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Transcript
M0214
ADVANCED TOPICS IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS
By:
Ferri Gunawan – 1501143651
Class / Group:
06PLM / 03
Bina Nusantara University
Jakarta
2014
Abstract
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH is to know more about Android Operating
System especially in the Application Software development area, like what are the IDE,
programming language, how to compile and publish the Application Software. Besides the
Application Software development, it is to know more about the communities of Android
user / developer.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY used to create this paper is getting references data
from the internet, reading e-book, reading journals then analyze them. After I analyses those
information then I type the result of my analysis into this paper.
THE EXPECTED OUTCOME is to have more knowledge about the Android
Operating System and to know more about how to develop an Android Application, what are
things to be prepared, what tool to use, what is the process of the compiling, after it is
compiled, how to publish the app and distribute it and also the community of Android user /
developer.
Keywords
Android, Android Operating System, Android Application, Android IDE, Android versions,
Google Play, Android Compiling, Android Publishing, Android Community.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1.
Background
Technology is always being developed. The technology can be used to create a
new tools or devices to support human activities.
Over a century back, the computer with a size of an entire room was invented and
after the computer is developed even further, the computer was having a major
improvement in size and usage currently now known as PC / desktop computer. It has
major effect in business like a bomb shell, the computer change the way of doing
business, it makes the business a lot more efficient and more effective and if it is used
right, it can cut a lot of cost in business. But computer development is not just stop
right there, the computer is even more developed further, it effects the humans
activity not just in business, but also lifestyle and interacting such as video games,
entertainment, video call, camera, music player, etc. But after a while people finds it
PC is not so practical and cannot be carried around, while people are demanded to be
more mobile, this leads the development of laptop. While having the power close to
the desktop it is also having a reduction in size, it has a size of around your lap. And a
few years back there is an even lighter version of laptop, it is called tablets. Tablet has
power between a smartphone and a laptop.
As the people demanded to be more mobile, the communication also has to be
possible in almost anywhere and anytime, this leads the development to pager then
cellphone / mobile phone. Early mobile phones are mainly used to calling and text
messaging but further development, combined with the power of a laptop or even a
desktop, the cellphone is evolving into smartphone. The term smartphone first
appeared in 1997, when Ericsson described its GS 88 "Penelope" concept as a Smart
Phone.
Smartphones and Tablets require an Operating System to operate. There are quite
a number of Operating Systems developed, but the most popular Operating Systems
for smart phone are Android, Blackberry OS, iOS, and Windows 8.
Up until now the Android Operating System is the most used Operating System
for tablets and smart phone in the world since it is open source and can be modified
by device manufacturers.
In Android, there are Applications or shortened to Apps, the App can be a game,
media player, word processing, etc.
The popularity of androids lead me to research of the Android Operating system
which is what are the IDE, program language, how to compile, how to publish,
communities and other information.
1.2.
Scope
The scope of this paper is about the Android Operating System’s Integrated
Development Environment (IDE), programming language, how to compile, publish,
and community of Android user / developer.
1.3.
Purpose and Benefit
The purpose of this paper to give information and explain especially about the
Android Operating System’s Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
programming language, how to compile, publish, and community of Android user /
developer.
And the benefit of reading this paper is to introduce what to use to develop and
publish the app created, and to give example of communities of Android user /
developer to the reader.
1.4.
Research Methodology
The methodology used to create this paper is getting references data from the
internet, reading e-book, reading journals then analyze them.
1.5.
Writing Systematic
The writing systematic within this report consists of 5 chapters, which are:
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
This chapter is a brief explanation regarding the whole content of this report. It
contains 5 sub-chapters:





Background: Background defines the problem of why this application is created.
Scope: Explain the capability of the application.
Purpose and Benefit: Explain about the advantage and use of the application.
Methodology: The method used to analyze the system that is currently used.
Writing Systematic: Explain how the report is written in brief details.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter provides brief explanation about IDE (Integrated Development
Environment), Java definition, and the community definition.
CHAPTER 3: DISCUSSION
This chapter provides detailed informations about Android’s:





