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College: Social And Management Science
Department: Business Administration
Course Code: GST115
Assignment C
Write out a comprehensive detail about the difference between Linux and UNIX operating systems.
Linux is an open source, free to use operating system widely used for computer hardware and
software, game development, tablet PCS, mainframes etc. UNIX is an operating system commonly
used in internet servers, workstations and PCs by Solaris, Intel, and HP etc.
Comparison chart
1. Cost: Linux can be freely distributed, downloaded freely, distributed through magazines, Books
etc. There are priced versions for Linux also, but they are normally cheaper than Windows.
Different flavors of UNIX have different cost structures according to vendors.
2. Development and Distribution: Linux is developed by Open Source development i.e. through
sharing and collaboration of code and features through forums etc. and it is distributed by
various vendors. UNIX systems are divided into various other flavors, mostly developed by AT&T
as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations.
3. Manufacturer: Linux kernel is developed by the community. Linus Torvalds oversees things.
Three biggest distributions are Solaris (Oracle), AIX (IBM) & HP-UX Hewlett Packard. And Apple
Makes OSX, an Unix based os..
4. User: Everyone. From home users to developers and computer enthusiasts alike. UNIX operating
systems were developed mainly for mainframes, servers and workstations except OSX, Which is
designed for everyone. The UNIX environment and the client-server program model were
essential elements in the development of the Internet.
5. Usage: Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from mobile
phones, tablet computers and video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers. The
UNIX operating system is used in internet servers, workstations & PCs. Backbone of the majority
of finance infrastructure and many 24x365 high availability solutions.
6. File system support Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, Jfs, ReiserFS, Xfs, Btrfs, FAT, FAT32, NTFS jfs, gpfs, hfs, hfs+,
ufs, xfs, zfs format .
7. Text mode interface BASH (Bourne Again Shell) is the Linux default shell. It can support multiple
command interpreters. Originally the Bourne Shell. Now it's compatible with many others
including BASH, Korn & C.
8. What is it? Linux is an example of Open Source software development and Free Operating
System (OS). UNIX is an operating system that is very popular in universities, companies, big
enterprises etc.
9. GUI Linux typically provides two GUIs, KDE and Gnome. But there are millions of alternatives
such as LXDE, Xfce, Unity, Mate, twm, ect. Initially UNIX was a command based OS, but later a
GUI was created called Common Desktop Environment. Most distributions now ship with
10. Price: Free but support is available for a price. Some free for development use (Solaris) but
support is available for a price.
11. Security: Linux has had about 60-100 viruses listed till date. None of them actively spreading
nowadays. A rough estimate of UNIX viruses is between 85 -120 viruses reported till date.
12. Threat detection and solution: In case of Linux, threat detection and solution is very fast, as
Linux is mainly community driven and whenever any Linux user posts any kind of threat, several
developers start working on it from different parts of the world Because of the proprietary
nature of the original Unix, users have to wait for a while, to get the proper bug fixing patch. But
these are not as common.
13. Processors: Dozens of different kinds. x86/x64, Sparc, Power, Itanium, PA-RISC, PowerPC and
many others.
14. Examples Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat, Debian, Arch Linux, Android etc. OS X, Solaris, All Linux
15. Architectures: Originally developed for Intel's x86 hardware, ports available for over two dozen
CPU types including ARM is available on PA-RISC and Itanium machines. Solaris also available for
x86/x64 based systems.OSX is PowerPC (10.0-10.5)/x86(10.4)/x64(10.5-10.8).
16. Inception: Inspired by MINIX (a Unix-like system) and eventually after adding many features of
GUI, Drivers etc, and Linus Torvalds developed the framework of the OS that became LINUX in
1992. The LINUX kernel was released on 17th September, 1991 In 1969, it was developed by a
group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs and Dennis Ritchie. It was written in “C” language and
was designed to be a portable, multi-tasking and multi-user system in a time-sharing
State all the versions of Mac OS and Linux
Mac OS
Mac OS X 10.0 – code name "Cheetah", released in 2001
Mac OS X 10.1 – code name "Puma", released in 2001
Mac OS X 10.2 – also marketed as "Jaguar", released in 2002
Mac OS X Panther – version 10.3, released in 2003
Mac OS X Tiger – version 10.4, released in 2005
Mac OS X Leopard – version 10.5, released in 2007
Mac OS X Snow Leopard – version 10.6, released in 2009
Mac OS X Lion – version 10.7, released in 2011
OS X Mountain Lion – version 10.8, released in 2012
OS X Mavericks – version 10.9, released in 2013
OS X Yosemite – version 10.10, released in 2014
OS X El Capitan – version 10.11, released in 2015
macOS Sierra – version 10.12, released in 2016
aptosid Multilingual desktop-oriented Live CD based on Debian unstable. Formerly sidux.
