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Kuliah ke-IX m.k. SATUAN PROSES
FLAVOR
(PERISA)
DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN
FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN
INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR
2011
TIK
Memberikan
pengetahuan
mengenai
prosesproses
konversi
yang dapat
terjadi pada
bahan yang
mengandung
flavor (perisa) dan
aplikasinya
di
Agroindustri
Pokok
Bahasan
Proses
Konversi
Pada Bahan
Yang
Mengandung
Flavor
Sub Pokok
Bahasan
Substansi
Rasa,
Sumber
Flavor,
Flavor dan
Aroma
dalam
Produk
Hasil
Pertanian
(Bawang,
Kopi, Teh)
Definition of Flavor
Integrate response to a complex mixture of
stimuli primarily on the senses of smell and taste,
but also on those associated with sight (color
and appearance), tactile sensation (texture and
mouth feel) and pain (pungency)
Flavor is one of the important qualities of foods
which are decisive in the selection, acceptance,
and ingestion of a food.
Stimulus
Senses
Sensory Response
Taste
Food
Flavor
Odor
Pada dasarnya lidah hanya mampu mengecap (taste)
empat jenis rasa: yaitu pahit, asam, asin dan manis.
Substansi rasa : manis, pahit, asam, dan asin
Manis  grup hidroksi (molekul gula), sakarin, kloroform
Pahit  pahit dan manis berasal dari kelompok yang sama, dengan
perbedaan tergantung pada stereokimia molekul stimulus
Contoh : -Asam amino D-isomer  manis, L-isomer  pahit
-Sakarin  manis, tapi terlalu banyak menyebabkan rasa
pahit
-Fenil tiokarbamida, Kreatin
-Alkaloid  quinone, kafein, teobromin
Asin  rasa asin klasik : NaCl dan LiCl
Alternatif : garam K dan ammonium
Asam  ion hidronium (H3O+)
Flavor enhancer  berkontribusi terhadap rasa lezat suatu
makanan
Contoh : - MSG (mono sodium L-glutamat)
- 5’IMP (5’ inosin monofosfat)
Astringency  fenomena seperti rasa kesat, rasa kering di mulut,
(seperti pengeringan jaringan mulut)
 Asosiasi dari tanin atau polifenol dengan protein
dalam saliva
Contoh : tanin pada teh
Pungency  sensasi rasa pedas dan tajam
contoh : cabe (capsaicin), merica (piperine),
jahe (gingerole)
Cooling  sensasi cooling (dingin) terjadi akibat kontak bahan di
hidung dan jaringan mulut
contoh : pippermint, spearmint, wintergreen, mentol,
camphor
Development of Flavor Substances
a. Flavor substances formed during normal plant & animal
metabolism.
*Plant  remain in situ when the plant is harvested
(example : essential oils, fruit and vegetable flavors).
- Fruit flavor develops during ripening periode
- Vegetables flavor develops during cellular disruption
b. Flavoring components resulting from enzyme-catalyzed
reactions (e.g. enzyme-modified dairy products : butter,
cheese etc)
c. Flavoring constituent produced as a result of microbiological action/fermentation (e.g. wines, dairy products, tea)
d. Flavor resulting from heat processing or cooking
(e.g. cooked meat flavors, roasted coffee)
a1. Formation of flavor components in Vegetables
Fatty acid Carbohydrate Amino acid
metabolism metabolism metabolism
Nonvolatile Precursor
LinoleicLinolenic acid
Thioglucosinolate
CysteinSulfoxides
(C-S)
Methylmethionine
Precursor-splitting Enzyme
Lipoxygenase
Thioglucosidase
C-S-lyase
None
(heating)
Carbonyls
Alcohols
Oxo-acids
Isothiocyanates Polysulfides CH-S-CH3
Nitrilles
Alkylthiosulfinates
Thiocyanates
etc
a2. Diagram Biosintesis Senyawa Flavor Buah-buahan
Karbonil
Alkohol
Asam okso
Thiosianat
Nitril
Isothiosianat
Alkilthiosulfinat
Polisulfida
ASAM LINOLEAT
ASAM LINOLENAT
THIOGLUKOSINOLAT
SISTEIN
SULFOKSIDA
Lipid
Karbohidrat
Protein
β-oksidasi
Asam alifatik
Alkohol
Ester
Karbonil
Lakton
Asetil Ko-A
Siklus asam
Mevalonat
Monoterpen
Seskuiterpen
Siklus Asetat
Asam shikimat
Mono substitute
Phenol
C6C1 Fenol
Kresol
Orsinol
C6C3 Fenol
Asam sinamat
Eugenol
Safrol
Polifenol
Flavonoid
b. Flavouring substances produced with
Enzymes
Product
Butyric acid
Caproic acid
Acetaldehyde
Substrate
Butter fat
Butter fat
Ethanol
Geranial
Geraniol
Cinnamic
alcohol
Methanethiol
Capric acid
Cinnamic
aldehyde
Methionine
Butter fat
Enzyme
Lipase
Lipase
Alcohol
dehydrogenase
Alcohol
dehydrogenase
Alcohol
dehydrogenase
