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Ethics and Copyright Issues
CTMU 7560
Digital Media Production for
Music Education
Kimberly C. Walls
Ethics and Copyright Issues
What’s copyrighted?
What if I give credit?
What about Fair Use?
What about entertainment?
What about the Web?
What about different media?
Printed music?
What’s Copyrighted?
• Assume that everything is copyrighted!
• Obtain permission before use.
• Keep records of permission and
What if I give credit?
• You’ve avoided plagiarism…but not
What about Fair Use?
• Fair Use has 4 components:
– Nonprofit educational uses
– Nature of the copyrighted work
– Amount or substantiality of the portion
– Effect on potential market or value
What about entertainment?
• If it’s on your computer for your use
only, you are probably OK
• Personal use…one copy only…
• ..but don’t copy rental videotapes
What about the Web?
• As soon as you put it on the Web, it is
• Don’t put anybody’s stuff on the Web without
their permission.
• Clearly state which materials are copyrighted.
• Post a statement about permissions.
• Post guidelines for use of the Web pages.
What about different media?
Representations of music
Web pages
• If it is published in any media it is
• Words are copyrighted, ideas are not.
• State ideas in your own words if possible.
• Cite the sources of ideas as well as
• Don’t use personal communications or
student work without written permission
from the author and legal guardian.
• The law is clear that an image is
copyrighted upon its creation.
• Using any portion of an image or an
edited image without permission is a
• Some museums and performing groups
prohibit photography…get permission.
• Get written permission before using a
photograph of a person.
• If your video/film is based on a book, etc.,
permission from the copyright holder
• If any portion of a music composition is
used, need synchronization license.
• If a recording is used, need master use
• Need Work for Hire agreements for writers,
composers, actors, etc.
• Props, photos, etc., are covered too.
Representations of music
• Lyrics
• Melodies,
compositions, and
• Recordings
• MIDI files
• Music notation
• Web casting
• May make one copy
for “aural exercises
or examinations”
Web pages
• If it’s on the Web, it is copyrighted
• Can’t show to large groups except for
Fair Use
• May link
• Avoid framing other’s work
Multimedia Projects
• Anything you don’t create yourself is
• Need student and parent permission to
share their ORIGINAL work
• You may use copyrighted material for
only two years in a project
• Student may keep their projects
• Quantity limits
Quantity limits per term
• 10% or 3 minutes of video
• 10% or 1000 words text, only 3 poems
by an author, 5 poems from an
• 10% or 30 sec. of music or music video
• No more than 5 graphics from an artist
and 10% or 15 of a collection
• 10% or 2500 cells of data set
Copying printed music and
Fair Use
• Emergency due to slow delivery
• 10% of work for non-performance, one
copy per student, not a movement
• May edit if character remains
• May not substitute for purchasing a
Copying printed music No-Nos
• May not reproduce consumables
• May not copy for performance
• May not copy with intention to not
• May not copy without including the
copyright notice
Student Recordings
• One recording for evaluation or
rehearsal kept by teacher
Song Copyrights
• Check to see if a song is in publicdomain before distributing copies of it or
its lyrics!
Requesting Permission
• The simplest way to request permission
is to use e-mail.
• Make sure you keep a copy of the
message and the reply.
• Contact the publisher first, who may
also put you in contact with the
Religious Services
• Fair Use does not apply to religious
• Even more complications when service
is broadcasted
• There is more!
• Check links for guides.