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Answer Key: Practice Worksheet – G9 – Term3
True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
T
1.
Energy doesn't have to involve motion.
T
2.
Energy is the ability to cause change.
T
3.
Energy is measured in joules.
T
4.
When you ride a playground swing, your potential energy is greatest at the highest point.
F
5. Chemical(radiant) energy travels from the Sun to Earth and is transformed into light energy by
plants.
F
6.
As mass decreases, kinetic energy increases.
T
7.
Lowering an object decreases its potential energy.
T
8.
In a car engine, burning fuel produces heat, which causes gases to expand, producing
kinetic energy.
F
9.
The sum of potential and kinetic energy in a system is called the total(mechanical) energy.
T
10. Carbohydrates and fats provide our bodies with energy in the form of calories.
T
11. Energy from the Sun and energy from food are just different forms of the same thing.
T
12. In order for work to be done on a object, the object must move.
F
13. Conduction is the transfer of energy by the bulk movement of matter.
F
14. Radiation is the transfer of energy in the form of particles.
T
15. In a forced-air heating system, the warm air circulates by convection.
T
16. Winds are examples of convection currents.
F
17. Shiny materials absorb(reflect) radiant energy.
F
18. Heat(temperature) is a measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object.
T
19. When you bring the south ends of two magnets close together, they repel each other.
T
20. Paper clips and other objects that contain iron can become temporary magnets.
Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make
the statement true.
F
21. Energy in the form of motion is potential energy. ____kinetic___
T
22. According to the law of conservation of energy, mechanical energy can be changed to heat
energy. ____________________________
F
23. A rock at the edge of a cliff has kinetic energy because of its position. _potential_
T
24. When you put on the brakes of a bicycle, friction causes some of the mechanical energy to
change to thermal energy. _________________________
F
25. According to the law of conservation of energy, energy can be created or destroyed. Can’t
F
26. Energy that is stored is kinetic energy. __potential__
T
27. Energy stored in food you eat is chemical potential energy. _________________________
F
28. Elastic energy is the total potential and kinetic energy in a system. mechanical_
T
29. Energy is measured in joules. _________________________
F
30. Compression energy is stored in a stretched rubber band. _elastic potential_
T
31. A book sitting on a shelf has gravitational potential energy. ___________________
F
32. Power is work done over a distance. ___time____
F
33. Friction changes the useful work of a machine into mechanical energy. _thermal_
F
34. A conductor is a material that doesn't allow electrons to flow through it easily. insulator
T
35. The presence of a static electric charge can be detected by an electroscope.
F
36.A lightning bolt occurs when billions of protons are transferred at the same time. electrons
F
37. Thunder produces air temperatures hotter than the Sun's surface. lightning
T
38. The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object is
called charging by induction. _________________________
F
39. Voltage difference is measured in amperes. ___volts____
F
40. The unit used to measure current is the volt. ___Amperes______
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____41.The kinetic energy of an object increases as its ____ increases.
a. gravitational energy
c. specific heat
b. potential energy
d. velocity
____42.Increasing the speed of an object ____ its potential energy.
a. does not affect
c. decreases
b. increases
d. changes
____43.The SI unit for energy is the ____.
a. calorie
b. joule
c.
d.
meter per second
kilogram
____44.You can calculate kinetic energy by using the equation ____.
a. KE (J) = m (kg)  9.8 m/s2  h (m)
c. KE (J) = 1/2 m (kg)  v2 (m2/s2)
b. KE (J) = w (m)  h (m)
d. KE (J) = 9.8 m/s2  1/2 m (kg)
____45.You can calculate gravitational potential energy by using the equation ____.
a.
c. GPE (J) = h (m)  9.8 m/s2
GPE (J) = 1/2m (kg)  1/2h (m)
2
b.
d. GPE (J) = 1/2h (m)  w (m)
GPE (J) = m (kg)  9.8 m/s  h (m)
____46.A bus engine transfers chemical potential energy into ____ so that the bus moves.
a. thermal energy
c. electrical energy
b. gravitational potential energy
d. kinetic energy
____47.In a nuclear fusion reaction, mass is transformed into ____.
a. matter
c. energy
b. nuclei
d. light
____48.According to the law of conservation of energy, the total amount of energy in the universe ____.
a. remains constant
c. increases
b. changes constantly
d. decreases
____49.If a weight lifter is holding barbells above his head, what does he have to do to perform work?
a. stand still
c. step forward
b. move barbells sideways
d. lower barbells
____50.The rate at which work is done is called ____.
a. efficiency
b. effort time
c.