Methioninase
Lipase
c. Flavouring Substances produced by
Microbial Fermentation
Microorganism
Lactococcus species
Leuconostoc species
Pseudomonas species
Streptococcus lactis
Trichoderma viride
Bacillus subtilis
Corynebacterium
glutamicum
Aspergillus oryzae
Product
Diacetyl
3-Isopropyl-2-methoxy
pyrazine
Methyl butanol
6-pentyl-α-pyrone
Tetramethyl pyrazine
1-octene-3-ol
(mushroom aroma)
d. Flavor Formation During Thermal Processing
(Cooking)
Nonenzymatic Browning
(Maillard browning, caramelization)
e.g. baked bread, steak, freshly brewed coffee or chocolate
*Maillard Browning :
Reaction between carbonyls (reducing sugars) and amines
(amino acids/proteins)  melanoidin & pyrazine (largest
contribution to flavor of chocolate)
Formation of Flavor Compound via Maillard Reaction :
Aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, diketones & lower chain length
fatty acids
*Caramelization : sugars thermally decomposed at >1500C,
more rapidly at at high pH
Deep Fat Fried Flavor :
a. Hydrolysis of triglycerides (reaction between
triglyceride with water)
a. Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids
a. Pyrolysis reaction (>2000C, overheated)  acrolein
(burnt fat : glycerol  acrolein)
Contoh Flavor dan Aroma dalam produk Hasil
Pertanian
Bawang Putih
S-(2-propenil)-L-Sistein
Sulfoksida =Alliin
(prekursor, tidak berbau)
allinase
Diallyl thiosulphinate
(Allicin)
When fresh garlic is chopped or crushed, the enzyme
allinase converts alliin into allicin which is primarily
responsible for the aroma of fresh garlic.
Allicin :
 provides flavor, pungency and bioactive.
 help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis,
high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer
*Pembentukan aroma pada Bawang Putih
O
O
NH2
+H2O-2NH3
2 H2C=CH-CH2-S-CH2-CH-COOH
H2C=CH-CH2-S-S-CH2-CH=CH2
-2H3C-CO-COOH
S-Allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide
Diallyl thiosulphinate
(Allicin)
(Alliinase)
(Aliin: prekursor tdk berbau)
H2C=CH-CH2-S-S-CH2-CH=CH2
Diallyl disulphide
H3C-S-S-CH2-CH=CH2
Methylallyl disulphide
Other products
The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or
chewing fresh garlic  produces other sulfur
compounds : allyl sulfides, ajoene, and vinyldithiins.
When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing,
enzymes stored in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of
several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids.
The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or
hot taste and strong smell of garlic.
Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour
component.
Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible
for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. The process of cooking
garlic removes allicin, thus mellowing its spiciness
Kopi
Flavor kopi  kafein, asam, senyawa fenol,
dan senyawa volatil hasil dari
penyangraian biji kopi
(200-250oC, 20-30 menit).
Flavor asam tergantung senyawa
asam klorogenat, asam quinat
Selama penyangraian :
Karbohidrat (gula) karamelisasi
Asam amino pirolisis
Tanin  bahan fenolik volatil
Tambahan Info
Coffee Bean Roasting (approximately 200°C) :
Caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down
starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars
that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean.
Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process
and may disappear entirely in darker roasts.
During roasting :
 aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing
the flavor
at 205°C, other oils start to develop. One of
these aromatic oil is caffeol, created at about
200°C, which is largely responsible for coffee's
aroma & flavor.
Teh
Tea contains :
- Catechins, a type of antioxidant (highest in
concentration in green tea, while black tea has
substantially fewer due to its oxidative preparation)
- Theanine
- the stimulant caffeine,
- small amounts of theobromine, theophylline and
fluoride
Tambahan Info
Tea Processing
- Leaves of Camellia sinensis soon begin to wilt and
oxidize if not dried quickly after picking.
