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Transcript
Biology
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Interactions and Interdependence
Interactions and Interdependence
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions
among organisms and between organisms and
their environment, or surroundings.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Interactions and Interdependence
The biosphere contains the combined portions of the
planet in which all of life exists, including:
• land
• water
• air, or atmosphere
The biosphere extends from about 8 kilometers
above Earth's surface to as far as 11 kilometers
below the surface of the ocean.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Interactions and Interdependence
Interactions within the biosphere produce a web of
interdependence between organisms and the
environment in which they live.
The interdependence of life on Earth contributes to
an ever-changing, or dynamic, biosphere.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of Organization
What different levels of organization do
ecologists study?
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of Organization
Levels of Organization
To understand relationships within the
biosphere, ecologists ask questions
about events and organisms that range
in complexity from a single individual to
the entire biosphere.
The levels of organization that ecologists
study include: individuals, populations,
communities, ecosystems, and biomes.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of Organization
Biosphere
Biome
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Individual
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Molecules (DNA)
Levels of organization
Cells
Tissue (Muscle)
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Organ (Human Heart)
Levels of organization
Organ system
(digestive system)
Organism (White-tailed
Deer)
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of organization
Community (Pond)
Ecosystem (Desert)
Population (Mallard Ducks
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of organization
The Biosphere
(Earth)
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of Organization
A species is a group of organisms so similar to one
another that they can breed and produce fertile
offspring.
Populations are groups of individuals that belong to
the same species and live in the same area.
Communities are assemblages of different
populations that live together in a defined area.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Levels of Organization
An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms
that live in a particular place, together with their
nonliving, or physical, environment.
A biome is a group of ecosystems that have the
same climate and similar dominant communities.
The highest level of organization that ecologists
study is the entire biosphere itself.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Ecological Methods
What methods are used to study ecology?
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Ecological Methods
Ecological Methods
Regardless of the tools they use, scientists
conduct modern ecological research using three
basic approaches:
• observing
• experimenting
• modeling
All of these approaches rely on the application of
scientific methods to guide ecological inquiry.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Ecological Methods
Observing
Observing is often the first step in asking
ecological questions.
Some observations are simple. Others are
complex and may form the first step in designing
experiments and models.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Ecological Methods
Experimenting
Experiments can be used to test hypotheses.
An ecologist may set up an artificial environment in
a laboratory to imitate and manipulate conditions
that organisms would encounter in the wild.
Other experiments are conducted within natural
ecosystems.
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3-1 What Is Ecology?
Ecological Methods
Modeling
Ecologists make models to gain insight into
complex phenomena.
Many ecological models consist of mathematical
formulas based on data collected through
observation and experimentation.
The predictions made by ecological models are
often tested by further observations and
experiments.
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Click to Launch:
Continue to:
- or -
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The combined portions of the planet in which life
exists, including land, water, and the
atmosphere, form the
a. biosphere.
b. community.
c. species.
d. ecosystem.
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A group of organisms that can breed and
produce fertile offspring is known as a(an)
a. ecosystem.
b. species.
c. biome.
d. community.
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Compared to a community, an ecosystem
includes
a. the nonliving, physical environment as well
as the community.
b. only the physical environment of an area
without the organisms.
c. the entire biome but not the biosphere.
d. only one of the populations within the
community.
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An ecological method that uses mathematical
formulas based on data collected is
a. observing.
b. experimenting.
c. modeling.
d. hypothesizing.
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An ecologist marks out an area in a specific
ecosystem and proceeds to identify the number
of insect species in the area. This is an example
of ecological
a. experimentation.
b. observation.
c. modeling.
d. inference.
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