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Transcript

Origin of life on earth:
Period of origin of earth is proposed to be about 4500-5000 million years (4.5 billion years ago). It is belived
that the earth along with other planets of the solar system originated from cooler and less dense peripheral
part of common nebula.
Nebula: A cold cloudy mass of cosmic dust and gases.
Homologous organs: Homologous organ are those structures which are different in appearance and
perform different functions but have similar basic structure and developmental origin. This relationship is
called homology.
TABLE FORELIMB IN VERTEBRATES
Seal
Bird
Bat
Horse
Man
Appearance
Flippers
Wings
Patagia
Elongaed
Thumb opposability
Function
Swimming
Flying
Support, flying
Running
Grasping
2. Analogous: Those organs which have different origin and structural plan but appear similar and perfom
similar functions are called analogous organs. While this relationship is called convergent evolution or
analogy.
eg : Wing of an insect and a bird, Hand of man & Trunk of elephant.
analogy in these organs is due to similar adaptations to perform similar functions rather than their common
ancestry.
3.
Vestigial organs: Those organs which no longer have function are called vestigeal organs. These organs have
reduced structurally as well as functionally. It appears that these organs were once well developed and
functional in ancestors and later on due to their less use they became reduced.
eg : Vermiform appendix, ear muscles, third eyelid in me l are reduced and function less.
AMBITION CLASSES
Various organisms are inter connected their resemblance suggest a common ancestory.
One auricle
eg:
Heart of Fish  Only two chambers
One ventricle
Two auricle
Heart of Amphibia  Three chambers
Two ventricle
Two auricle
Heart of Reptelia  Three chambers
One incomplete partition in ventricle
Two auricle
Heart of Bird and mammals  Four chambered
Two ventricles
Connecting links: Some living organisms heave characteristics of two groups. They are known as connecting
links.
eg.: Lung fish – show connection between fishes and amphibians.

(i)
Virus
Between living and non living
(ii)
Euglena

(iii)
Proterospongia 
Between protozoa and porifera
(iv)
Neopilina

Between annelida and mollusca
(v)
Peripatus

Between annelida and arthopoda
(vi)
Archaeopteryx 
Between reptiles and birds
Between plants and animals
(vii) Balanoglossus 
Between non chordates and chordates
(viii) Chimera

