenotypes
(high-frequency)
Progenika
BioArray
ISBT Blood Group
Antigens/Phenotypes (high-frequency)
FDA Approval
Being sought
2014
002 MNS
M, N, S, s, U
004 RhCE
C, c, E, e
ISBT Blood Group
Antigens/phenotypes (nucleotide markers)
002 MNS
Mia
004 RhCE
r’S (IVS3+3100g) [partial C]
hrS, hrB: (712G added to 733G, 1006T)
S-s-U-
S-s-U+var
RHCE variant panel C,c,E,e (ces), hrS, hrB, r’S, V, VS, Crawford (Rh43)
[possible
partial C]
009 Kidd
Jk(a-b-)
(871C Finnish; IVS5-1a Polynesian)
011 Cartwright Yta, Ytb
013 Scianna
SC1, SC2
016 LW
LWa, 17LWb
005 Lutheran
Lua, Lub
006 Kell
K, k, Kpa, Kpb, Jsa, Jsb
008 Duffy
Fya, Fyb
009 Kidd
Jka, Jkb
014 Dombrock
Doa, Dob
Fy(a-b-)
www.bcw.edu, RBC genotyping, patient panels
18
3
4/18/2016
Genotyping in Sickle Cell Disease:
Broad Phenotyping
Partial C Status
RBC Antibodies in Sickle Cell Disease
• 319 adult SCD patients, Duke Univ.
• 27%, alloantibodies--most frequent:
• E, C, S, Fya/Fy3, K, Jkb, M, D
• Most, 2 or more antibodies
• Warm autoantibodies in 25% of
alloimmunized, vs <1% when no alloAb
• Mechanisms in common?
• [More DATs in workups?]
• Worse survival in alloimmunized
19 / GR
The Masters, 16th hole, Augusta, GA
Telen MJ, Transfusion 2015;55:1378
20
Notable African-American RBC Phenotype Frequencies
Blood Bank Support in Sickle Cell Disease
ISBT Blood Group Antigens/
Phenotypes
• Chronic or frequent episodic RBC transfusions in some
• Extended phenotype matching
• D, C, E, K
• Some programs extend further -- Fya…Jka…
• Full phenotype is recommended for future antibody information
• Fya/b, Jka/b, M, N, S, s
• SCD patient’s RBCs can be obtained even after transfusion
• Hypotonic lysis, 0.3% NaCl: does not lyse sickle cells
African-American Frequencies
002 MNS
S-s-U-, S-s-U+var 1-2% U-; 0.2-0.4% U+var (1)
004 RhCE
VS+, V+
32% and 30%
VS usu. on partial-e allele
Partial C (r’S)
5-6% (2,3)
006 Kell
Js(b-)
1%
008 Duffy
Fy(a-b-)
67% (RBC FY*B GATA promoter)
014 Dombrock
Hy-, Jo(a-)
<1% and <1% (~0%, Cauc.)