Astra Linux OS developed for Russian Army with raised security.
Bharat Operating System Solutions This software is also known by the acronym BOSS Linux.
Canaima A Venezuelan Linux distribution.
Corel Linux Commercial. Short-lived desktop Linux distribution, bought by Xandros Linux.
CrunchBang Linux A small Linux Distro and Live CD based on Debian Stable, featuring the Openbox
window manager and tint2 panel with GTK+ applications.[8] Development has ended for
CrunchBang as of February, 2015.
Devuan A fork of Debian begun in 2014 with the primary goal of allowing user choice in init systems,
by decoupling software packages from systems .
Dreamlinux A Brazilian Linux distribution (not active anymore).
Emdebian Grip A small-footprint Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended
for use on resource-limited embedded systems.
Finnix A small system administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures.
gNewSense originally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian, and developed with sponsorship
from the Free Software Foundation. Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary (e.g. binary
blobs) and non-free software removed.
grml Live CD for system recovery.
HandyLinux A Debian GNU/Linux derivative, designed for seniors equipped with old computers for
which Windows has become too slow.
Instant WebKiosk Live, browser only operating system for use in web kiosks and for digital signage.
Kali Linux Made to be a completely customizable OS, used for penetration testing. It is based on
Debian GNU/Linux
Kanotix An installable live DVD/CD for desktop usage using KDE and LXDE, focusing on convenient
scripts and GUI for ease of use.
Knoppix The first Live CD (later DVD) version of Debian GNU/Linux.
Kurumin Earlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for
Brazilian users.
LEAF Project The Linux Embedded Appliance Framework. A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution
for routers, firewalls and other appliances.
LiMux An ISO 9241 industry workplace certified Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich,
LinuxBBQ LinuxBBQ is a plethora of releases for various targets and goals based on Debian Sid
Linux Mint Debian Edition Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) is a rolling Linux distribution based on
Debian Testing. It is available in both 32 and 64-bit as a live DVD with a Cinnamon or MATE desktop.
The purpose of LMDE is to look identical to the main Linux Mint edition and to provide the same
functionality while using Debian as a base.
Maemo A development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N800, N810, and Nokia
N900 Internet Tablets and other Linux kernel–based devices.
MEPIS Focuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. antiX is meant to be
used on older computers with limited hardware.[23] There is also a Xfce distro called MX that's
based on Debian Stable.
MintPPC For PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Mint LXDE code, it is not Linux Mint.
Musix GNU+Linux A Debian GNU/Linux based distribution, intended for music production, graphic
design, audio, video editing, and other tasks. It is built with only free software.
NepaLinux A Debian and Morphix Linux based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali
language computing.
OpenZaurus Debian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Replaced by Ångström
Pardus Developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology. Prior to 2013
it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with
Pardus 2013, it is Debian-based.
Parsix Optimized for personal computers and laptops. Built on top of Debian testing branch and
comes with security support.
PelicanHPC Dedicated to setting up a computer cluster.
Rxart Desktop-oriented distribution. Focused on providing proprietary software.
Raspbian Desktop-oriented distribution. Developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation as the official OS
for their family of low-power single-board computers.
Sacix A Debian Pure Blend originally created to support the educational and free software diffusion
goals of the Telecentres project of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
Siduction Derived from aptosid, siduction is a distro based on debian sid with a friendly community.
Skolelinux A Linux distribution from Norway. It is provided as a thin client distribution for schools.
SolydXK Xfce and KDE desktop focused on stability, security and ease of use.
SparkyLinux SparkyLinux is a Debian-based Linux distribution which provides ready to use, out of the
box operating system with a set of slightly customized lightweight desktops. Sparky is targeted to all
the computer’s users who want replace existing, proprietary driven OS to an open-sourced..
SteamOS Debian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve Corporation and
designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.
Sunwah Linux A Chinese Linux distribution
Symphony OS Includes the Mezzo desktop environment. Previous versions were based on Knoppix.
SalineOS Lean, stable and easy-to-use distribution with XFCE as graphical interface.
TAILS The Amnesic Incognito Live System' or Tails is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity, with
all outgoing connections forced to go through Tor.
TurnKey GNU/Linux Open source project developing a family of free, Debian-based appliances
optimized for ease of use in server-type usage scenarios. Based on Debian since 2012; previously
based on Ubuntu.
Ubuntu A distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. and receiving major funding from South African
Mark Shuttleworth. Aims to offer a complete and polished desktop on a single DVD.