Between cartilaginous fish and boney fish
(ix)
Lung fish

Between fishes and amphibian
(x)
Platypus

Between reptiles and mammals
(xi)
Echidina

Between reptiles and mammals
HUMAN EVOLUTION
Evolutionary history of man has been built from the palaentology (fossil studies) and molecular biology
(especially DNA changes).
AMBITION CLASSES
Anthropology: The scientific study of tracing of human evolution is called anthropology. Scientists involved in
studying human evolution are called anthropologists.
Studies have revealed that human evolution started in Africa and earliest human type was Austaloplthecus
Africanus. African ape man fossil was discovered by Prof. Raymond Dart fossil of skull of 5-6 years old baby
from old pliocene rock of Tuang region (S.Africa). He name it Tuang baby. It had many ape like characters but
had a bipedal locomotion like man. The cradle of human evolution is East Africa where genetic foot prints of
earliest members of human species Homosaplens an be traced. A couple of hundred thousand years ago
some of own ancestors left across the planet from Africa.
Homo erectus erectus – Jawa man
Homo erectus pekinesis – Pekine man
Homo sapiens neaderthalensis – Neanderthal man
Homo sapiens fossilis – Cro-magnon man
Modern man is divided into four ethnic groups:
Negroid : African Pygmies and bushman
Caucasian : Italian English
Eastern: Chinese Japanese Eskimos
Mangolid : These ethnic group differ from one another in their skin colouration lips and hair pattern but all of
these belong to same species's because these are not reproductively isolated from one another. All human
races have same chromosomes number and similar grass morphology of chromosomes.
*********************************
AMBITION CLASSES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:
1.
Who introduced the idea of a spontaneous generation ?
(a) Anaximander
2.
5.
6.
(d) All of these.
(a) 4.6 billion years ago
(b) 10 billion years ago
(c) 3.0 billion years ago
(d) 20 billion years ago.
(d) V. Helmont.
Modem theory of origin of life was propounded by :
(b) Darwin
(c) Khorana
(d) Oparin.
Which of the following gas waS absent on primitive earth:
(b) CH4
(c) CO2
(d) NH3.
Which English scientist worked on origin of life and finally settled in India:
(b) Louis Pasteur
(c) J.B.S.-Haldane
(d) Archbishop Ussher.
Nucleoprotoeins most probably gave the first sign of:
(b) Mimicry
(c) Evolution
(d) Life.
(b) On land
(c) In air
(d) In all of these.
(c) oxygen
(d) temperature.
Life originated :
There is no life in moon due to the absence of
(a) water
12.
(d) Lazzaro Spallanzani.
About how long ago was the earth formed ?
(a) In water
11.
(c) L. Pasteur
(c) Special creation
(a) Proteins
10.
(b) S.L.Miller
(b) spore theory
(a) A.I.Oparin
9.
(c) Francesco Redi
(a) Spontaneous generation
(a) O2
8.
(b) Louis Pasteur
Life was created by some supernatural power. This theory is :
(a) Miller
7.
(d) Aristotle.
The principle of sterilization is based upon experiments carried by:
(a) Oparin
4.
(c) Anaximus
Spontaneous generation of bacteria from decomposing broth was disproved in 1860 by:
(a) Joseph Lister
3.
(b) Empedocles
Homologous organ are:
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) light
(a) similar in origin with similar or dissimilar functions
(b) similar in origin which are dissimilar function
(c) dissimilar in origin and dissimilar in structures
(d) dissimilar in origin but similar in functions
13.
Which of the following are homologous structures :
(a) ginger and sweet potato
(b) trunk of elephant and hand of chimpanzee
(c) nail of man and claw of cat
(d) wing of bird and butterfly.
14.
15.
16.
Evolution of diversified speeds due to environmental changes is called :
(a) Divergent evolution
(b) Convergent evolution
(c) Evolutionary inertia
(d) None of these.
Wings of birds and butterflies are :
(a) homologous organs
(b) analogous organs
(c) vestigial organs
(d) grafted organs.
Which of the following is a vestigial structure in man ?
(a) Muscle of glottis
17.
18.
(b) Wisdom tooth
(d) Ear pinna.
Which of the following is not a vestigial organ in man :
(a) wisdom tooth
(b) vermiform appendix
(c) ileum
(d) muscles of ear pinna.
Peripatus is a connecting link between :
(a) annelids and molluscs
(b) annelids and helminthes
(c) annelids and arthropods
19.
(c) Intenstine
(d) reptiles and mammals.
A connecting link between Protozoa and Porifera is:
(a) Chlamydomonas
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Euglena
(c) Protopterus
(d) Proterospongia.
20.
Which one represents a connecting link as an evidence from comparative anatomy in favour of organic
evolution ?
(a) Whale between fishes and mammals
(b) Duck-billed platypus between reptiles and mammals
(c) Java apeman between modem man and Peking man
(d) Archaeopteryx between birds and mammals.
21.
Fossil remains of Archaeopteryx indicate that:
(a) reptiles gave rise to birds during Jurassic
(b) reptiles gave rise to birds during Permian
(c) it was a flying reptile from Permian
(d) it was a flying reptile from Triassic.
22.
"Ontogeny repeats phylogeny" was coined by:
(a) Darwin
23.
26.
28.
(b) Anthropology
(c) Arthrology
(d) Mammology.
(b) Africa
(c) Asia
(d) Aurstralia.
The main advantage of bipedal locomotion is :
(a) Avaibality of hands for other uses
(b) Increased speed
(c) Better body balance
(d) Reduced weight.
At the time of origin of life which was not existed in free stage :(a) NH3
27.
(d) Haeckel.
Evolution of man is believed to have taken place in
(a) Central America
25.
(c) Morgan
Study of human evolution is under :
(a) Palaeontology
24.
(b) Lamarck
(b) CH4
(c) O2
(d) H2 .
At the time of formulation of theory of natural selection, Darwin was influenced by :(a) Essay of Malthus on population
(b) Cell theory
(c) Mendel's laws of inheritance
(d) None
The cause of mutation is :-
AMBITION CLASSES
29.
(a) Changes in DNA
(b) Changes in chromosome
(c) Changes in gene
(d) All.
Galopagos island is associated with :(a) Lamark
30.
34.
35.
(c) Lamark
(d) Miller.
(b) Exobiology
(c) Planet biology
(d) None.
(b) Packard
(c) Gado
(d) None
The book written by Weisman :(a) Philosphie zoologeic
(b) Principles of gee logy
(c) Germ fluid
(d) None.
The Spark-discharge apparatus to test chemical evolution of life was designed by :(a) Urey and Miller
(b) Oparin and Hal lane
(c) Dixon and Jolley
(d) Jacob and Monad.
Swan-necked flask experimen was done by :(a) Francisci Redi
36.
(b) De Vries
The colleague of Darwin on his ship Beagle was :(a) Dr. Hensley
33.
(d) Wallace.
The search of life on other planets or in the space is called as :(a) Space biology
32.
(c) Mendel
If an organ is used, it gets developed and if an organ is not used, it gets reduced. It was given by :(a) Darwin
31.
(b) Darwin
(b) Aristotle
(c) Robert Koch
(d) Louis Pasteur.
The presence of gill slits in the embryos of all vertebrates supports the theory of:
(a) biogenesis
(b) recapitulation
(c) metamorphosis
(d) organic evolution
Multiple choice objective questions
37.
Wings of locust, pigeon & bats are the example of :(a) Vestigeal organs
(c) Homologous organs
38.
(b) Analogous organs
(d) Exoskeleton.
Age of fossils can be detected by :(a) Residual quantity of calcium
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Quantity of radioactive carbon compound
(c) Phylum of other mammals
39.
Term "evolution" was first used by:(a) Spancer
40.
41.
(b) Mendel
(c) Weismann
(d) Kellagg.
The factors which causes genetic drift :(a) Mutations & variations
(b) Natural selection & small size of population
(c) Random copulation
(d) All the above.
Connecting link between annelida & mollusca is :(a) Cuttle fish
42.
(d) Structure of bones.
(b) Octopus
(c) Neoplina
(d) Nautilus.
"Struggle for existance" & survival of fittest ar i associated with :(a) Lamarkism
(b) Oparin hypothe is
(c) Mendelism
(d) Darwinism.
FILL IN THE BLANKS :
1.
The life arose from non-living molecules was suggested by………..
2.
Experimental evidence in favour of chemical origin of life was provided by…….and………
3.
The process by which new, species arise is called…………..
4.
The biogenetic law was proposed by………………
5.
The fossils of birds………….show that birds have evolved from reptiles.
6.
Darwin made an extensive study of the flora and fauna of the………Islands in South America.
7.
The origin of species was written by……………
8.
Organs similar In structure and origin but different in function are called………..
9.
Vermiform appendix in human is a……………..organ.
10.
The evolution of eye is an example of evolution by……………
ASSERTION AND REASON TYPE :
Each question contains STATEMENT-1 (Assertion) a id STATEMENT-2(Reason). Each questions has 5 choices (A), (B),
(C), (D) and (E) out of which only one is correct.
(a)
Statement-1 is True, Statement - 2 is True ; Statement - 2 is a correct explanation for Statement – 1
(b)
Statement - 1 is True, Statement - 2 is True ; Statement - 2 is NOT correct explanation for statement – 1
AMBITION CLASSES
(c)
Statement - 1 is true, Statement - 2 is false.
(d)
Statement - 1 is false. Statement - 2 is false.
1.
Statement - 1 : Ear muscles of external ear in man are poorly developed.
Statement - 2 : These muscles are useful which move external ear freely to detect sound efficiently.
2.
Statement -1 : Although living organism always arise from other living organisms, life should certainly have
had a beginning.
Statement - 2 : The study of the conditions and the mechanism involved in the creation of mast primitive
living structures on earth is actually the problem o origin of life.
3.
Statement -1 : The establishment of reproductive isolation is an event of biological significance
Statement - 2 : In the absence of reproductive is elation species can merge back into single population.
4.
Statement -1 : The birds have large, light spongy bones with air sacs.
Statement - 2 : These adaptations help them during flight.
Answer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
A
C
C
C
A
D
A
C
D
A
A
A
C
A
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
B
B
C
C
D
B
A
D
B
B
A
C
A
D
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
B
C
B
A
C
A
D
B
B
B
A
D
C
A
FILL IN THE BLANKS:
1.
Anaximander
2.
A.I. Oparin, J.B.S. Haldane
3.
Speciation
4.
Haeckel
5.
Archaeopteryx
6.
Galapagoes islands
7.
Charles Robert Darwin
8.
Homologous organ
9.
Vestigeal
10.
Stages
A
4.
ASSERTION AND REASON TYPE :
1.
C
2.
AMBITION CLASSES
A
3.
A
Diversity in living organisms mean- variety of life forms found on earth planet.