IDE
Programming Language
How to Compile
How to Publish
Community
CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS
This chapter provides conclusion from this paper and suggestions to make a
business using Android Operating System.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Integrated Development Environment or shortened IDE is a graphical user interface
workbench software tools to develop software. IDE has a source code editor for
assisting developer in writing their code, file management for linking file associated
with the software being developed, runtime environment used for testing the written
software, and compiler to convert the source code into another computer language
which is executable.
2.2. Programming Language
Programming Language is a language that gives instruction to the computer. The
programming language is in the form of logical words, statement, formula, and
symbols. Example of programming language: C, C++, C#, Java, etc.
2.3. Operating System
Operating System is a collection of software that manages hardware resources and
provides common services or being platform for other computer programs. Most
application program requires an Operating System to work.
2.4. Application
Application is computer software that perform useful task. Most of the Application
have a Graphical User Interface, that assist user to use the application, but some are
command based that user have to input command to the application to work through
command prompt. The application developed using an IDE with a programming
language. For example Microsoft Word for processing word, Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet, Paint for drawing.
2.5. Tablet
Tablet or tablet computer is a mobile computer and in average, its power is between a
smartphone and a laptop. Most of the tablets are equipped with sensors like
touchscreen, camera, microphone, speaker, etc. The touchscreen replaces the keyboard
and mice for typing and pointing using virtual keyboard and touch detection for
pointing. For connectivity most of the tablets are equipped with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
and some devices offering a 3G, 4G ability.
2.6. Smart Phone
Smartphone is an evolution of an ordinary cellphone, having an advanced computing
ability. The power of the smartphone is quite impressive. The latest smartphone have
generally can match a desktop pc coming from early 2000’s. The smartphone have a
feature of touchscreen, Wi-Fi, GPS, media player, Bluetooth, 3rd party apps, camera,
etc.
2.7. Community
Community is a group of people having a same interest, religion, government,
location, culture.
2.8. Android
Android is an Operating System based on Linux kernel. Android OS is primarily
designed for smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by Google, Open Handset
Alliance, and Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Android having an open source
model, so it can be modified by smartphone / tablet manufacturer to their preferences.
Google wanted Android to be open and free; hence, most of the Android code was
released under the open source Apache License, which means that anyone who wants to
use Android can do so by downloading the full Android source code. Moreover,
vendors (typically hardware manufacturers) can add their own proprietary extensions to
Android and customize Android to differentiate their products from others. This simple
development model makes Android very attractive and has thus piqued the interest of
many vendors. This has been especially true for companies affected by the phenomenon
of Apple’s iPhone, a hugely successful product that revolutionized the smartphone
industry. Such companies include Motorola and Sony Ericsson, which for many years
have been developing their own mobile operating systems. When the iPhone was
launched, many of these manufacturers had to scramble to find new ways of revitalizing
their products. These manufacturers see Android as a solution — they will continue to
design their own hardware and use Android as the operating system that powers it.
The main advantage of adopting Android is that it offers a unified approach to
application development. Developers need only develop for Android, and their
applications should be able to run on numerous different devices, as long as the devices
are powered using Android. In the world of smartphones, applications are the most
important part of the success chain.
2.8.1. Android Version
Android have a quite number of versions. These are the versions of Android up
to date:
Android
Version
1.0 / 1.1
1.5
1.6
2.0 / 2.01 / 2.1
2.2
2.3
3.0 / 3.1 / 3.2
4.0
4.1 / 4.2 / 4.3
4.4
Release Date
9 Febuary 2009
30 April 2009
15 September 2009
26 October 2009
20 May 2010
6 December 2010
22 February 2011
19 October 2011
9 July 2012
31 October 2013
Codename
1.1 Petit Four (Not made official)
Cupcake
Donut
Eclair
Froyo
Gingerbread
Honeycomb
Ice Cream Sandwich
Jelly Bean
KitKat
2.8.2. Android Feature
Android doesn’t have fixed hardware and software because of Android is open
source and freely available to manufactures for customization. The features are:
1. Storage
Android uses the SQLite which is lightweight relational database for data
storage.
2. Connectivity
Android supports GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA , EV-DO,UMTS, Bluetooth
(includes A2DP) and AVRCP,Wi-Fi, LTE, and WiMAX.
3. Messaging
Android supports both SMS and MMS.
4. Web browser
Based on the open source WebKit, together with Chrome’s V8 JavaScript
engine.
5. Media support
Includes support for the following media: H.263, H.264 (in 3GP or MP4
container), MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB (in 3GP container), AAC, HEAAC (in MP4 or 3GP container), MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG,
PNG, GIF, and BMP.
6. Hardware support
Accelerometer Sensor, Camera, Digital Compass, Proximity Sensor, and
GPS.
7. Multi-touch
Supports multi-touch screens.
8. Multi-tasking
Supports multi-tasking applications.
9. Flash support
Android 2.3 supports Flash 10.1.
10. Tethering
Supports for sharing of Internet connections as a wired/wireless hotspot.
2.8.3. Android Architecture
Android Operating system is roughly divided into five sections in four
main layers:
 Linux kernel
This is the kernel on which Android is based. This layer contains all
the low-level device drivers for the various hardware components of an
Android device.
 Libraries
These contain all the code that provides the main features of an
Android OS. For example, the SQLite library provides database
support so that an application can use it for data storage. The WebKit
library provides functionalities for web browsing.
 Android runtime
At the same layer as the libraries, the Android runtime provides a set of
core libraries that enable developers to write Android apps using the
Java programming language. The Android runtime also includes the
Dalvik virtual machine, which enables every Android application to
run in its own process; with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual
machine (Android applications are compiled into Dalvik executables).
Dalvik is a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for
Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with
limited memory and CPU.
 Application framework
Exposes the various capabilities of the Android OS to application
developers so that they can make use of them in their applications.
 Applications
At this top layer, you will find applications that ship with the Android
device (such as Phone, Contacts, Browser, etc.), as well as applications
that you download and install from the Android Market. Any
applications that you write are located at this layer
2.9. JAVA
Java is a programming language designed by James Gosling and Sun Microsystems
and now currently developed by Oracle. Java programming language is concurrent, classbased, and object-oriented and the language derives much of its syntax from C and C++. It
intends to let the application developer to be able to write the code once and it will run
everywhere.
There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It should be "simple, object-oriented and familiar"
It should be "robust and secure"
It should be "architecture-neutral and portable"
It should execute with "high performance"
It should be "interpreted, threaded, and dynamic"
CHAPTER 3
DISCUSSION
3.1. Android Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Integrated Development Environment or shortened IDE is a graphical user interface
workbench software tools to develop software. IDE has a source code editor for assisting
developer in writing their code, file management for linking file associated with the software
being developed, runtime environment used for testing the written software, and compiler to
convert the source code into another computer language which is executable.
To create an Android application there are several Integrated Development
Environment that can be used, but here I will mention and explain some of the popular
Integrated Development Environment that are commonly used, that are:




Android Studio
Eclipse with Android Development Tool (ADT) plugin.
NetBeans with Android plugin.
Android Integrated Development Environment (AIDE).
Except Android Integrated Development Environment (AIDE) there are a few
requirements that have to be met before using the IDE above, that are: PC running on
Windows, Mac OS, or Linux. The computer specs are not really important because most of
the desktop or laptop CPU powers produced in the last few years are sufficient, since
developing a mobile application will not use lots of computer CPU speed. But the faster your
computer the better the experience you have. If you already have a sufficient computer, you
have to install the JAVA SE Development Kit to compile the code, since The Application for
android is using JAVA programming language. To download the JAVA SE Development Kit
you can simply go to: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index-jsp138363.html
3.1.1. Android Studio
Android Studio is an official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) developed
by Google to develop an application for Android platform. This Integrated Development
Environment (IDE) is based on JetBrains’ IntelliJ IDEA software.
Android Studio offers the following features:




Developer Console: optimization tips, assistance for translation, referral tracking,
campaigning and promotions - Usage Metrics.
Provision for beta releases and staged rollout.
Live Layout - Live Coding - Real-time App Rendering.
Gradle-based build support.





Android-specific refactoring and quick fixes.
Lint tools to catch performance, usability, version compatibility and other problems.
ProGuard and app-signing capabilities.
A rich layout editor that allows users to drag-and-drop UI components, option to
preview layouts on multiple screen configurations.
Template-based wizards to create common Android designs and components.
To install the Android Studio you have to download the installation file from:
http://developer.android.com/sdk/installing/studio.html and install the Android Studio.
Figure 3.1.1-1 The Android Studio screenshot.
3.1.2. Eclipse with Android Development Tool (ADT) plugin
Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE). Eclipse is mostly in Java
programming language. To develop an application in other programming language, a plug-in
can be installed for example: Ada, C, C++, COBOL, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript, Lasso,
Perl, PHP, Python, R, Ruby, Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang.
Android Development Tools (ADT) is a plugin for the Eclipse IDE that is designed to
give you a powerful, integrated environment in which to build Android applications. ADT
extends the capabilities of Eclipse to let you quickly set up new Android projects, create an
application UI, add packages based on the Android Framework API, debug your applications
using the Android SDK tools, and even export signed (or unsigned) .apk files in order to
distribute your application.
To install eclipse you have to download the installation file from:
https://www.eclipse.org/ and install the Eclipse IDE. And also you have to install the Android
Development
Tool
(ADT)
plugin
which
you
can
download
at:
http://developer.android.com/tools/sdk/eclipse-adt.html
Figure 3.1.2-1 Eclipse with Android Development Tool (ADT) plugin screen shot.
3.1.3. NetBeans with Android plugin.
NetBeans is an integrated development environment (IDE) for developing application
primarily using Java programming language, but NetBeans can also be used with other
languages, for example: PHP, C, C++, and HTML5. The NetBeans IDE can be extended by
third party developers, and yes, The Android plug-in is developed by third party.
To install NetBeans you have to download the installation file from:
https://netbeans.org/ and install the NetBeans IDE. And to download the Android plug-in you
can download it from the third party site at: http://nbandroid.org/wiki/index.php/Installation
Figure 3.1.3-1 NetBeans with Android plugin.
3.1.4. Android Integrated Development Environment (AIDE)
AIDE is an integrated development environment (IDE) for developing real Android
apps directly in the Android device. AIDE developed by appfour. This IDE gives an
interactive coding lessons and step-by-step to become an expert app developer. Visually
design apps, write code with the feature rich editor with code completion, real-time error
checking, refactoring and smart code navigation, and run your app with a single click.
AIDE features interactive lessons with step-by-step instructions to learn Android app
development and Java programming skills.
AIDE will turn your Android tablet with keyboard into a real development box. AIDE