Univention Corporate Server Enterprise distribution with integrated IT infrastructure and identity
management system by the company Univention GmbH, Germany. A full version for up to 5 users
for tests and for private use can be downloaded for free.
Webconverger Debian Live based browser only distribution, similar to Google Chrome OS. However
based on Firefox & dwm, with no user sign-in, no special hardware required and designed for public
Vyatta Commercial open source network operating system includes routing, firewall, VPN, intrusion
prevention and more. Designed to be an open source Cisco replacement.
Xanadu Rolling release Linux distribution based on Debian SID
Damn Small Linux It is a small Linux distro designed to run on older hardware. It is commonly used
on virtual machines due to low memory requirements.
Feather Linux It boots from either a CD or a USB flash drive. Uses Knoppix-based hardware detection
and the Fluxbox window manager.
Hikarunix A Linux distribution solely for studying and playing the game of Go. Based on Damn Small
Edubuntu A complete Linux based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education.
It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas
enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available
free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite
any disabilities.
Kubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu Linux using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces
used by default in Ubuntu.
Ubuntu GNOME An official Ubuntu variant that uses Gnome Shell as its default desktop and GDM as
its display manager.
Ubuntu MATE An official derivative of Ubuntu using MATE, a desktop environment forked from the
now-defunct GNOME 2 code base, with an emphasis on the desktop metaphor.
Lubuntu Lubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is
"lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXDE desktop environment.
Xubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful
computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses
mostly GTK+ applications.
Mythbuntu Based on Ubuntu and Myth TV, providing applications for recording TV and acting as a
media center.
Ubuntu Kylin An official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu Server An official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls
printers, acts as a fileserver, can host LAMP and more.
Ubuntu Studio Based on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed
at the audio, video and graphic editors.
Ubuntu Touch Designed for use with touchscreen devices.
Ubuntu TV Designed for us Calculate Linux Calculate Linux is a family of distributions.
Chromium Os Chrome OS is used on various Chrome books, Chrome boxes and tablet computers. It
is primarily Internet-based, launching each app within the Chrome browser. The OS features a user
interface that is very similar-looking to Chrome instead of GNOME, KDE, etc.
CoreOS Enterprise base image with update subscription
Funtoo Linux A Linux distribution based on Gentoo.
Gentoo An adaptation of Gentoo for the Xbox.
Knopperdisk A Linux distribution aimed at USB sticks.
Pentoo Penetration-testing Live CD.
Sabayon Linux Made in Italy. It is a European Linux distribution based on Gentoo. However, it
follows the "out of the box" philosophy, aiming to give the user a wide number of applications ready
to use and a self-configured operating system. Like Gentoo, Sabayon uses the rolling release model;
it uses a customized version of Red Hat's Anaconda Installer and includes a Media Center
SystemRescueCD System rescue Live CD version of Gentoo.
Tin Hat Linux Based on hardened Gentoo, this distribution is based primarily on security.
Ututo Made in Argentina. An FSF Approved Free Distribution.
Kogaion Romanian Linux distro based on Gentoo and Sabayon e with TVs.
Asianux A Linux distribution co-developed between Red Flag Software Co., Ltd., Miracle Linux Corp.
and Haansoft, INC., focused on Chinese, Japanese and Korean support.
CentOS Community-supported distribution that aims to be compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux
without the inclusion of proprietary software.
ClearOS Small Business Server. File, Print, Messaging, UTM, VPN.
Fermi Linux LTS Based on Scientific Linux.
Miracle Linux Developed by Japanese software vendor Miracle Linux Co., Ltd
Oracle Linux Supported by Oracle. Aims to be fully compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Flag Linux A Linux distribution developed in China and optimized for the Chinese market. Based
on Asianux.
Rocks Cluster Distribution A Linux distribution for building a High-Performance Computing computer
cluster, with a recent release supporting Cloud computing. It is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux
but with extensions to support large multi-node heterogeneous systems for clusters (HPC), Cloud,
and Data Warehousing (in development).
Scientific Linux A Linux distribution co-developed by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), which aims to be compatible with and based
on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Mandriva family tree Distribution Description
Annvix A security-focused server Linux distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2 but has
diverged a lot. Discontinued.
Tiny Me Based on Unity Linux, targeted to be as lightweight as possible.
Trinity Rescue Kit Aimed specifically at offline operations for Windows and Linux systems such as
rescue, repair, and password resets and disk cloning
Unity Linux meant to be a base for custom distributions.
Mageia Community-based fork. Especially for beginners with its startup-screen.