Term "Biodiversity" was coined by ' Walter G. Rosen" in 1986
CLASSIFICATION:
Method of arranging variety of organisms into different groups, on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities
between them, is called "classification".

Science of classification  Taxonomy

Father of Modern Taxonomy  Carolus Linnaeus
Categories
Features
1
Species
A group of organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile
offspring
2
Genus
A group of similar and closely related species.
3
Family
A group of apparently related genera (plural of genus).
4
Order
A group of related families.
5
Class
A group of orders within a phylum (or division).
6
Phylum (or Division)
Organisms constructed on a similar plan
7
Kingdom
The largest group; for example, plants and animals.
Kingdom – Monera
Single called prokaryotic organisms.
e.g. Bacteria, Blue Green algae, Mycoplasma.
2.
Kingdom – Protista
Single called eukaryotic organisms
e.g. Algae,. Protozoa, Diatoms
3.
Kingdom – Fungi
Multicellular eukaryotes, non-green heterotrophs, lacking chlorophyll, reserve food material is glycogen.
e.g. Yeast, Mushrooms.
4.
Kingdom – Plantae
Multicellular green autotrophs
e.g. Higher algae, Mosses, Ferns and Flowering plants.
5.
Kingdom – Animalia
Multicellular, heterotrophic animals e.g Animals.
AMBITION CLASSES
Porifera (sponges)
1.
Aquatic, sessile
2.
No tissues
3.
Presence of spongocoel: water and nutrients enter through ostia and leave through osculum
4.
Skeleton of spicules
5.
Reproduction-asexual: by budding or gemmules; sexual: hermaphrodites
1.
Gastrovascular cavity called coelenteron
2.
Cells organized into tissues; diploblastic body wall
3.
Stinging cells called nematoblasts, or cnidoblasts
4.
Two forms: polyp and medusa; some change form
5.
Reproduction: sexual and asexual; show alternation of generations
1.
Bilaterally symmetrical, dorsoventrally flat, tripioblastic
2.
Acoelomate, incomplete gut with only a mouth and no anus
3.
Flame cells for excretion
4.
Free-living or parasitic
5.
Reproduction: asexual and sexual; most are hermaphrodites.
1.
Bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented, triploblastic
2.
Pseudocoelom contains internal organs complete tubular gut
3.
Most are free-living; some are parasitic and disease-causing
4.
Reproduction: sexual; sexes separate
1.
Segmented internally, separated by septa
2.
Chitinous chaetae. or setae, for locomotion
AMBITION CLASSES
3.
True coelom: gut with special regions
4.
Metanephridia for excretion.
5.
Reproduction: sexual; unisexual or hen laphrodite
1.
Largest phylum of organisms with jointed legs
2.
Segmented body with exoskeleton of chitin and protein, moulting for growth
3.
Malpighian tubules for excretion in insects; and green glands for excretion in crustaceans
4.
Open circulatory system tubular, porous heart pumps haemolymph into haemocoel, blood is bluish in some
forms
5.
Respiration through gills (in crustaceans , tracheal system (i n insects), book lungs (in spiders)
6.
Some have compound eyes; spiders have spinnerets for spinning webs; spiders and scorpions have poison
glands; centipedes have poison claws; crustaceans have a hard covering called carapace
7.
Reproduction: sexual; sexes separate
8.
Many change form or undergo metamorphosis during growth
1.
Soft-bodied, unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical
2.
Body has 3 parts-head, dorsal hump, ventral muscular foot; hump covered by mantle, which secretes
calcerous shell
3.
Respiration by gills called ctenidia or through mantle cavity
4.
Rasping, tongue-like radula for feeding digestive organ called hepatopancreas
5.
Open circulatory system, blood is bluish
6.
Reproduction: sexual; mostly unisexual, some hermaphrodite
AMBITION CLASSES
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
The smallest taxon is:(a) Class
2.
11.
(b) Gymnosperms
(c) Angiosperms
(d) Bryophytes
(b) Fungi
(c) Bryophytes
(d) Pteriodophytes
(b) Rhizopus
(c) Marchantia
(d) Fern
(b) Fungi
(c) Gymnosperms
(d) Angiosperms.
(b) Protein
(c) Maltose
(d) Glycogen
(b) Cryptogams
(c) Thallophytes
(d) Prokaryotes.
Maize is a:(a) Dicot angiospermic plant
(b) Monocot angiospermic plant
(c) Pteridophyte
(d) Gymnosperm.
A branch of biology which deals with the identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms is called
:
(a) Morphology
12.
(d) Chlamydomonas
Gymnosperms and angiosperms are included in :(a) Phanerogams
10.
(c) Cycas
Which type of food is stored in Fungi ?
(a) Starch
9.
(b) Fern
Xylem lacks vessels and phloem lacks companion cells in
(a) Algae
8.
(d) Anaerobe
Which one of the following is pteridophyte ?
(a) Lomrix
7.
(c) Aerobe
Non-Chlorophyllous heterotrophic plants are :(a) Algae
6.
(b) Autotroph
Which one of the following represents the non-flowering seeded plants ?
(a) Pteridophytes
5.
(d) Genus.
Which of the following is unicellular green alga ?
(a) Spirogyra
4.
(c) Species
An organism that can live and grow in presence of oxygen is called:(a) heterotroph
3.
(b) Order
(b) Ecology
Who is known as father of taxonomy?
AMBITION CLASSES
(c) Taxonomy
(d) Phytogeography.
(a) Mendel
13.
(b) A.P. de Candolle
(b) Lichen
(b) Genera
(c) Family
(d) Class
(d) Genus and family.
(b) Genus
(c) Species
(d)Taxon
(b) Bryophytes
(c) Pteridophytes
(d) All of the above.
Algae belong to :(a) Thallophytes
Algae are characterized by :(a) Pyrenoids
20.
(d) None
Which taxonomic term may be substituted for any rank in the classification?
(a) Class
19.
(c) Pteridophyta
(b) Genus and species
(c) Order and family
18.
(d) Carolus Linnaeus.
According to binomial nomenclature, the scientific name of an organism must consists of two words. These
are:
(a) Species and family
17.
(c) A.L. de Jussien
A group of freely interbreeding organism constitutes a:(a) Species
16.
(d) Crick
Association between Algae and fungi is known as :(a) Bryophyta
15.
(c) Darwin
Binomial nomenclature was introducec by:(a) John Ray
14.
(b) Linnaeus
(b) Aquatic habit
(c) Unicellular sex organ (d) all of the above.
In Whittaker's classification, unicellular organisms are grouped under :(a) Protista
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Porifera
(c) Fungi
(d) Protozoa
EXERCISE–2
1.
Who classified animals on basis of presence or absence of red blood ;(a) Whittaker
2.
5.
6.
8.
(b) Protozoa
(c) Arthropodes
(d) Platyhelminthes
(c) Platyhelminthes - Fasciola
(d) Nematoda - Taenia solium
Stinging cell organelles - nematocysts are found only in :(a) Phylum – Coelenterata(b)
Phylum – Porifera
(c) Phylum – Echinodermata
(d) Phylum – Arthropoda.
In which phylum pseudocoleom is present ?
(b) Annelida
(c) Aschelminthes
(d) Mollusca
Flatworms are found in :(a) Phylum – Nematoda
(b) Phylum – Annelida
(c) Phylum – Platyhelminthes
(d) Phylum – Echinodermata.
Star fish is the member of :(b) Mollusca
(c) Coelenterata
(d) Echinodermata.
(c) Hemichordata
(d) Vertebrata.
(c) Hippocampus
(d) Chimera.
Balanoglossus is example of :(b) Cephalochordata
Which of the following is not a bony fish ?
(a) Labeo rohita
11.
(d) Annelids
(b) Coelenterata – Hydra
(a) Urochordata
10.
(c) Nematodes
(a) Porifera - Sycon