- The leaves turn progressively darker as their
chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are released. This
process, enzymatic oxidation, is called fermentation
in the tea industry, although it is not a true fermentation:
it is not caused by microorganisms, and is not an
anaerobic process.
The next step in processing is to stop the oxidation
process at a predetermined stage by heating, which
deactivates the enzymes responsible.
With black tea this is done simultaneously with drying.
Teh :
Pengaruh proses terhadap aroma teh
Tipe proses
Produk utama
Oksidasi lipid tidak jenuh
- cis-3-heksenol
- trans-2 heksenal
Degradasi asam amino
Aldehid, sebagian berubah
menjadi alkohol
Hidrolisis glikosida terpene
Linalool, geraniol
Degradasi karotenoid
Monoterpen
Flow Diagram of Chocolate Production
Senyawa : Theobromin (stimulating) & tannin (color & taste)
Step 1: cocoa beans
Step 2: shell and nibs
Step 3: cocoa powder
Step 4: plain chocolate
Flavor Daging
Thiazole  flavor daging rebus
2-metil-3-furantiol  flavor daging bakar
Beberapa bahan yang biasa digunakan untuk meningkatkan
flavor daging :
- Hidrolisat protein tanaman/HVP
- Glukosa
- Otolisat khamir (yeast extract)
- Arabinosa
- Lemak hewan tertentu
- 5’-ribonukleotida
- Tepung Telur ayam
- Metionin
- Gliserol
- MSG
- Glutatione
- Thiamin (Vit. B1)
- Sistein
 The Maillard reaction occurs when the denatured
proteins on the surface of the meat recombine with the
sugars present.
 The combination creates the "meaty" flavor and
changes the color. For this reason, it is also called the
browning reaction. The Maillard reaction occurs most
readily at around 300° F to 500° F.
 When meat is cooked, the outside reaches a higher
temperature than the inside, triggering the Maillard
reaction and creating the strongest flavors on the
surface.
http://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/meat/INT-what-makes-flavor.html
Ingredients of Flavouring
Flavouring consist of :
• 1. Flavouring ingredients :
Flavouring substances
natural, natur-identical, artificial
• 2. Non-flavouring ingredients :
Flavor adjunct, flavor enhancer
1. Flavouring Ingredients
Flavouring Substances are defined chemical
component with flavouring properties, not
intended to be consumed as such and
categorized as :
a. Natural Flavouring Substances :
defined substance obtained by appropriate
physical, microbiological, or enzymatic processes
from foodstuff or material of vegetable or animal
origin as such (natural state) or after processing
by food preparation processes.
Can not contain any nature-identical or artificial
flavoring substances
Natural Flavoring
“The term “Natural Flavoring” or “Natural Flavor”
means :
essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive,
protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of
roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains
the flavoring constituents derived from natural
sources : spice, fruit, or fruit juice, vegetable or
vegetable, edible yeast, herb-plant material, meat,
seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or
fermentation products whose significant function
in food is flavoring rather than nutritional”
- b. Nature-Identical Flavouring Substances :
flavouring substances obtained by synthesis or isolated
through chemical processes from a natural aromatic
material and chemically identical to a substance present
in natural products intended for human consumption,
either processed or not
• In general are members of chemical groups like aliphatic
alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, acetals, acids, esters,
heterocyclics, phenols, phenolesters, sulphides, thiols.
• Manufactured mostly by esterification, oxidation, or
Grignard reaction from essential oils or terpene fractions
thereof, fats and mineral oils derivatives.
c. Artificial Flavouring Substances :
flavouring substances, not yet identified in a natural
product intended for human consumption, either
processed or not.
These are typically produced by fractional distillation
and additional chemical manipulation  naturally
sourced chemicals or from crude oil or coal tar.