Technical Manual, AABB, 2014
1) Blood Group Antigens FactBook 2) Moulds JM, Transfusion 2013;53(2S):169A
3) Casas J, Transfusion 2015;55:1388
21
22
RBC Phenotyping in Sickle Cell Patients
Transfusion 2015;55(6 Pt 2):1388
• Serological: licensed antisera
• Specificities limited
• 494 SCD patients, Children’s Hospital of Phila, in collab w NYBC
• Previous full serological phenotyping
• BioArray HEA genotyping performed, compared
• Discrepancies in 1.1% of antigen results--investigated
• In 64/66, historical serotyping was incorrect
• Repeat serotyping matched genotype
• DNA phenotyping
• More antigens
• Several high-frequency antigens
• Cost-effective compared to antisera
23
24
4
4/18/2016
Transfusion 2015;55(6 Pt 2):1388
Transfusion 2015;55(6 Pt 2):1388
• 494 SCD patients—extended information in genotyping
• FY: Fy(a-) 87.7%, at risk for anti-Fya
• Fy(b-) 82.6%, of which 98.5% had GATA RBC promoter mutation
• Tissues Fy(b+)=> Fy(a+b-) and Fy(a-b-) seldom at risk for anti-Fyb
• [although Fy(a-b-) persons can occasionally make anti-Fy3]
• Negatives for high-frequency antigens:
• MNS:
5 (1%) U-neg, 3 (0.6%) U+var
• Dombrock:
3 (0.6%) Jo(a-), 1 (0.2%) Hy25
Buccal-Mucosa RBC Genotyping in SCD Children
• Rampersand A, J Pediatr 2014;165:1003, Indiana Blood Center
• 92 children, ages 6 days -2.8 yr, identified in state SCD screening
• IN State Health Dept pilot project: buccal swabs, BioArray
• 4% Js(b-), 2% Hy- Jo(a-), 1% Jo(a-), 8% likely carrying r’S
• 15 children had serologic typing for comparison
• 3 had genotype/serotype discrepancies:
• Genotyping correct in 2, sample contamination in 1
• [BioArray HEA not FDA-approved for buccal mucosa]
26
RHD and RHCE genes—Chromosome 1:
Partial-C and Other Hybrid Variants
RHD gene D+ or D-neg
In haplotype with
RHCE gene, carrying
Ce, cE, ce, or CE
• D and CE genes transcribed in opposite directions
• European D-negative gene shown here: deletion
• Hybrid Rh box: marker for D-negative gene
• Reference Lab cost for HEA, 33 antigens:
• 24% less than cost of serotyping for 12 antigens
• Absence of D protein: anti-D readily made to D+ RBCs
27
D and CE Gene Conversion:
Nose-to-nose genes subject to crossover transcription
Daniels, Human Blood Groups, 2013
28
Partial C Antigens in African-Americans
• (C)ceS, or r’S
• D-CE(4-7)-D hybrid RHD gene
• D-negative Rh protein carrying variant C+ antigen
• The RHCE gene in cis is RHce: C-negative
• When no normal C is present on the other RHCE gene,
these persons can make anti-C
RHD: D- (DIII) with partial C antigen
RHCE: c+, e+, VS+, V-, hrB-, HrB-
nt733C>G 1006G>T
IVS3+3100G breakpoint-type 1
• cE RN variant-- CE-D(4)-CE hybrid: also partial C
D-CE(4-7)-D hybrid in D gene
Wagner EE, Immunohematology 20:23, 2004
• Figure: Reid ME, in Moulds JM, BeadChip Molec Immunohematol, 2011:101
29
30
5
4/18/2016
RHD in RHD-CE(4-7)-CE, r’S
Partial C (r’S) and Anti-C in Sickle Cell Patients
D----------CE(4---------------------------7)-----D
Gray - 2 Rh-Associated Glycoproteins: 1 Rh
Paris
C+ serotype
Philadelphia
112/494, 22.6%
Possible partial C:
--VS+,V-, no normal C
(BioArray)
30/416
8.4% of SCD
30/494
6.1% of SCD
Confirmed r’S
36/177 C+
4.6% of all SCD
20% of C+
23/416
5.5% of all SCD
23/494
4.7% of all SCD
21% of 112 C+
Anti-C
10/36
28% of partial C
7/23
30% of partial C
---
• Paris: Tournamille C, Transfusion 2010;50:13
• Shreveport: Moulds JM, Transfusion 2013;53(2S):169A
• Philadelphia: Casas J, Transfusion 2015;55:1388
X-ray crystallography: Gruswitz F, PNAS 107:9638, 2010
N blue -> C red
