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Climate Change
October 2015
Main concepts
• Climate change – lasting change of some or all
characteristics, describing the average
weather condition
• Greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases
• The two aspects:
– mitigation (reduction of the emissions)
– adaptation (adjustment)
• The situation in Bulgaria
Main institutions at international
• UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
• Kyoto Protocol – First and Second
commitment period
• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
• New global agreement on climate change?
European policy
2007 – Strategic plan for EU climate and energy policy
by 2020 “The three 20s by 2020” (20/20/20 by 2020):
20% increase in energy efficiency increase;
20% reduction in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
compared to their 1990 levels;
20% share of the energy from renewable sources in the
total energy consumption in EU by 2020, including 10%
share of biofuels in the transport.
Legislative package “Climate and
• Directive 2009/29/ЕC, amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as
to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission
allowance trading scheme of the Community;
• Decision 406/2009/ЕC on the effort of Member States to reduce
their greenhouse gas emissions to meet Community greenhouse
gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020;
• Directive 2009/28/ЕC on the promotion of the use of energy from
renewable sources;
• Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and the Council
on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
Additional acts
Two legislative acts, which should encourage measures
in the transport sector:
•Directive 2009/30/ЕC amending Directive 98/70/EC as
regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil
and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce
greenhouse gas emissions;
•Regulation (ЕC)443/2009 setting emission
performance standards for new passenger cars
EU emissions trading scheme
Market mechanism of the Community,
established during 2005.
Based on the principle “cap and trade”
Three periods: 2005-2007; 2008-2012 and 2013
– 2020.
National Allocation Plans (NAPs)
Third trading period of the EU ETS
• Inclusion of new sectors and gases;
• Harmonized approach – EU-wide cap on the emissions,
instead of 27 national caps;
• Reserve for new participants, determined at EU level (5% of
the total quantity of allowances for allocation);
• Unified register;
• Gradual increase of the traded allowances at the expense of
the free-of-charge allocated allowances;
• Harmonized rules for free-of-charge allocation of allowances,
based on ambitious indicators;
• 100% trading of the allowances for the electricity production.
Decision on the distribution of
For reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from
sources outside EU ETS (construction,
agriculture, transport, waste).
For Bulgaria – individual commitment, allows
an increase by 20% compared with 2005.
- National inventory
- Projections for the greenhouse gas emissions
by sectors
National legislation
• Climate Change Mitigation Act – March 2014
• Third National Action Plan on Climate Change
2013 – 2020 – concrete measures for reducing
the greenhouse gas emissions across all
EU framework for climate and
energy policy up to 2030
• Conclusions of the European Union of
24 October 2014.
Main documents:
1. Committee Communication “Framework for
the policies in the field of climate and energy
during the period 2020—2030”
2. European energy security strategy.
3. Communication on the energy efficiency and
its contribution to the energy security and
the Framework up to 2030 for the policies in
the climate and energy field.
Main commitments
• Obligatory target for GHG emission reduction in EU
by 40% compared with 1990;
• Obligatory target for 27% share of RES in EU end-use
energy (EUE) without individual national indicators
for the separate MS.
• Energy efficiency improvement – EU indicative target
of 27 % up to 2030
• Minimum 10 % intersystem electrical connectivity
Framework 2030 - 2
• New management system – based on MS national plans
for competitive, secure and sustainable energy.
• Strengthening EU ETS
• Free-of-charge allowances for the sectors, endangered by
“carbon leakage”
• Right to free-of-charge allowances for electricity
production for given MS
• Solidarity and cost compensation mechanisms
EC proposal for Framework - 2
• The target of 40 % GHG emission reduction by 2030
is allocated as follows:
• For the sectors in EU ETS – 43% reduction compared
with their level from 2005.
• And 30 % reduction for the sectors outside the
Scheme below their level for 2005.
Cost evaluation for Bulgaria
• A study, carried out by Oxford University and
designated for MEW: the biggest potential for emission
reduction in Bulgaria lies with energy and energy
efficiency of buildings.
• Needed investments of EUR 7.9 billion by 2030,
annual investments amount to EUR 350-550 million
• Significant costs for the sector by 2030 - inevitable
also under the reference scenario.
EU Energy Union
• 18.12.2014 – the European Council approved conclusions,
in which it appealed to the European Commission (EC) to
submit a complete proposal for energy union.
• EC proposal of 25 February 2015, accompanied by
announcement regarding the road to Paris, as well as
announcement regarding the progress towards achieving
a minimum target of 10 % of the existing intersystem
electrical connectivity.
• The chairmanship-in-office, together with EC, organized a
high-level conference in Riga on 06.02.2015 – a beginning
of the “Riga Process” for energy union creation.
Energy Union – proposal of the
European Commission
 Complete change in the ways of production, transportation
and use of the different energy types
 The five dimensions of the Energy Union:
- Energy security, solidarity and trust;
- Internal energy market;
- Energy efficiency;
- Decarbonization of the economy;
- Research and innovations.
National legislation
• Climate Change Mitigation Act – March 2014
• Third National Action Plan on Climate Change
2013 – 2020 – concrete measures for reducing
the greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors
• Pending – Adaptation Strategy
What can each of us contribute with
Reducing energy consumption
Switching off electrical devices
Saving resources
Recycling waste
Alternative transport, public transport
Local goods
Thank you!