Vanillin
www.fantastic-flavour.com/natural_vanilla
Artificial Flavouring Substances :
Example
• Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde):
starting material is guaiacol
• Ethyl vanillin : starting material is guaiene
Vanillin
www.fantastic-flavour.com/natural_vanilla
2. Non Flavouring Ingredient :
 Flavour adjunct :
food additives and food ingredients necessary for the
production, storage and application of flavouring as far
as they are non-functional in the finished food
•
•
•
•
•
Example :
Solvent : water, glycerol, triacetine, ethanol, propylene
glycol (PG), vegetable oil, triethyl citrate, benzyl alcohol
Carrier : modified starch (maltodextrine), lactose, gelatin
Emulsifier/stabilizer : mono/diglycerides, gelatine
Colorant
Processing aids (enzyme) : microbial or animal derived
Flavour enhancer :
substance with little or no odour at the level used, the
primary purpose of which is to increase the flavour
effect of certain food components well beyond any
flavour contributed directly by the substance itself
• Example :
- MSG
- Ribotide (I+G)
- Sugar, salt & vinegar
Example of Vegetable Based Material :
•
Plant extract (e.g. fruit juices, essential oil,
oleoresin,etc.)
•
HVP (hydrolyzed vegetable protein) soy protein
hydrolyzed by acid or enzyme
•
•
Flavouring substances isolated from essential oil
(e.g. anethol, benzaldehyde, eugenol, citral, dimethyl
sulfide, etc.)
Dried spices & herbs
Example of Animal Based Materials :
•
•
•
•
Meat & fat (fresh, dried, extract)
Milk & its derivatives
Fatty acids
Amino acids (e.g. cysteine, cystine (can be from
human hair/feather) & phenylalanine )
www.tradeindia.com/.../
Meat-ExtractPaste.htm
• Animal secretion :
ikan paus
- Ambergris or ambra (intestinal tract
of the sperm or cachalot whale)
- Civet absolute (odorous glandular
secretion of male and female civet)
Civet (Kesturi)
- Musk absolute (glandular secretion of
the male musk deer, found in an internal
pouch located under the skin of the
abdomen)
musk deer
identics.tripod.com/parfum/bahan_aromatis.htm
Jenis Flavor Berdasarkan sumber dan proses
pembuatannya :
1. Flavor natural/alami
2. Flavor Natural identical (diolah dari bahan alami
untuk menghasilkan flavor sintetis).
3. Flavor Artifisial/Sintetis (buatan)
Flavor natural/alami dibuat atau
diekstraksi dari bahan-bahan
alami, misalnya rasa bawang
yang diambil dari ekstrak
bawang, rasa ayam yang
diperoleh dari sari ayam, rasa
udang yang berasal dari tepung
udang, dll
Perisa natural identical disusun
dari bahan-bahan alami untuk
menghasilkan rasa yang identik
dgn yg ada di alam misalnya
turunan dari minuman keras yang bisa
disintesa menjadi berbagai perisa
buah-buahan.
Contohnya fussel oil yang merupakan
produk samping dari minuman keras, bisa
digunakan sebagai bahan penyusun
perasa stroberi, leci, dan nanas.
Sebenarnya bahan-bahan tersebut adalah
bahan alami, tetapi kemudian
direaksikan dengan bahan-bahan lainnya
dan menghasilkan rasa tertentu yang
dikehendaki.
Perisa buatan/sintetis (artifisial)
dihasilkan dari bahan-bahan
sintetis/reaksi kimia, contohnya sintesis
bahan-bahan kimia yang berasal dari
turunan minyak bumi.
Contoh
• butil cinamaldehid yang memiliki rasa
mirip dengan bunga (melati dan lili)
• butil butirat yang memiliki rasa mirip
buah-buahan pir dan nanas
• Berbagai asam amino yang bisa mirip
rasa daging atau ayam.
Flavor terdiri dari berbagai jenis  Salah jenis molekul dasar yang
dapat dimodifikasi untuk membentuk komponen aroma yang
berbeda, contohnya adalah dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)
CONTOH KOMPONEN PENYUSUN FLAVOR
FLAVOR CREATION : 2 cara/pendekatan
1. Metode tradisonal untuk menciptakan formula
konstituen flavor utama yang diketahui lalu diatur
nuasanya dgn menambahkan bahan flavor dgn
karakter odor/flavor yg diketahui  tergantung
pengalaman flavoristnya
2. Pendekatan ilmiah, menciptakan formula flavor
menggunakan hasil analisis dg Gas Kromatografi/alat
lain  menghasilkan profil flavor, tapi ada komponen
flavor yang tak terdeteksi ) disebabkan error
/keterbatasan alat saat analisis
 terbaik kombinasi keduanya
FLAVOR BREAKDOWN
Flavor break down into : flavor (character, contributory
and differential) + diluent
Character Impact : when smelled, that are clearly
reminiscent of the named flavor. This could be a pure
flavor chemical ( e.g citral for lemon) or a natural material
(e.g fenugreek for maple).  See Table 1.