(a) Pisces
9.
(b) Platyhelminthes
Which of the following is incorrectly matched ?
(a) Coelenterata
7.
(d) Linnaeus.
Protoplasmic grade of body organization is found in :(a) Sponges
4.
(c) Aristotle
Which of the following group of animals have cell aggregate body plan ?
(a) Sponges
3.
(b) Pliny
(b) Anabas
Which statement is not correct for amphibians ?
(a) These are first vertebrate which come out of water
(b) They are cold-blood animals
AMBITION CLASSES
(c) They do not have scales on their skin
(d) They have two chambered heart
12.
Which class includes snakes and lizards ?
(a) Amphibia
13.
(d) Pisces.
(b) Pisces
(c) Reptilia
(d) Aves
(c) Syrinx
(d) Plumage.
Sound producing organ in birds is :
(a) Trachea
15.
(c) Mammalia
In which class birds are included ?
(a) Amphibia
14.
(b) Reptilia
(b) Pneumatic bones
Which statement(s) is (are) true for mammals ?
(a) They are warm blooded animal
(b) They have diaphragm
(c) They have mammary glands for baby feeding
(d) All of the above.
FILL IN THE BLANKS :
1.
………………….is considered as 'Father of Zoology'.
2.
The respiration in insects is by……………….
3.
Pore-bearing animals are placed in phylum………………
4.
Tube feet of echinoderms help in…………….
5.
The structure which separates the thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity in mammals is……….
6.
The largest phylum of the kingdom Animals is……………..
7.
Nematoblasts or stinging cells are characteristic of……………..
8.
Organisms which remain fixed to the bottom of the sea or some other object are called………….
9.
In urochodates the notochord is confined to the…………………….
10.
Birds and…………..
AMBITION CLASSES
and……………..
are warm-blooded vertebrates.
MATCH THE COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B :
(i)
Column A
Flightless bird
Column B
(a)
Echinoderm
(ii)
Egg laying mammal
(b)
Snake
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Hydra
Cnidoblasts
Pseudocoel
Ascaris
Sea urchin
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Birds
Endoparasite of intesine
Ostrich
Earthworm
Lamprey
(viii)
(ix)
Jawless vertebrate
Limbless reptile
(h)
(i)
Shark
Duckbilled platypus
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
Cartilage fish
Leech
Millipedes
Nephridia
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
Kangaroo
Coelenterates
Rounndworms
Segmented arthropods
(xiv)
(xv)
Pneumatic bones
Pouched mammal
(n)
(o)
Hirudin
Freshwater coelenterate
TRUE OR FALSE :
1.
All the vertebrates are warm-blooded animals.
2.
Duckbilled platypus and spiny ant-eater ire egg laying mammals.
3.
Kiwi is the smallest filightless bird.
4.
Snails and slugs have open circulatory system.
5.
Flatworms have true coelom.
6.
Whale is largest fish known.
7.
Planaria are free-living aquatic flatworm .
8.
Sponges have a nervous system.
9.
Hydra is a fresh water coelenterate
10.
Crocodiles have four chambered heart.
VERY SHORT ANSWER- TYPE QUESTIONS :
1.
Name two animals belonging to reptilian class.
2.
The animals belonging to a phylum have segmented body. Name the phylum.
AMBITION CLASSES
3.
Which is the largest phylum of Kingdom Animalia?
4.
Name the seven basic hierarchial categories.
5.
Mention an organism which exhibits characters of both plants and animals.
6.
In which groups are diploblastic animals found?
7.
Why are frogs not seen in the winter monnths?
8.
Give one difference between cartilaginous is and bony fishes.
9.
Name three flightless birds.
10.
Name the phylum to which the following belong :
(i) Silver fish
(ii) Sea horse
(iii) Sea cucumber
(v) Devil fish
(vi) Star fish
(vii) Cray fish
(iv) Jelly fish
SHORT ANSWER- TYPE QUESTIONS :
1.
Draw a flow-diagram to show the five kingdom classification.
2.
Give two important characters of bony fishes.
3.
What are the four main characteristics of chordates?
4.
What are Coelenterates? Mention some examples.
5.
Differentiate between radial and bilateral symmetry.
6.
List a few flight adaptations in birds.
7.
What are the differences between animals belonging to the aves group and those in the mammalia group?
8.
What are the differences between amphibians and reptiles?
9.
How do annelid animals differ from arthropods?
10.
How do poriferan animals differ from coelenterate animals?
ANSWER
EXERCISE – 1
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
C
C
D
B
B
D
C
D
A
B
C
B
D
B
A
B
D
A
D
A
AMBITION CLASSES
EXERCISE – 2
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
C
A
B
D
A
C
C
D
C
D
D
B
D
C
D
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.
Aristotle
2. Tracheae
3. Porifera
4. Locomotion, Respiration
5.
Diaphragm
6. Arthropoda
7. Coelenterates
8. Sessile
9.
Tail 10.
Mammals.
TRUE & FALSE
1.
F
2. T
3. T
4. T
5.
F
6. F
7. T
8. F
9.
T
10. T
AMBITION CLASSES
Cytology : The cell and its structures are studied under a branch of biology called cytology.
Robert Hooke (1665): An English man and first curator of Royal society of London.
Observed a thin section of bark of a tree under self designed microscope.
He noticed honey - comb like compartments.
He coined the term cell.
He wrote a book - Micrographia.
He actually observed dead cells.
The structural & functional unit of living beings is called cell.
Size of cell - Normal size in human 20  m to 30  m in diametre.
(i)
Largest cell
–
In animals - Ostrich egg [15 cm is diametre]
In plants - Acetabularia [6-10 cm]
(ii) Longest cell
–
In animals – Nerve cell [upto l mt]
In plants - Hemp fibre.
(iii) Smallest cell
–
PPLO - Pleuro pneumonia like organism
[Mycoplasma - 0.1 to 0.5  m.]
(C)
Number of cells - On the basis of number of cells the organisms can be categorised as
(i) Unicellular -
Single celled - eg - Amoeba, Paramecium.
Euglena, Plasmodium - Malarial parasite
Ulothrix, Chalmydomonas.
(ii)
Multi cellular - Numerous cells eg - higher plants & Animals.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC & EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Gr. pro – primitive
Gr. eu - Good or well
karyon - Nucleus
karyon - Nucleus
1. The cells having incipient or primitive
nucleus (i.e. nucleus lacks nuclear
envelope. Nucleolus) and membrane
bound cell organelles. (Mitochondria,
Plastids, ER. Golgi apparatus etc) are
absent called Prokaryotic cell.
1. The cells having well defined nucleus (i.e.
nucleus contain nuclear envelope & nucleolus)
and membrane bound cell organelles, are
called Eukaryotic cells.
2. Ribosome - 70 s type
2. Ribosome - 80 s type
AMBITION CLASSES
3. Normal size - 1 to 10  m
3. Normal size - 5 to 100  m
4. DNA - circular and lack histone protein
Eg.- Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Blue green
algae
4. DNA-Linear and having histone protein. Eg.Protists. Fungi. Plantae & animalia
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT CELL & ANIMAL CELL
Characters.
Plant cells
Animal cells
1
Cell wall
Present out side the plasma
membrane
Absent
2
Plastids
Present
Absent
3
Vacuole
Single, large central vacuole
Many and small vacuoles.
4
Centriole
Absent
Present
5
Nucleus
Generally excentric
Generally centric
6
Mitochondria
Less in number
More in number.
NUCLEUS (Headquarter of the cell.)
Discovered by - Robert Brown (1831)