Shreveport
22.5%
Amino acids: Flegel WA, Transfus Aph Sci 44:81, 2011
Transmembrane helix colors added
31
32
Genotype Identification of r’S
• BioArray HEA, then serology:
• 1) VS+, V-, no normal C (no bp109 insert) in BioArray
• Possible r’S
• 2) Serotype with anti-C MS24 clone (Immucor, BioRad)
• Positive in 75%--all r’S
• Negative in 25%--none r’S (ceS in cis with DIII or D, not hybrid)
• Progenika ID Core XT:
• Probe for r’S type 1– intron 3 breakpoint IVS3+3100G
Sickle Cell Disease Summary
• Complete phenotype improved by genotyping
• More information than conventional antisera
• Cost-effective
• Patients serotyped as C+
• 20% have partial C antigen
• Options: 1) give C-negative RBCs anyway
• 2) Resolve by genotyping
• 1% of r’S are type 2, different breakpoint
• BCW: allele-specific PCR, RHCE variant panel
• Moulds JM, Transfusion 2015;55:1418
• www.bcw.edu
33
34
RHD-CE Haplotypes in 110 Africans
D-neg WITH partial e: some of 21%
Partial D WITH partial e: 20%
D phylogeny clusters: Blue—DAU
Yellow wedges: Partial D 34%
Green--weak D type 4
Partial C 5%
Red– DIVa
Partial e 52% of haplotypes
Granier T, Transfusion 53:3009, 2013, ISBT variant categories added
35
Genotyping in Complex Antibody Cases
Morton Arboretum 36/ GR
6
4/18/2016
Autoantibodies and Alloantibodies: Often a Team
Complex Antibody Patients
• Autoantibodies are often accompanied by alloantibodies
• 12-40% of patients with warm autoantibodies had RBC
alloantibodies (1978-1999 data, manual testing)
• Automated testing often more sensitive for autoantibodies
than tube testing
• Sickle cell patients: 25% of alloantibody patients had warm
autoantibodies, vs <1% when no alloantibodies
• Warm autoantibodies
• Multiple antibodies
• And/or nonspecific reactivity
• Antibody to high-frequency antigen
• Telen MJ, Transfusion 2015;55:1378
• With or without recent RBC transfusions
• Identifying or ruling out new alloantibodies can be challenging
• Autoantibodies can appear when new alloantibodies develop
• Numerous reports reviewed: Garratty G, Transfusion 2004;44:5
• After D+ RBCs experimentally injected to D- persons
• Sickle cell patients
37
Autoantibodies Mimicking Alloantibodies?
38
Autoantibodies Mimicking Alloantibodies? II
• Alloantibodies develop to transfused RBCs…
• Then persist on patient’s RBCs up to 300 days after transfusion
• Salama A, Transfusion 1984;24:188
• Ness PM, Transfusion 1990;30:688
• Alloantibodies that develop autoantibody reactivity?
• Garratty G, Transfusion 2004;44:5
• Autoantibodies with RBC antigen specificity and
• Loss of the antigen from the patient’s own RBCs
• Negative DAT
• Return of antigen after autoantibody resolves
• They resemble alloantibodies
• 2009 review, blood groups involved (cases reported):
• Kell (6), Rh (3), Kidd (3), Cromer (3)
• LW (2), Gerbich, AnWj
• Possible mechanisms
• Altered antigen or altered glycosylation
• Loss of the entire protein
• RBCs altered during erythropoiesis
Zimring JC, Transfus Med Rev 2009;23:189
39
Alloantibody to A High-Frequency Antigen,
Mimicking An Autoantibody
40
Potential Benefits of Genotyping
with Autoantibodies/ Complex Alloantibodies
• Consider a delayed hemolytic/serologic reaction to
a high-frequency antigen (e.g., HrB, k, Kpb, Dib, etc.)
• Recurrent transfusion need:
• Delayed hemolysis?
• Identify which alloantibodies patient could form
• Broad plasma reactivity
• Positive direct antiglobulin test
• Eluate “pan”-reactive
• “Alloantibody” may be autoantibody
• Still need antigen-negative RBCs after antibody resolves?