uses the Transformer Prime to code with AIDE. AIDE will turn your Android Phone into a
small development computer to browse and touch your code on the go.
AIDE supports building apps with Java/Xml and the Android SDK, apps with C/C++
and the Android NDK as well as pure Java console applications. AIDE is fully compatible
with Eclipse projects. With AIDE you can just copy the source code to your device and open
the Eclipse project in AIDE to start coding. Alternatively you can keep your source code on
your Dropbox - AIDE integrates with Dropbox and allows easily downloading from your
Dropbox and syncing back your changes. AIDE can also open Android Studio projects,
which follow the default folder structure. AIDE also supports Git for professional
development.
Figure 3.14-1 Android Integrated Development Environment (AIDE).
3.2. Android Programming Language
Android uses JAVA programming language to run the apps, but for the development
of the Android Operating itself, it uses C and C++, for GUI Android uses JAVA as well.
3.2.1. Java
Java is a programming language designed by James Gosling and Sun Microsystems
and now currently developed by Oracle. Java programming language is concurrent, classbased, and object-oriented and the language derives much of its syntax from C and C++. It
intends to let the application developer to be able to write the code once and it will run
everywhere.
There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It should be "simple, object-oriented and familiar"
It should be "robust and secure"
It should be "architecture-neutral and portable"
It should execute with "high performance"
It should be "interpreted, threaded, and dynamic"
3.2.2 C
C programming language is a general purpose programming language developed by
Dennis Ritchie. C is a procedural language and it was designed to be compiled using a
relatively straightforward compiler, to provide low-level access to memory, to provide
language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal runtime support.
3.2.3 C++
C++ programming language is a general purpose programming language that is freeform and compiled. C++ is an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level
and low-level language features. It provides imperative, object-oriented and generic
programming features.
Also C++ is one of the most widely used programming languages and can be used on
a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. It has an efficient performance
even it is used on system software, application software, device drivers, embedded software,
high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video
games.
3.3. Android App Compiling Process
The compiling process starts when you click the “compile button”. It is provided by
the IDE above. During the build process, your Android projects are compiled and packaged
into an .apk file, the container for your application binary. It contains all of the information
necessary to run your application on a device or emulator, such as compiled .dex files a
binary version of the AndroidManifest.xml file, compiled resources (resources.arsc) and
uncompiled resource files for your application.
In Eclipse, the ADT plugin incrementally builds project as if there is a changes to the
source code. Eclipse outputs an .apk file automatically to the bin folder of the project.
If the development is in a non-Eclipse environment, the project can be built with the
generated build.xml Ant file that is in the project directory. The Ant file calls targets that
automatically call the build tools.
To run an application on an emulator or device, the application must be signed using
debug or release mode. You typically want to sign your application in debug mode when you
develop and test your application, because the build tools use a debug key with a known
password so you do not have to enter it every time you build. When you are ready to release
the application to Google Play, you must sign the application in release mode, using your
own private key.
Fortunately, Eclipse or your Ant build script signs the application for you in debug
mode when you build your application. You can also easily setup Eclipse or your Ant build to
sign your application in release mode as well. For more information on signing applications,
see Signing Your Applications.
The following diagram depicts the components involved in building and running an
application:
Figure 3.3-1 Android Compiling Process Diagram.
3.4. Android App Publishing Process
Publishing is the general process that makes your Android applications available to
users. When you publishing your app you have to perform two main tasks:


