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Functions of the Skin
Vitamin D Production
Sensory Organ
Temperature Regulation
Protection against UV Light
Layers of the Skin
• Epidermis
• Dermis
• Subcutaneous
• Outer layer of skin
• Avascular - no blood vessels
• Layer of skin under the epidermis
• Contains the blood vessels, glands,
hair follicles, and nerve endings of
the skin
Subcutaneous Layer
• Composed of fat that helps insulate the
body from heat and cold, provides
protective padding, and serves as an
energy storage area
• Also called the hypodermis
• Composed of dead (keratinized)
skin cells
• Helps to grasp and manipulate
small objects
Glands of the Skin
• Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat
• Sebaceous Glands (Oil Glands)
Sudoriferous Glands
(Sweat Glands)
• Primary function - regulates body
temperature by evaporation of water
Sebaceous Glands
• Oil glands usually associated with hair follicles
• Secrete an oily substance called sebum a
mixture of fats, cholesterol, protein and
inorganic salts
• Keeps hair from drying out and becoming
• Composed of dead (keratinized)
skin cells
• Primary function is protection
– guards the scalp from injury and
– eyebrows - eyelashes protect the eye
– ears and nostrils keep out foreign
Hair Structures
Diseases and Disorders
• An inflammation of the sebaceous
glands and hair follicles
• Primarily affects teenagers due to
increased hormonal activity which
causes the sebaceous glands to
be over-active
• Treated with topical creams that
dry out the skin and oral antibiotics
that decrease the inflammation of
the sebaceous glands
Athletes Foot
A common infection caused by the
tinea fungus
Symptoms include itching, burning,
and cracked, scaly skin between the
toes and on the feet
It grows best in damp, dark, warm
Treatment includes over-the-counter
antifungal creams for most cases
and prescription medicines for more
serious infections.
Ring Worm
• Caused by tinea fungus
• Causes a red skin rash that forms a ring
on normal looking skin
• This is not caused by a worm
• Common treatment includes over-thecounter antifungal creams
Jock Itch
• Cause by the tinea fungus
• Causes an itchy, burning rash in the
groin area
• Common treatment includes over-thecounter- antifungal creams
Skin Cancer
• Uncontrolled growth of cells
• The sun is responsible for over 90%
of all skin cancers
• There are 3 most common forms of
skin cancer:
Basal Cell Carcinoma
• The most common form of
– 1 million new cases
estimated in the U.S. each
– Occurs most frequently on
the sun-exposed areas of the
body (face, ears, neck, scalp,
shoulders, and back)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
• The second most common form
of skin cancer
– Over 250,000 new cases per year
• Most cases are caused by
chronic overexposure to the sun
• Tumors apperar most frequently
on the sun exposed face, neck,
bald scalp, ears, and lips
• Arises from the
• The least common but
most dangerous form of
skin cancer
• In men is most common
on the trunk, head, and
– In women is most
common on the lower
ABCDE Method to Assess Skin
A - Asymmetry
B - Border
C - Color
D - Diameter
E – Evolution or Elevation