• Alloadsorption at reference lab removes plasma activity
• “Autoantibody” may be alloantibody
• Antibody to high-frequency/multiple antigens, and recent
transfusion?
• This could look a lot like a warm autoantibody!
41
42
7
4/18/2016
Streamlining Future Workups In Patients With
Complex Antibody Reactions
RBC Genotyping and Future Workload:
NMH Pilot Study—ILABB Case Studies 2016
• RBC genotyping to determine antigens patient has/doesn’t have
• Focus antibody ‘rule-out’ testing:
• Antigens for which patient is negative
• 58 patients in study period
• 10 (17%) known to have been recently transfused
• Examined no. of screen/panel RBCs needed in future
workups after genotyping available
Followup Workups
• Some patients with multiple antibodies are running out of antigens
to make more antibody to
• Genotyping: which antigens are left on their ‘list’?
Patients
Workups: Total
Mean (Range)
No. Antibodies: 1
Before DNA Typing
After DNA Typing
9 (16%)
20 (34%)
13
55
1.4 (1-3)
2.75 (1-11)
31% of workups
55% of workups
2
54%
29%
3
15%
16%
43
44
45
46
Antibody-Antigen Discrepancies
• Patient has antibody to “X”, but his/her RBCs type positive for “X”
• Review antibody and typing workup
• Were antibody ID and typing correct?
• Could this be an autoantibody?
• DAT+? Associated warm autoantibody?
• (Note: polyclonal typing sera may be invalid)
• Elute antibody from patient’s RBCs?
• ‘Partial’ antigen variant, with alloantibody to normal antigen?
• Is patient heterozygous or homozygous for the antigen?
• Heterozygous—more likely to be a variant
• Homozygous—would need 2 variant genes or ?null
Genotyping in Antigen-Antibody Discrepancies
Big Bluestem, Volo Bog47/ GR
48
8
4/18/2016
Genotyping in Weak-D Pregnant Women
Weak or Partial Antigen Variants
Heron Creek, Long Grove / GR
• Rh: D, C, c, E and e all may have partial variants
• Anti-e like antibodies associated with VS+ alleles
• Kidd: many variants reported in recent years in genotyping
• Weak Jka or Jkb antigens
• Can make alloantibody to normal antigen
• Lurie Childrens’ thalassemic: delayed hemolysis, anti-Jka
• Patient genotyped Jk(a+b+) (transfused)
• Had JK nt130G>A variant associated with weak Jka
• Ramsey G et al, Transfusion 2012;52(S3):143A
49
RhD Typing and Normal RhIG Algorithm
RhD Typing and Normal RhIG Algorithm
Prenatal Type and Screen
Prenatal Type and Screen
• RhD-negative: 15%
• RhD+
50
• Each pregnancy:
Europe: fetal D genotype,
12+wk maternal blood;
D-neg (40%) --> stop
• 26-28 weeks
• Antibody screen
• One RhIG dose
• Delivery
• RhIG evaluation:
• Antibody screen
• Type baby:
• D-neg --> stop (40%)
• D+: One dose RhIG
• Screen for excess fetal
bleed
Screen+: quantify fetal Hgb
Give more RhIG if indicated (0.3%)
51
• RhD-negative: 15%
0.4%
• RhD+
?
• Each pregnancy
?