You prepare the application for release.
During the preparation step you build a release version of your application, which
users can download and install on their Android-powered devices.
You release the application to users.
During the release step you publicize, sell, and distribute the release version of your
application to users.
There are several ways to publish an app:





Google Play
Marketplace (Like Google Play)
E-Mail
Web site
Just copy locally
It is recommended to use Google Play market place to publish your app, but if you do
not want to use it you can use other ways to publish your app.
To publish through Google Play, the first step to register yourself at
https://play.google.com/apps/publish/signup/ to make a Google Publisher Account. If you
will sell apps, set up a Google Wallet Merchant Account. To complete the registration
process you have to pay 25$, you can use your credit card to pay. Don’t worry it’s safe. And
for the Google Wallet Merchant Account, Sign in to your Google Play Developer Console at
https://play.google.com/apps/publish/, Open Financial reports on the side navigation, then
Click Setup a Merchant Account now.
Figure 3.4-1 Google Publisher Registration screenshot.
After you registered, you will receive verification by email, after that you can sign in
to your Google Play Developer Console, which will be the home for your app publishing
operations and tools on Google Play. These sections below introduce a few of the key areas
you'll find in the Developer Console.
To publish an app you simply have to click the “+ Add new application” button and
follow the procedures.
Figure 3.4-2 Google Developer Console screenshot.
If you do not want to use Google Play then you can use E-mail, website, other
marketplace, or even copy it directly to other Android devices all you have to do is send the
.apk file. But first the Users must enable the Unknown sources setting before they can install
apps not downloaded from Google Play.
Figure 3.4-3 Enable install from a non-Google Play method.
3.4. Android Community
Here I will mention several communities for Android OS. There are a lot of Android
Communities out there but we will mention some of it especially the famous one. Here a list
of some Android community:

xda-developers
Forum:
http://forum.xda-developers.com/index.php
Activities:
Provides news, provides information, Discussion, Tutorial, Modding
tutorial and discussion, consultation, etc.
Forum which have a lot of its member are an app developer for Android OS.

KASKUS Android Section
Forum:
http://www.kaskus.co.id/forum/577/android
Activities:
Discussion, consultation, provides information, etc.
An Indonesian forum, having a forum section which only discuss about Android OS.

Android Community
Site:
http://androidcommunity.com/
Activities:
Provide news, and reviews.
Android Community is a website that specializes in giving information about
Google’s Android.

Android Central
Site:
http://www.androidcentral.com/
Forum:
http://forums.androidcentral.com/
Activities:
Provides tutorial, rooting tutorial, discussion, consultation, provides
information, provide news, etc.
Android Central is one of the largest communities of Android in the world. It is filled
with Android enthusiasts.
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
4.1. Conclusion
By this paper now you know more about the Android Operating System, especially in
what IDE to use before you develop an Android App, how to compile and distribute it.
Android is an Operating System based on Linux kernel. Android OS is primarily designed for
smartphones and tablets. Android Operating System is written in C, C++, and JAVA (For the
GUI), but the App is written in JAVA. There is quite a number of Integrated Development
Environment (IDE) to develop an Android App, but the most popular IDE are Android
Studio, Eclipse, NetBeans, and AIDE. The compiling result when developing an Android
App is an .apk file. .apk file is used as an installation file for Android Operating System. To
publish your Android App it is recommended using Google Play Marketplace since it is an
official one, but if you don’t want to use it you can publish it by using Website, E-mail, copy
it yourself, or using another marketplace. You can find a lot of community that takes interes
in Android Operating System, for example xda-developers, Kaskus, Android Community,
Android Central, etc. The latest Android version is KitKat.
4.2. Suggestion
Android are popular Operating System for mobile devices, it will have a very long
popularity time, and it will be keep on evolving besides that Android is being developed by
Google themselves, a giant company that has a good track record. So don’t worry about
Android losing popularity soon. If you want to make a business out of it, of course you can. It
has a lot of opportunity for you to gain a lot of profit by making an App, or if you want to
you can make your own Android based, mobile devices.
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Wikipedia.(n.d). Java (Programming Language). Retrieved (12- 04- 2014) from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)
Wikipedia.(n.d). C++. Retrieved (12- 04- 2014) from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B
Wikipedia.(n.d). C (Programming Language). Retrieved (12- 04- 2014) from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_(programming_language)
Wikipedia.(n.d). NetBeans. Retrieved (12- 04- 2014) from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NetBeans
Wikipedia.(n.d). Android Studio. Retrieved (12- 04- 2014) from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_Studio
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