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Ch. 15 &16: Plant Physiology
Major parts of a flower
Plant Cell
How plants produce food
• Photosynthesis – a series of processes in
which light energy is converted to a simple
sugar.
• Chlorophyll – green material inside the leaves
and stems of the plant that gives the plant its
green color.
• Chloroplasts – small, membrane-bound bodies
inside cells that contain the green chlorophyll
pigments.
• These are the sites of the actual conversion of
solar energy into stored energy.
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O >> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Respiration
• Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
C6H12O6 + 6O2 >> 6CO2 + 6H2O +HEAT
Transpiration
• Process by which the plant gives up water
vapor to the atmosphere.
– Most plants transpire about 90% of the water
they take in.
What causes plants to wilt?
• Lack of turgor
pressure, caused
from not having
enough water.
• Turgor pressure –
swollen or stiffened
condition as a result
of plant cells being full
of water.
Purpose of soil
• Soil provides a natural environment for
roots. It supplies air, water, and nutrients
for the plant.
Plant nutrition
• There are sixteen essential elements for
normal plant growth.
– Macronutrients – elements used in relatively
large amounts.
– Micronutrients – elements used in small, or
trace amounts.
Macronutrients
• C – carbon
• H – hydrogen
• O - oxygen
Obtained from
the atmosphere
N – nitrogen
Ca - calcium
P – phosphorus
Mg - magnesium
K – potassium
S – sulfur
Micronutrients
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
B – boron
Cu – copper
Cl – chlorine
Fe – iron
Mn – manganese
Mo – molybdenum
Zn - zinc
Soil pH
• pH – acidity level.
1
2
3
4
5
Optimum
range for
most plants
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 13
Neutral
Acidic
Alkaline (base)
14