Ambiguous D:
Weak D typing
Discrepant D typings
• 26-28 weeks
• Antibody screen
• One RhIG dose
• Delivery
• RhIG evaluation:
• Antibody screen
• Type baby:
• D-neg: stop (40%)
• D+: One dose RhIG
• Screen for excess fetal
bleed
Screen+: quantify fetal Hgb
Give more RhIG if indicated (0.3%)
52
RhD Typing and Normal RhIG Algorithm
Reasons for Ambiguous/Discrepant RhD Typings
Prenatal Type and Screen
• Variable D typing methods and reagents
• Manual or automated testing
• Multiple vendors, multiple anti-D monoclonal reagents
0.4%
• RhD+
0.32%
0.08%
Ambiguous D:
Weak D typing
Discrepant D typings
• RhD-negative: 15%
• Each pregnancy
• 26-28 weeks:
• Antibody screen
• One RhIG dose
• Delivery:
• RhIG evaluation:
• Antibody screen
Resolve with one-time RHD genotyping
• Type baby:
Sandler SG, Transfusion 55:680,2015
• D-neg: stop (40%)
• D+: One dose RhIG
• Screen for excess fetal
bleed
Screen+: quantify fetal Hgb
Give more RhIG if indicated (0.3%)
53
• Variable RHD genetics
• Dozens of RhD genetic variants in several categories
• Weak D: weakly reactive with IgM or only with IgG
• Partial D: missing part of D antigen, can make anti-D
• Weak partial D
• Same variant may type differently depending on method
• In same lab or across different labs
• Variable laboratory reporting of weak-D results
• Positive, Negative, or Weak-D Positive
• Many opportunities for confusion—patients and obstetricians
54
9
4/18/2016
Weak or Discordant D: The AABB/CAP/ACOG Algorithm
Weak D
(Low-strength D)
<2+ initial test
Discordant D
Reagent-variable
Genotype
Types 1,2,3
Give RhIG
No RhIG
Transfusion 2015;55:680-9
AABB (American Association of Blood Banks)
College of American Pathologists
ACOG: John T. Queenan, MD, Georgetown University
No variant identified?
May be unincluded or novel variant
Give RhIG
Weak 4.2, 11,
15, 21, 27
Partial D Variants
All other weak D except 1, 2 or 3
Variants with uncertain anti-D risk
Weak D typing & RhIG lab practices: Sandler SG, Arch Pathol Lab Med 2014;138:620-5
Genotyping: Haspel RL, Westhoff CM, Transfusion 2015; 55:470-4
Cost-benefit analysis: Kacker S et al, Transfusion 2015; 55:2095-103
AABB/CAP/ACOG Work Group, Transfusion 55:680, 2015
55
Estimated US Frequencies of Weak D Variants
Ethnicity
Total % D-negative
X % of D-negatives=
all who are weak-D
Benefits of Identifying Obstetrical Patients
With Weak D Types 1, 2 or 3
% of Weak-D’s who are:
Weak D 1, 2 or 3
Partial D
All US
14.6%
X 3.0% = 0.43%
80%
(0.34% of all)
4 of 36 OB with
Weak/discrepant D2
Caucasian
non-Hisp
17.3%
X 2.3% = 0.40%
94%
(0.38% of all)
6%, Europe3
Hispanic
7.3%
X 10.9% = 0.80%
38%
(0.30% of all)
Not reported
Af-Amer
non-Hisp
7.1%
X 8.0% = 0.57%
~0%
Est. 60% to >90% 4-5
Esp. Dce phenotype
Asian
1.7%1
X 0.6% = 0.01%
~0%
Low
• RhIG management not needed in all future pregnancies
• No antenatal 26-28-week RhIG needed
• Often with prior repeat antibody screen
• No postpartum neonatal RBC typing
• No test for excess fetomaternal hemorrhage
• No postpartum RhIG
• Transfusions can be D+ units
• Cost-benefit analysis: Kackler S, Transfusion 55:2095,2015
Note: With broad US diversity, anti-D risk should not be based on ethnicity 2
All US: Sandler SG, Transfusion 55:680,2015
56
Ethnicities estimates: Kackler S, Transfusion 55:2095, 2015
• Confusion resolution for patients and caregivers
1) South Asian 4-11%; East Asian <0.5% (of which 10-30% are Del): Weinstock C, Blood Transfus 12:3, 2014
2) Haspel RL, Transfusion 55:470,2015 3) Muller TH, Transfusion 41:45,2001
4) Wang D, Am J Clin Pathol 134:438,2010 (OB patients) 5) Chou ST, Blood 122:1062,2013 (sickle-cell RhD alleles)
57
58
Partial-D Variant Genotyping
RHD Weak Variant Genotyping
Table: BioArray RHD BeadChip; BCW and Grifols below
Table: BioArray RHD BeadChip; BCW & Grifols below
ISBT RHD and RHCE Partial D categories: All considered at risk for anti-D
Weak D types
Allo-anti-D Seen?