"Nucleus is double membrane bound dense protoplasmic body, which controls all cellular metabolisms and
encloses the genetic information of cell".

Nucleus is consider as controller or director of cell. Importance of nucleus in control of heredity, growth and
metabolism was experimentally proved by Hammering.
chromosome.
A chromosome is formed of 2 identical threads called sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are joined of
Centro mere or primary constriction.

Chromatin threads are made up of –
(i)DNA
(ii) Protein [Histone protein]

Gene:- The segment of DNA and act as unit of heredity

ATP:- Adenosine triphosphate. It is also known as energy currency. It provides energy to perform biosynthesis & mechanical work.

Haploid: If an organism has single set of chromosomes?

Diploid: If an organism has 2 set of chromosomes.
Function of Nucleus:
(i)
It controls all the metabolic activities of the cell and regulates the cell cycles.
(ii)
It helps in transmission of hereditory characters from parents to off springs.
AMBITION CLASSES
(D)
Objective Type Questions:
1.
Double membrane is absent in
(a) Mitochondrion
2.
3.
(b) Shell membrane
(c) Cell wall
(d) Basement membrane
The network of endoplasmic reticulum is present in the
9.
(c) Movement
(d) Respiration
(b) Ribosome
(c) Lysosome
(d) Endoplasmic reticulum
(b) ADP
(c) ATP
(d) APP
(b) Active transport
(c) Diffusion
(d) Endocytosis
The barrier between the protoplasm and outer environment in a plant cell is
(a) Cell membrane
(b) Nuclear membrane
(c) Cell wall
(d) Tonoplast
An animal cell differs from a plant cell in respect of
(b) Cell wall
(c) Ribosomes
(d) Cell membrane.
If the nucleus is a cell's "control centre" and chloroplasts its "solar collectors". Which of the following might
be called the cell's combination "food processor" and "garbage disposer"?
(a) Lysosome
11.
(b) Growth
Root hair absorbs water from soil through
(a) ER
10.
(d) Chromosome
The radiant energy of sunlight is converted to chemical energy and stored as
(a) Osmosis
8.
(c) Cytoplasm
Animal cell lacking nuclei would also lack in
(a) AMP
7.
(b) Nucleolus
Main difference between animal cell and plant cell is
(a) Chromosome
6.
(d) Lysosome
(a) Plasma Membrane
(a) Nutrition
5.
(c) Nucleus
Animal cell is limited by
(a) Nucleus
4.
(b) Chloroplast
(b) Ribosome
(c) Golgi apparaturs
(d) Nucleous
(c) Epithelial cell
(d) Bone cell
The longest cell in human body is
(a) Neuron
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Muscle fibre
12
Identify human cells which lack nucleus
(a) WBC
13.
18.
19.
(b) Golgi apparatus
(b) Robert Brown
(b) Photosynthesis
(c) J. E. Purkije
(d) W. Fleming
(c) Protein synthesis
(d) Fat synthesis
(c) Secretory glycoproteins
(d) Hydrolytic enzymes
The membrane surrounding the vacuole of a plant cell is called
(a) Tonoplast
(b) Plasma membrane
(c) Nuclear membrane
(d) Cell wall
Centriole is associated with
(b) Reproduction
(d)
Respiration
The cell organelle associated with cell secretion is
(b) Mitochondria
(c) Golgi apparatus
(d) Nucleolus
(c) Golgi complex
(d) Starch grain
Which of the following is an inclusion?
(a) Mitochondrion
(b) Lysosome
Which of the following would not be considered part of a cell's cytoplsm?
(a) Ribosome
23.
(d) Chloroplast
(b) RNA
(a) Plastids
22.
(c) Mitochondria
(a) Fat
(c) Spindle formation
21.
(d) CTP
Lysosomes are the reservoirs of
(a) DNA synthesis
20.
(c) ATP
Ribosomes are the centre for
(a) Respiration
17.
(b) AMP
The term "protoplasm" to the living substance present inside the cell, was given by
(a) Robert Hooke
16.
(d) Nerve cells
Which organelle releases oxygen?
(a) Ribosome
15.
(c) Platelets
The energy currency of a cell is
(a) ADP
14.
(b) RBC
(b) Nucleus
(c) Mitochondrion
Which of the following is called the brain of the cell?
AMBITION CLASSES
(d) Microtubule
(a) Nucleus
24.
(b) Nucleolus
(b) Lamellae
(b)
(c) Single and nonporous
29.
(d) All of these
Double and porous
(d) Double and nonporous
(b) Late prophase
(c) Anaphase
(a) Chromosomes
(b) Vacuoles
(c) Plasma membrane
(d)
(D) Early prophase.
Nucleoplasm is continuous with cytoplasm through
(b) Golgi apparatus
(c) Nuclear pores
(d) Endoplasmic reticulum
(c) Altmann
(d) Robert Brown
Nucleolus was discovered by
(a) Fontana
31.
(c) Cristae
A cell lacking nucleus would also lack
(a) Centriole
30.
(d) Nucleoplasm
Nuclear membrane disappears during mitosis at
(a) Telophase
28.
(c) Centrosome
Nucleus is separated from surrounding cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope which
(a) Single and porous
27
(d) Plasma membrane
The common feature amongst nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondrion is
(a) DNA
26.
(c) Ribosomes
Which one is not a part of nucleus?
(a) Chromatin
25.
(b) Mitochondria
(b) Schleiden
Nucleolus is mainly formed of
(a) DNA and RNA
(c) RNA and proteins
(b) DNA, RNA and protein
(d)
RNA
32. The function of the nucleolus in the cell is
33.
(a) Secretory
(b) Synthesis of RNA and ribosomes
(c) Synthesis of RNA ribosomes
(d) None of these
Which of the following phenomena is commonly referred as 'cell drinking'?
(a) Exocytosis
34.
(b) Pinocytosis
(c) Endocytosis
The cell organelle taking part in photorespiration is
AMBITION CLASSES
(d) Phagocytosis
(a) Glyoxysome
35.
39.
41.
44.
45.
(b) RNA
(c) t-RNA
(d) DNA
(b) 5 subunits
(c) 2 subunits
(d) 4 subunits
(b) thylakoids
(c) Outer membrane
