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Transcript
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Differentiate between early/current beliefs.
Identify at least 10 major events in history of
healthcare
Describe at least 8 different health care
facilities
Describe at least three non profit services
Identify five current trends in health care
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Believed illness were caused by supernatural
spirits and demons.
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Tribal witch doctors treated illnesses
Ceremonies, Herbs and plants used as medicine
Morphine for pain, Digitalis for heart
Average Life span was about 20 years
Boring holes in head for insanity, epilepsy and
headaches
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First Health Records
Called upon Gods Physicians were priests
who studied medicine and surgery
Believed body was system of channels,
used leaches to unclog channels
Used magic and medical plants
Lifespan 20 -30
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Religious beliefs prohibited dissection
• Monitored pulse to monitor condition of body
• Recorded pharmacology of plants
• Used acupuncture
• Began search for medical reason for illness
• Life span 20-30
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Began modern medical science by observing
effects of disease
Identified brain as physiological site for
senses
Hippocrates “Father of Modern Medicine”
◦ Developed and organized method to observe
◦ Recorded signs and symptoms
◦ Created high levels of ethics & standards still used
today
◦ Stressed diet and cleanliness
◦ Used therapies, massage, art herbal
◦ Life span 25-35
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First to organize medical care
Early hospitals
Began public health
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Sanitation
Sewers
Water filtration
First to study infectious diseases
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◦ Life Span 25- 35
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Emphasis on saving soul
Went back to prayer and divine intervention
Monks and priests provided care for sick
people
Medications were mainly herbal mixtures
Life span 20- 30
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Renewed interest in medical practice of Greeks &
Romans
Physicians began gaining knowledge at medical
Universities
Pandemic (world wide epidemic killed 75% of
Europe & Asia, Bubonic plague)
Arab physicians used chemistry to advance
pharmaceuticals
Arabs started requiring physicians to pass exam
Life span 20 - 35
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Rebirth of science in medicine
Dissection of body began to better allow
understanding of anatomy & physiology
Michelangelo & Da Vinci began to draw
dissection to make more realistic
First books of medicine published
Lifespan 30 - 40
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Ambrose Pare - father of modern surgery
Established ligatures to bind arteries
Improved treatment of fractures & promoted
artificial limbs
Invention of the micrscope
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First mercury thermometer
Surgery standards were developed
Invention of eye glasses (Ben Franklin)
Vaccines were developed
Lifespan 40 – 50
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First successful blood transfusion
First Stethoscope
Either was used as an anesthetic
First Nurses program (Florence Nightingale)
Chloroform was used as an esthetic
First use of disinfectants and antiseptics
before surgery
Lifespan 40 -60
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Classification of Blood Groups
Study of Psychology and psychiatry
Vaccines
Penicillin
Machines – heart /lung
Organ transplants
Test tube baby
Insurance
Cloning
Lifespan 60 - 70
Cell regeneration
Future Possibilities
• Genetic Manipulation
• Nerve and brain regeneration or transplant
• Cures for AIDS & Cancer
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Hospitals
◦ Private or Proprietary
◦ Vary in size
◦ Vary in Services
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Long Term Care (LTCs)
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Provide assistance and care for elderly (ADLs)
Residents
Care for individuals with disabilities
Some called nursing homes or geriatric homes
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Independent & Assisted Living
◦ Provide care for those that can help themselves
◦ Rent or purchase and apartment in facility
◦ Services like meals, housekeeping, laundry,
transportation, social & basic medical care.
Medical Offices
◦ Doctor run
◦ Vary in services – diagnosis, treatment, exam, lab
work, testing & minor surgery.
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Dental
Clinics – satellite clinics
Optical Centers
Emergency Care services – EMS, Fire & Rescue
Laboratories – blood, urine, dental molds
Home Health Care – provide care in home
Hospice – care for terminally ill, <6 months
Mental Health – mental disorders or disease
Genetic Counseling – pregnancies
Rehabilitation – physical, occupational, speech
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Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) –
total healthcare focused on prevention
Industrial Health Centers – Work on site
School Health Services
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World Health Organization (WHO) –
International org. compiles statistics & info
on diseases, publish health info, addresses
serious health issues world wide
US Dept. of Health & Human Services
(USDHHS) – Deals with health problems in US
National Institute of Health (NIH) – research
on diseases
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) – causes, spread control of diseases
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Food and Drug Administration (FDA) –
regulates food and drug products sold to
public
Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research
(AHCPR) – research quality of healthcare &
identify standards of treatments
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) – establishes and
enforces standards that protect workers from
job related injuries
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American Cancer Society
American Heart Association
American Red Cross
Many others
Supported by Donations
Provide health services at national level
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Health Care Costs 12% of US Economy
Insurance helps pay for costs
◦ Limits and/or deductibles –amount paid by patient
before insurance
◦ Co-Insurance ie: 80% - 20%
◦ Co-payment – specified $ paid each visit
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HMO – premium paid each month and set
cost to patient each visit at specific doctor
with a “Plan”
PPO (Preferred Provider Organization)Patients are restricted to who they can use as
a physician and patients pay a percentage of
charges
Medicare – insurance for over 65, operated by
Federal Government
Medicaid – insurance for low income,
operated by States.
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Workers Compensation – health insurance for
injuries on the job
Managed Care – Ins. Company plans your
care. All care must have a purpose, 2nd
opinions prior to surgeries.
◦ Focus on prevention
◦ Keep costs down
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Hospital vs Medical Office
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Hot topic – trying to control rising costs
mainly from new technology, advanced
procedures (ie: heart surgery) and liability
Rising age population – use more medicines
and more chronic disease
Diagnostic Related Group (DRGs) – one
payment to hospital depending on diagnosis.
Decreases hospital stay time
Combination of services – shared services to
labs, clinics, etc. instead of each having its
own
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Outpatient Services – clinics instead of
hospital
Mass or Bulk purchasing
Early Intervention or Preventative
Energy Conservation
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Rapidly growing field
Shorter hospital stays created need for home
care
Return to day of doctors making house calls –
cheaper than maintaining a office or clinic
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Care for elderly
Rapid growing field due to increase age of
population – age expectancy increases
Baby Boomers (born after WWII – 1960)
Adult Day Care Centers
Retirement Communities
Assisted/Independent Living Facilities
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) –
states require training and competency
evaluation for workers
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Involves use of video, audio, and computers
to provide medical services
◦ EMS transmit EKG to Hospital for diagnosis (dx)
◦ Xrays, scans can all be read at home or in office so
Drs can serve multiple facilities
◦ Robotics surgery from miles away
◦ Electronic machines can send info to Drs from
patient homes
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Physical Wellness – well balanced diet,
exercise, routine physicals
Emotional Wellness – understanding feeling,
expressing oneself appropriately, accepting
limitations, coping with stress
Social Wellness – showing concern for others,
interacting well with others
Mental Wellness – being creative, open
minded challenging the mind
Spiritual Wellness – values, morals ethics
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Alternative – methods used in place of
biological therapies
Complimentary – methods used with
conventional medicine
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Ayurveda practitioners - depending on body
type: uses prescribe diet, herbal, yoga to
maintain body harmony
Chinese Medicine – holistic based, flow of
energy (chi) , acupuncture/pressure Tai Chi &
herbal
Chiropractors – brain sends signals down
spine to control body, misalignment can
interfere with flow from brain
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Homeopaths – body self heals through
immune system
Hypnotists- trancelike state uses suggestions
to bring about behavioral change
Naturopaths – uses natural therapies like
fasting, special diets cleansing to promote
healing