03
DIII: a, b, c, 4, 6/7
14
DBT: 1,2
1, 2, 3
No
04
DIV: 1-4, b
16
DCS: 1,2
4/DAR (multiple) 4.0, DAR
Yes
05
DV: 1,2,3 (DBS0),4,6,8,9
17
DFR: 1-4
11, 15, 41
Yes
06
DVI: 1-4
19
DHMi
09
DAR (Weak D type 4 category)
25
DNB
10
DAU: 1-5
37
DUC2
11
11
208
Del (IV3+1G>A)
12
DOL: 1-3
CE*01.22
ceHAR (DHAR)
13
DBS:1,2
5, 14/40/51, 17, 29, 34, 47
Not yet [but RhIG candidates]
• Red: BCW RhD Discrepancy Analysis: allele-specific PCR (www.bcw.edu)
• Grifols Immunohematology Center: Weak D 1,2,3 sequencing assay
• Rh variant identification: allele-specific probes and sequencing
• BCW: Partial D Analysis (AS-PCR) includes red, plus 02-DII
• Grifols: Rh variant identification: allele-specific probes, sequencing
• Allo-anti-D information: Blood Group Antigen FactsBook, 2012
• www.Rhesusbase.info database, FF Wagner, German Red Cross
• RhIG candidacy: Sandler SG, Transfusion 2015;55:680-9
59
60
10
4/18/2016
Fetal Genotyping
Paternal Genotyping
• Dad heterozygous, what is baby’s type?
• Is pregnancy monitoring necessary?
• Zygosity for D in partner with anti-D
• Genotyping for antigens with no commercial antisera
• Seek low-frequency antigen against which mom might have
antibody
• Baby has +DAT, mom’s screen negative
• Mom’s crossmatch vs dad’s RBCs positive, if feasible
• Amniotic fluid cells
• American Red Cross
• Heartland -> Blood Center of Wisconsin
• Maternal blood—cell-free fetal DNA in plasma, >10-12+ weeks
• Widely used in Europe for D-negative moms
• Anti-D moms, is baby D+?
• Determine whether antenatal RhIG is needed
• US rights held by Sequenom Labs, San Diego, CA
• Offers fetal RhD typing on maternal blood
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Post-SCT Auto- and Alloantibodies
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Genotyping in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplants
Wang M, Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015;21:60. London, UK
Warm AIHA after 533 allogeneic SCTs
19 cases (3.6%), 4-18 months (median 7) post-SCT
>95% donor chimerism, peripheral blood, in 16/18 cases
AIHA correlated only with unrelated or same-gender donors
AIHA caused/contributed to death in 4 cases (0.8%)
• Including one auto-anti-e (with allo-anti-E)
• 58% of AIHA patients developed plasma alloantibodies (Rh or Kell)
• vs. 4% of SCT patients with all-negative DATs (p<0.0001)
• Presumed to be alloantibodies, due to high donor chimerisms,
and not autoantibodies
• No genotyping was done
Paul Cezanne, Route Tournante, 1904, Courtald Gallery, London (detail) / GR
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Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant:
Determining The Source of Alloantibody
Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant:
Determining The Source of Alloantibody
• NMH AML patient developed anti-E after unrelated allogeneic SCT
• Peripheral blood chimerism ~50:50 donor/recipient
• Ongoing RBC transfusion need precluded serotyping
• Whose antibody was it? What if it disappeared?