d.
force
power
____51.The unit of power is the ____.
a. joule
b. watt
c.
d.
m/s
second
____52.A material that reduces the flow of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation is ____.
a. a conductor
c. an insulator
b. condensation
d. a solar collector
____53.All of the following are good conductors of heat EXCEPT ____.
a. air
c. copper
b. aluminum
d. silver
____54.The transfer of energy that does NOT require matter is ____.
a. combustion
c. conduction
b. radiation
d. convection
____55.Energy from the Sun travels to Earth as ____.
a. chemical energy
b. combustion
c.
d.
radiant energy
mechanical energy
____56.The inside surface of the glass inside a vacuum bottle is coated with aluminum to prevent heat
loss by ____.
a. combustion
c. conduction
b. radiation
d. convection
____57.A device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy is a ____.
a. conductor
c. heat engine
b. refrigerator
d. heat mover
____58.Through which of the following will convection most likely occur?
a. liquids and gases
c. solids
b. solids and liquids
d. solids and gases
____59.Which of the following would be the best insulator?
a. air
b. aluminum
c.
d.
copper
silver
____60.Electric charge that has accumulated on an object is referred to as ____.
a. circuit electricity
c. current electricity
b. current circuit
d. static electricity
____61.A static discharge differs from an electric current in that a static discharge ____.
a. involves the movement of ions as well as electrons
b. is a flow of electrons
c. lasts for only a fraction of a second
d. results because a force is exerted on the electrons
____62.A material through which electrons do NOT easily flow is a(n) ____.
a. conductor
c. insulator
b. fuse
d. transformer
____63.If the leaves of an electroscope spread apart, it indicates that ____.
a. the leaves of the electroscope are neutral
b. the leaves of the electroscope have received a charge
c. no charge is moving through the electroscope
d. there is static electricity in the electroscope
____64.Lightning is ____.
a. a buildup of neutrons
b. harmless
c.
d.
a high-voltage electric current
a large discharge of static electricity
____65.Which of the following is the correct relationship among power, current, and voltage?
a. P = I/V
c. P = I V
b. V = P I
d. E = P t
____66.The location of the strongest magnetic forces is the ____.
a. electromagnets
c.
b. magnetic domains
d.
magnetic fields
magnetic poles
____67.The region around a magnet where the magnetic forces act is the ____.
a. electromagnetic pole
c. magnetic field
b. magnetic domain
d. magnetic pole
____68.Objects that keep their magnetic properties for a long time are called ____.
a. electromagnets
c. permanent magnets
b. magnetic domains
d. temporary magnets
____69.The current that flows in an electric circuit carries ____.
a. chemical energy
c.
b. mechanical energy
d.
____70.The atoms in a magnet are ____.
a. arranged randomly
b. aligned according to magnetic
fields
____71.The magnetic force of a magnet is ____.
a. the same at all parts of the magnet
b. strongest at the center
thermal energy
electrical energy
c.
d.
negatively charged
positively charged
c.
d.
strongest at the poles
weakest at the poles
____72.The theoretical point at which all molecular motion stops is called ____.
a. the boiling point
c. the melting point
b. absolute zero
d. the frozen point
____73.According to ____, the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by the object.
a. Bernoulli’s principle
c. Charles’s law
b. Boyle’s law
d. Archimedes’ principle
____74.Whether an object will sink or float in a fluid is determined by ____.
a. Bernoulli’s principle
c. Charles’s law
b. Boyle’s law
d. Archimedes’ principle
____75.The magnetic field that surrounds a magnet exerts
a. electrical current
b. air pressure
c.
d.
the magnetic force
resistance
____76.Which of the following elements is magnetic?
a. aluminum
b. iron
c.
d.
tin
lead
____77.The interaction between two magnets is called:
a. a magnetic force
b. a magnetic field
c.
d.
polarity
current
____78.Groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles are called
a. magnetic domains
c.