Flavor Contributory : these components help develop
the named flavor, They have a character similar to that of
the named flavor (e.g. oil of tagette for apple, orris root
for raspberry and ethyl butyrate for grape)
Flavor Differential : these components contribute
different unique notes to the flavor (e.g. peppermint for
vanillin flavor, jasmine for strawberry flavor, menthol for
flavor butterscotch)
Table 1. Character Impact
Apple
Ethyl 2-methylbutyrate
Iso amyl acetate
Banana
Iso amyl acetate
Butter
Diacetyl
Caramel
2,5 dimethyl-4 hydroxy furanone
Cherry
Benzaldehyde
Cinnamon
Cinnamic aldehyde
Coconut
Gamma nona lactone
Delta octalactone
Clove
eugenol
Jasmine
Benzyl acetate
Table 1. Character Impact (cont.)
Lemon
citral
Mushroom
1-octen-3-ol
Peach
Gamma undecalactone
Peanut
2,5-dimethyl pyrazine
Peppermint
Menthol
Seafood
pyridine
Piperidine
Trimethyl amine
Smoke
Guaiacol
2,6-dimethoxyphenol
Strawberry
Ethyl methylphenylglycidate
Ethyl maltol
Tomat
Isobutyl thiazole
Vanilla
vanillin
Diluent = flavor solvent
Flavors are seldom 100 % active components , but more
likely only 10-20 %. This is because the individual flavor
contituent may not be mutually soluble.
A solvent may therefore be required to keep the flavor
from precipitating or undergoing phase separation. The
solvent also adds some bulk, which may be desirable in
term of manufacturing (i.e. a larger volume to weight or
distribute in a food product)
water, glycerol, triacetine, ethanol, propylene glycol
(PG), vegetable oil, triethyl citrate, benzyl alcohol
Can be added with other flavor adjuct and or flavor
enhancer
FLAVOR MANUFACTURING
1. Raw Materials Handling :
Comminution, sieving, extraction with solvent, pressing,
distillation (direct, steam, vacuum, azeotropic) and
sterilization (gas, radiation)
2. Liquid Flavor Production :
Blending and compounding, clarification (filtration,
centrifugation), emulsification, homogenization,
pasteurization and preservation
3. Dry Flavor Production :
Dehydration, adsorption, spray-drying, microencapsulation,
powder blending
Keamanan Flavor
• Keamanan produk (product safety) dan teknik evaluasi keamanan
perlu diperhatikan , khususnya dalam penggunaannya didalam
bahan pangan.
Evaluasi keamanan bagi senyawa flavor dimulai tahun 1960, di AS
terhadap bahan a Aditif atau Bahan Tambahan Pangan.
• Senyawa yang terbukti aman oleh para pakar mendapat Status
GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe)
Di Amerika, evaluasi senyawa flavor dilaksanakan oleh FEMA
(The US Flavor and Extract Manufacturer's Association).
• Di Eropa, kegiatan evaluasi keamanan senyawa flavor dilakukan
oleh Council of Europe (CoE).  CoE mempublikasikan suatu
daftar yang berisi senyawa flavor serta sumber alam dari flavor
yang disebut "Blue Book".
Bahan Baku
(bagian tumbuhan/tanaman/hewan)
Pre-Treatment
(Sortasi, Pencucian, Pembersihan,
Pengecilan ukuran, dll)
Pemisahan komponen/bahan aktif
(Ekstraksi,Destilasi,Filtrasi,
Separasi, dll)
Kondensasi
Pengeringan
Evaporasi
Cairan
Bubuk
Konsentrat
Diagram alir proses produksi flavor
PRODUK FLAVOR
Aplikasi Produk Flavor pada Industri
Penggunaan produk industri flavor dalam
produk-produk pangan dan non pangan relatif
sedikit namun besar peranannya dalam
menentukan kualitas hasil akhir produk
Produk flavor pada dasarnya
merupakan, bahan baku
(intermediet) dan bukan produk akhir.
Contoh :
Es krim dengan aneka rasa,
seperti rasa coklat, vanilla,
strawberry dan lainnya.
Diagram alir proses produksi es krim
Bahan baku es krim ; susu, krim, dry milk, gula, emulsifier
dan berbagai jenis flavor
www.wsu.edu/creamery/ferdtour3.htm
Diagram Alir Proses Produksi
Soft Drinks
Flavor
www.pall.com/FoodandBev_3658.asp
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