(d) Inner membrane
The sedimentation coefficient of complete ribosome in bacterial cell is
(b) 80S
(c) 78S
(d) 60S
Which cell organelle is absent in human sperm?
(a) ER
(b) Nucleus
(c) Centrioles
(d) Mitochondria
Which one of the following is common in plant and animal?
(b) chloroplast
(c) Centriole
(d) None of these
Which of the following is a nonliving cell inclusion?
(a) Vacuoles
43.
(d) None of these
(a) Stroma
(a) Mitochondria
42.
(c) Golgi bodies
In chloroplasts. chlorophyll is present in the
(a) 70S
40.
(b) Lysosomes
Ribosomes are composed of
(a) 1 subunit
38.
(d) Endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following help in synthesis of ribosomes?
(a) m-RNA
37.
(c) Peroxisomes
Endoplasmic reticulum sometime contains
(a) Ribosomes
36.
(b) Dictyosome
(b) Ribosomes
(c) Centrosome
(d) Golgi complex
Cell vacuole contains
(a) Water
(b) Metabolic gases
(c) Cytoplasm
(d) Water and dissolved substances
A mature plant cell has
(a) Protoplasm and vacuole
(b) Vacuole and cell wall
(c) Cell wall and protoplasm
(d) Protoplasm, cell wall and vacuole
Which of the following non-membranous cell organelle
AMBITION CLASSES
46.
(a) Chloroplast
(b) Nucleus
(c) Mitochondria
(d) Centriole
The function of centrosome is
(a) Formation of RNA
(b)
(c) Movement of chromosome
47.
(b)
(c) Nucleolus formation (d)
49.
Spindle formation
Start of cell division
Which of the following is called ‘an organelle within on organelle?
(a) Plastid
(b) Ribosome
(c) Lysosome
(d) Microsome
Cell organelle common in Protista and Monera is
(a) Vacuole
50.
(d) Duplication of chromosome
Centriole takes part in
(a) Cell plate part in
48.
Duplication of DNA
(b) Ribosome
(c) Lysosome
(d) Chloroplast
Which of the following organelles lack membranes?
(a) Ribosome
(b) Mitochondria
(c) Golgi complex
(d) Nucleus
(A)
Give answer of following questions :
1.
How is rough ER different from smooth ER? What functions do they perform in a cell?
2.
What are different types of plastids? What are their functions?
3.
Why are mitochondria called the power house of the cell?
4.
Explain the structure of nucleus. What is its function?
5.
Describe the functions of Golgi complex.
6.
What name is given to the Golgi apparatus occurring in plant cells? Why is it named differently in plant cells?
7.
Why are lysosomes called scavengers?
8.
What are suicide bags? Why are they called so?
9.
What for ATP stands?
10.
Name the nucleic acids that are present in an animal cell.
11.
What is the function of mitochondria?
12.
What is the main function of each of the following organelles:
AMBITION CLASSES
(i) Cell wall
(ii) Plasma membrane
(iii) Chromosomes
(iv) Nucleolus
(v) Mitochondria
(vi) Chloroplasts
(vii) Golgi apparatus
(viii) Lysosomes
(ix) Centrioles
(x) Vacuoles.
13.
What would happen if plasma membrane ruptures or breaks down?
14.
What would happen to the life of a cell if there was no Golgi apparatus?
15.
Distinguish between:
(i) Ribosome and centrosome
(B)
(ii) Cell wall and cell membrane.
Write the technical terms for the following:
(i) An organism whose body is made up of many cells.
(ii) An organism whose cells do not have well organised nucleus
(iii) The living substance present inside the cell.
(iv) Separated chromatids of a chromosome during anaphase.
(C)
Complete the following sentences:
1.
Centrioles help in cell division by forming __________
2.
Cilia and flagella help in _________
3.
In plant cells, the vacuoles are filled with __________
4.
Leucoplasts store food in the form of __________
5.
The chromatin is composed of _________ and ___________
6.
During cell division chromatin condensed into thick cord like structures called _________
7.
A compound microscope can magnify an object upto ___________times.
8.
The cells having well organised nucleus are called __________
9.
The body of Amoeba is made up of __________ cell.
10.
The cell is the basic unit of _______ and _________ of the living beings .
11.
The egg of _______
12.
Ribosomes are associated with the synthesis of _____________
is the largest cell.
13. The cellular organelles often referred as suicide bags are ___________
14.
Chromosomes are made up of __________and ___________
15.
Cell wall is found only in ____________
AMBITION CLASSES
and __________
ANSWER KEY (EXERCISE – II)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
D
A
C
A
A
C
A
A
B
A
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
A
B
C
D
C
C
D
A
C
C
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
D
B
A
C
A
B
B
A
C
A
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
C
C
B
C
A
B
C
B
A
A
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
A
A
D
D
D
C
D
B
B
A
AMBITION CLASSES
“A group of cells having similar in shape, having a common origin and usually performing a common function is called
tissue.”
The term tissue was coined by Nehemiah Grew.
On the basis of dividing capacity of the tissue, plant tissues are of two types:
1.
Meristematic tissue (growing tissue)
2.
Permanent tissue
In Meristematic tissue, cells are thin walled, living and isodiametric. Their cell wall is formed by cellulose.
Permanent tissue
are composed of cells which have lost the power of division temporarily or permanent.They
are formed by division and differentiation of meristematic tissue
Compound or complex permanent tissue:

These are form more than one type of cells which work as a unit.