b. magnetic fields
d.
elements
permanent magnets
____79.Iron is a magnetic material, but an iron nail does not behave like a magnet because _______ .
a. its magnetic domains are aligned
c. its magnetic domains are arranged
randomly
b. it contains too few magnetic
d. the atoms in the iron exert a force
domains
on all the other atoms
____80.Electrical power is expressed in __________.
a. amperes
b. volts
____81.Electric charges flow from __________.
a. low-voltage areas to high-voltage
areas
b. insulators to conductors
____82.__________ is the push that causes charges to move.
a. voltage difference
b. electric current
c.
d.
ohms
watts
c.
low-resistance areas to highresistance areas
high-voltage areas to low-voltage
areas
d.
c.
d.
electric power
resistance
Completion
Complete each statement.
83. If an object has energy, this means that the object has the ability to cause _change_.
84. If you double the velocity of an object, you increase its kinetic energy by a factor of _4 times_.
85. Stored energy is called _potential_ energy.
86. A fire warms you by transferring _radiation_ energy.
87. On a swing your potential and kinetic energies change, but your mechanical energy does not.
88. According to the law of conservation of energy, energy can change form, but it cannot be created or
destroyed under ordinary conditions.
89. When you move your hand or foot, your body has converted potential energy into kinetic energy.
90. You can determine how much energy various foods can give you by checking their calorie content.
91. Work, like energy, is measured in __joules____.
92. Good _insulator_ do not allow heat to move easily through them.
93. All heating systems must have a source of energy in order to produce heat.
94. Thermal energy is the total energy of the molecules in a material.
Figure 6-1
95. In Figure 6-1, thermal energy is transferred to the sunbather in room B primarily by radiation.
96. In Figure 6-1, most of the heat provided by the fireplace in room C goes up the chimney and is
therefore transferred by convection.
97. In Figure 6-1, the thermal energy of the iron in room D is transferred to the clothes by conduction.
98. In Figure 6-1, room A, the heat from the pot on the stove moves to the pot's handle by conduction.
99. The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal.
Matching
a.
energy
b.
buoyant force
c.
kinetic energy
d.
potential energy
e.
gravitational potential energy
f.
elastic potential energy
g.
chemical potential energy
h.
work
i.
temperature
j.
thermal energy
k.
heat
l.
transferring heat by conduction
m.
transferring heat by convection
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.
u.
v.
w.
x.
y.
z.
transferring heat by radiation
heat conductors
heat insulators
static electricity
electric field
electric conductor
electric insulator
charging by conduction (contact)
charging by induction
grounding
voltage difference
electric current
pressure
z
100. force per unit area
y
x
w
v
u
t
101. the net flow of charge in one direction
s
r
q
p
o
n
m
107. a material where electrons move easily
l
114. transfer of heat by collisions of particles in matter
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
115. thermal energy that flows from higher temperature to lower temperature
102. the force that causes charges to flow
103. connecting an object to Earth by a conductor
104. rearrangement of charge on a neutral object by a nearby charged object
105. the process of transferring charge by rubbing or touching
106. a material where electrons cannot move easily
108. area around the charge where it exerts force on other charges
109. accumulation of excess electric charge
110. materials that don’t allow heat to pass through them easily
111. materials that allow heat to pass through them easily
112. transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves
113.
transfer of heat by movement of warm and cold fluids
116. the sum of kinetic and potential energy of all particles
117. a measure of the average kinetic energy of all particles
118. the transfer of energy when a force moves an object
119. energy stored in chemical bonds
120. energy stored in materials that can be compressed or stretched
121. energy stored due to position
122. stored energy
123. motion energy
124. is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid
125. ability to cause change
Problems:
Section 4.1
1.
Two bullets have the mass of 3 g and 6 g, respectively. Both are fired with a speed of 40 m/s.
Which bullet has more kinetic energy?
KE = ½ m v2
Bullet (1)
Bullet (2)
KE= (0.5)(3/1000)(40)2
KE = (0.5)(6/1000)(40)2
= 2.4 J
2.
= 4.8 J (more KE)
A spoon is raised 21 cm above a table. If the spoon and its contents have a mass of 30 g, what is
the gravitational potential energy associated with the spoon at that height relative to the table?