• If from donor, would need to keep on E- RBCs
• If from recipient, and donor engrafted, E- RBCs not needed?
• AML patient developed anti-E after allogeneic SCT
• Peripheral blood chimerism ~50:50 donor/recipient
• Ongoing RBC transfusion need precluded serotyping
• Whose antibody was it? What if it disappeared?
• If from donor, would need to keep on E- RBCs
• If from recipient, and donor engrafted, E- RBCs not needed?
• Peripheral blood DNA genotyped E-negative in BioArray
• But whose DNA was that?
• Ramsey G, Zinni JG, Sumugod RD, Lindholm PF. Transfusion 2015;55(3S):159A
• Ramsey G, Zinni JG, Sumugod RD, Lindholm PF. Transfusion 2015;55(3S):159A
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Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant:
Determining The Source of Alloantibody
Evolving Roles of RBC Genotyping
• To examine source of anti-E:
• BioArray HEA testing:
• SCT donor DNA from HLA Lab:
• Patient DNA from buccal mucosa:
“Basic-science” blood group genetics
Rare-donor identification
Esoteric studies of novel patients
E+
E-negative
• Anti-E was from recipient
Frequent applications in transfusion and
obstetrical care in every transfusion service
• (BioArray HEA not FDA-approved for buccal mucosa)
• Ramsey G, Zinni JG, Sumugod RD, Lindholm PF. Transfusion 2015;55(3S):159A
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RBC Blood Group DNA Testing In/For Chicagoland
Evolving Roles of RBC Genotyping
(alphabetical order)
“Basic-science” blood group genetics
• American Red Cross, National Molecular Lab, Philadelphia, PA
• BioArray HEA, RHD, RHCE, and lab-developed tests
Rare-donor identification
Esoteric studies of novel patients
• Heartland -> Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
• Lab-developed tests: www.bcw.edu
• LifeSource -> Virginia Blood Services, Richmond, VA
• Progenika ID Core XT ->
• Grifols Immunohematology Center, San Marco, TX
• Lab-developed tests
Frequent applications in transfusion and
obstetrical care in every transfusion service
Donors antigenically matched with patients?
• Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL
• BioArray HEA, and (spring 2016) RHD for weak D
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RBC Blood Group Genotyping in Transfusion-Service Patients
• Sickle cell disease—broad phenotyping; Rh C status
• Complex antibody problems
• Multiple and/or unidentified antibodies
• High-frequency-antigen antibodies
• Autoantibodies
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Acknowledgments
• BioArray: Nick (“I’ll-buy-a-vowel!”) Maioriello
• Grifols Progenika:
• Joann Moulds, PhD, Grifols Imm’hem Center, San Marcos, TX
• Mindy Goldman, MD, Canadian Red Cross, Ottawa, Canada
• Chelsea Sheppard, MD, Virginia Blood Services, Richmond, VA
• Antibody-antigen discrepancies
• Blood Center of Wisconsin: Greg Denomme, PhD, Sue Johnson
• Obstetrical problems
• Maternal weak D and RhIG candidacy
• Fetal typing; paternal D zygosity
• Northwestern Medicine Team:
• BioArray Blood Bank Technologists
• Jules Zinni, Karyn Hartman, Ricardo Sumugod
• Paul Lindholm, MD
• Allogeneic stem cell transplant antibody problems
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Join and Support the Mission of the ISBT
-Apply Now!
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Questions?
BioArray HEA PreciseType:
Billing for FDA-Approved In-Vitro Diagnostic Test
Bavarian Crown Jewels
Munich Treasury / GR
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Immucor USA web site
Search for “81403”
Web page has:
1) CPT Code 81403
2) Z-Code ZB04H
Contact information at Immucor
• ICD-10 diagnosis codes being approved by Medicare carriers
include various anemias such as sickle-cell, thalassemia,
AIHA, renal disease, cancer, other anemias (not all listed
here)
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