These form conducting tissue of plants.

These are of two types:
(i) Xylem
S. No.
(ii) Phloem
Xylem
Phloem
1
It contains mainly dead elements. Xylem
parenchyma cells are the only living cells.
2
It conducts water and minerals from roots to It transfers prepared food like sucrose from leaves to
storage organs and growing points of plant body.
stem and leaves.
3
Two types of conducting elements, tracheids
and vessels are found
AMBITION CLASSES
It contains mainly living cells, "namely sieve tube
cells, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells.
Only one type of conducting elements, namely sieve
tubes are present.
EXERCISE
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUETSION
1.
Increase in the length of the plant is caused by
(a) cork cambium
2.
(b) vascular cambium
5.
6.
7.
8.
(b) collenchyma
(c) sclerenchyma
(d) all of these
(a) primary meristem
(b) secondary meristem
(c) lateral meristem
(d) apical meristem
Bases of leaves and internodes have
(a) lateral meristem
(b) apical meristem
(c) intercalary meristem
(d) none of these
Parenchymatous cells which are thickened with cellulose at the corner are called
(a) collenchyma
(b) sclerenchyma
(c) parenchyma and sclerenchyma
(d) none of these
Nucleus is not present in
(a) companion cell
(b) mature sieve tube
(c) phloem parenchyma
(d) collenchyma
Sieve tubes and companion cells occur in
(b) cambium
(c) meristem
(d) phloem
Elongated lignified cells with pointed ends belong to
(a) collenchyma
10.
(d) intercalary meristem
Interfascicular cambium is an example of
(a) xylem
9.
(c) apical meristem
A simple permanent tissue devoid of intercellular spaces and lignin is
(a) parenchyma
4.
(d) permanent tissue
Cork cambium is an example of
(a) lateral meristem (b) primary meristem
3.
(c) apical meristem
(b) parenchyma
(c) sclerenchyma
(d) none of these
(c) meristematic
(d) permanent
Tissues secreting latex are
(a) laticiferous
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) glandular
11.
Tissue is defined as
(a) group of similar cells having a common function
(b) different types of cells performing the same functions
(c) different types of cells performing different functions
(d) organised group of cells performing many functions.
12.
Which tissue provides mechanical strength to plants?
(a) Sclerenchyma
13.
20.
(b) suberised
(c) pectinised
(d) cutinised
(b) Collenchyma
(c) Sclerenchyma
(d) All of these
(b) Parenchyma
(c) Meristem
(d) Xylem
(b) Sclerenchyma
(c) Vessels
(d) Parenchyma
The tissue that takes part in the transport of food materials is
(a) Parenchyma
19.
(d) Sclerenchyma
Companion cells are associated with
(a) Sieve tubes
18.
(c) Aerenchyma
Which of these types of cells is most likely to divide?
(a) Epidermis
17.
(b) Parenchyma
Which of the following cells are dead?
(a) Parenchyma
16.
(d) Chlorenchyma
In sclerenchyma, the cell wall is
(a) lignified
15.
(c) Collenchyma
Name the tissue where the cells are living, thin walled, isodiametric with intercellular spaces.
(a) Collenchyma
14.
(b) Parenchyma
(b) Phloem
(c) Xylem
(d) None of these
Xylem takes part in
(a) Conduction of water in the plant body.
(b) Conduction of food material
(c) Providing mechanical support
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Which of the following are characteristics of angiosperms?
(a) Xylem
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Vessels
(c) Sieve tubes
(d) Cambium
ANSWER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
C
A
B
B
C
A
B
D
C
A
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
A
A
B
A
C
C
A
B
A
B
AMBITION CLASSES
On the basis of function they perform in the body of multicellular animals, the animal tissues are classified as:
Functions
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Muscular Tissue
Nervous Tissue
(i)
Protection
(i) Supporting
(ii)
Secretion
(ii) Binding
(iii)
Absorption
(iii) Transport