GPE = m g h
= (30/1000) (9.8) (21/100) = 0.06 J
3.
What is the speed of a 55 kg woman running with a kinetic energy of 412.7 J?
KE = ½ m v2
v2 =
v=
4.
15.007
= 3.87 m/s
A carpenter lifts a 10-kg piece of wood to his shoulder 1.5 m above the ground. He then sets the
wood on his truck at 1.0 m above the ground and makes his delivery going 10 m/s.
a) What is the wood’s potential energy on the carpenter’s shoulder?
b) On the truck?
c) What is the wood’s kinetic energy during the delivery?
d) What is the wood’s mechanical energy during the delivery?
a) Answer: GPE (on shoulder) = m g h = 10 x 9.8 x 1.5 = 147 J
b) Answer: GPE (on truck) = m g h = 10 x 9.8 x 1 = 98 J
c) Answer: KE = (½) (m) (v2) = (0.5)(10)(10)2 = 500 J
d) Answer: Mechanical energy = KE + GPE (truck) = 500+98= 598J
5.
Missy Diwater, the former platform diver for the Ringling Brother's Circus, had a kinetic energy
of 12 000 J just prior to hitting the bucket of water. If Missy's mass is 40 kg, then what is her
speed?
KE = ½ m v2
v2 =
600
v = 24.5 m/s
6.
A car moving at a speed of 20 m/s has a kinetic energy of 300 000 J.
What is the car’s mass?
m=
7.
1500 kg
A box with a mass of 14.8 Kg sits on the floor. How high would you
have to lift the box to for it to have a gravitational potential energy of
355 J?
h=
Section 16.2
1.
A floating object displaces 0.6 m3 of water. Calculate the buoyant
force on the object and the weight of the object. (the density of water
is 1000 Kg/m3)
Floating means FB = Weight
So: Weight = 5880 N
2.
A block of wood of mass 3.5 kg floats in water. Calculate the buoyant
force on the block.
FB = mf g = (3.5) (9.8) = 34.3 N
3.
The pressure of a gas contained in a cylinder with a movable piston is
300 Pa. The area of the piston is 0.5 m2. Calculate the force that is
exerted on the piston.
F = P A = (300) (0.5) = 150 N
4.
A snowboard, with 0.5 m2 area, exerts a pressure of 120 Pa on the
snow. What is the snowboard weight?
Weight = F = P A = (120)(0.5) = 60 N
5.
A cube of steel that measures 5.0 cm on each side is immersed in water. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3. What is the buoyant force
acting on the cube?
Why? Vf = 5 x 5 x 5 = 125 cm3
5cm
6.
Consider that:  of water = 1000 kg/m3 and that g = 10 m/s2
a)
Calculate the buoyant force.
FB = W – W’ = 24 – 20 = 4 N
b)
Calculate the volume of the immersed object.
Section 5.1
1.
2.
At a tractor pull, one machine has a run that produces 28,000 Joules in
2 seconds. How many Watts of power did this tractor produce?
How many minutes does it take a machine with a power of 2100 W to do 700
joules of work?
= 0.3 s
The question wants the time in minutes = 0.360 = 5x10-3min
3.
How much work is done by a 125 watt blender that is crushing ice for
5 minutes?
Work = power x time (seconds)
= 125 x (5x60) = 37500 J
Section 6.1
1.
Convert each of the following:
a.
-20 C= 253 K
b.
100C = 212F
c.
80 F= 299.7 K
d.
If someone says that the temperature will be 303 K today, how can you express that temperature
in °C and °F?
Step 1: change Kelvin to Celsius: C=K-273 = 303-273= 30 °C
Celsius = 30 °C
Step 2: change Celsius to Fahrenheit: °F=9/5 °C + 32 = [9/5 x 30]+32= 86 °F
Fahrenheit = 86 °F
Section 7.2
1.
A flashlight bulb uses 2.4 W of power when the current in the bulb is 0.8 A. What is the voltage
difference supplied by the batteries?
2.
If we connect a 120V supply to a 60W bulb, what current would flow in the circuit?
3.
A 110-volt toaster oven draws a current of 6 amps on its highest setting as it converted electrical
energy into thermal energy. What is the toaster's maximum power rating?