Connective Tissue The connective tissue is specialised to connect and anchors various body organs.
(i) Movement & locomotion (i) Control & coordination
The main functions of connective tissue are binding, supporting & packing together different organs of the body.
Tendons
Ligaments
(i)
Inelastic
(i)
Elastic
(ii)
Join muscles to bone
(ii)
Connect bones to bones.
(iii)
Made up of white fibres
(iii)
Made up of white as well as yellow fibres.
Bone
Cartilage
1
It is strong and non-flexible tissue.
6
It is semi-rigid and flexible tissue.
2
Its matrix contains deposition of calcium and
phosphate.
7
Its matrix does not contain deposition
calcium & phosphate.
3
A long bone has a number of Haversian canal
systems.
8
A cartilage does not have haversian canal
systems.
4
Each lacuna of the bone has only one
Osteocytes.
9
Each lacuna of cartilage has 2-3
chondrocytes.
5
Bone cells make connections through canaliculi.
10
AMBITION CLASSES
There are no canaliculi
Blood corpuscles
(i) RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles)
(ii)WBC (White Blood Corpuscles)
(iii) Platelets
Plasma:
A straw coloured fluid which constitutes about 55 percent of the total volume of blood. Plasma contains a number of
inorganic & organic compounds
Functions:
(i)
It transports nutrients, hormones and vitamins to the tissues and carries excretory products from the tissues to
the excretory organs,
(ii)
The RBCs of blood helps in the transport of respiratory gases, oxygen & CO2.
(iii)
The WBCs fight with diseases by producing antibodies and engulfing the germs.
(iv)
Blood platelets help in the clotting of blood.
AMBITION CLASSES
Objective type questions:
1.
2.
Tendon connects a:
(a) Ligament with muscle (b)
Bone with muscle
(c) Cartilage with muscle (d)
Bone with bone
The process by which bone formed is known as:
(a) Calcification
3.
4.
6.
8.
(b) Less ATP, more lactic acid
(c) Less ATP, less lactic acid
(d) More ATP, more lactic acid
Which of the following acts as antibody to help in body defense?
10.
(b) Immunoglobulin
(c) Globulin
(d) Albumin
Smooth muscle is found in all the sites except:
(a) Gastrointestinal tract (b)
Fallopian tube
(c) Blood vessel
(d) Eyeball muscle
In a neuron, dendrite may be one or many, but axon is generally:
(b) Two
(c) Three
(d) More than one
A tissue is made up of:
(a) One type of cells
(b) Two types of cells
(c) One or many types of cells
(d) Many types of cells
Which one of the following cellular components of the blood is responsible for the production of antibodies?
(a) Thrombocyte
9.
(d) Decalcification
(a) More ATP, less glycogen
(a) One
7.
(c) Ossification
During fatigue muscle contains:
(a) Prothrombin
5.
(b) Codification
(b) Lymphocyte
(c) Monocyte
(d) Erythrocyte
Which of the following is present in the alveoli of lungs?
(a) Simple columnar epithelium
(b) Simple cuboidal epithelium
(c) Simple squamous epithelium
(d) Sensory epithelium
This one is the characteristic of epithelial tissue:
(a) Tissues are highly vascularized
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) These cells never produce glands
(c) The cells will have a rapid rate of cell division
(d) Large intercellular spaces are seen between cells
11.
Blood plasma is:
(a) Neutral
12.
(b) Slightly acidic
(b) Hyaline cartilage
(c) Fibrous cartilage
(b) Melanin
(b) Myosin
(b) Bone
(b) Canaliculi
(b)
(c) Adipose tissue and calcified cartilage (d)
20.
(c) Collagen
(d) Keratin
(c) Actin
(d) Myoglobin
(c) Muscle
(d) Neuron
(c) Dendrites
(d) Haversian
The bone marrow is composed of:
(a) Muscle fibres and adipose tissue
19.
(d) Many chondrocytes
Processes from osteoblasts are found in:
(a) Lamella
18.
(c) Many osteocytes
Canaliculi are found associated with:
(a) Cartilage
17.
(b) Two osteocytes
Light bands of muscle fibre are made of the protein:
(a) Tubulin
16.
All of these
Major protein of connective tissue is:
(a) Myosin
15.
(d)
Lacuna of bone contains:
(a) One osteocyte
14.
(d) Strongly acidic
Which of the following is a transparent tissue?
(a) Tendon
13.
(c) Slightly alkaline
Areolar tissues are adipose tissue
Adipose tissue, areolar tissue and blood vessels
The longitudinal canals of the bone are called
(a) Volkmann's canals
(b) Haversian canals
(c) Periosteum
(d) Endosteum
Volkmann's canals occur in:
(a) Cartilage
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Bone
(c) Internal ear
(d) Liver
ANSWER KEY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
B
C
B
B
D
A
C
B
C
C
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
C
B
A
C
C
B
B
D
B
B
AMBITION CLASSES
In human beings the circulatory system is divided into two systems:
(i)
Blood Circulatory System
(ii)
Lymphatic System
(i)
Blood Circulatory System: It includes the following –
(A) Blood
(B) Heart
(C) Blood vessels
BLOOD:Blood is an important fluid conducting tissue, which transport the materials to different parts of body by conduction

Study of blood
- Haematology

Proces of blood formation
- Haemopoiesis

Colour
- Red

By weight
- 7 to 8% of body weight

By volume
- 5-6 litres in male and 4-5 litres in female
Composition of Blood:
Liquid part - matrix - plasma 55%
Solid part - Blood corpuscles - 45% (RBC, WBC and Platelets)
Proces of blood formation - Haemopoiesis
PLASMA: It composes 55% of Wood and is Pale yellow.

It is pale yellow in colour due to urobilinogen (Billirubin).

The plasma has 90-92% water and remaining 8% -10% are other materials.

Albumin:



Smallest plasm protein.

Responsible to maintain BCOP (Blood Colloidal Osmotic Pressure).
Globulin:

Transport or carry substance in body.

Destroy bacteria virus and toxic substances.
Fibrinogen:

Largest plasma protein.

Helps in blood clotting.
AMBITION CLASSES

Prothrombin:

Helps in blood clotting.
Function of Plasma:
(i)
Transportation of nutrients, respiratory gases, excretion of wastes and hormones of endocrine glands.
(ii)
It helps in temperature regulation.
BLOOD CORPUSCLES:
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Corpuscles, RBC): They are numerous in the blood

Mammalian RBC's are biconcave, circular and non nucleated.

In RBC higher cell organells like mitochondria (so only anaerobic respiration in these can RBC) and Golgi complex is
absent.

In RBC red coloured respiratory pigmet/ Iron pigment Haemoglobin is present.

Life span of RBC in Human = 120 days.

Life span of RBC in New Born - 100 days.

In adult stage RBC is produced by RBM (Red Bone Marrow).

Process of formation of RBC is called Erythropoietin.

Decrease in RBC Count condition is called anaemia.

Spleen stores excess blood corpuscles so it is called Blood Bank of body.

Camel and Lama are mammals with biconvex, oval shaped and Nucleated RBC.
Functions of RBCs - Transport of CO2 and O2
(2)
White Blood Corpuscles (WBC):

WBC are also called as leucocytes because they are colourless.

They are bigger in size than RBC but their number is less.

Their cells have nucleus in it.

When bacteria or harmful foreign body, enters human body, WBC attack upon and destroy them, thus protects
the body from diseases.
Functions of WBCs:

They protect body against allergy and parasitic infection.

Secrete and transport Heparin, Histamine and Serotonin.

Phagocytic in Nature, Destroy bacteria and viruses by phagocytosis
(3)
Platelets:

Also known as Thrombocytes.

They are smaller than red and white blood corpuscles and less than RBC in number.

Nucleus is absent in them.
AMBITION CLASSES

They are minute, contractile and disc-shaped.
Functions:

Their main function is clotting of blood.
(II)
External structure of Heart:


It is situated in thoracic cavity, between the lungs slightly on the ventral surface.
Its triangular, superior-broad portion is tilted slightly towards right (dorsal) side, its lower narrow portion is tilted
towards left side.

Heart is enclosed from all the sides by an envelope of two membranes called pericardial membrane.


The narrow space in between these two membranes is called pericardial cavity.
A serous fluid is present in this cavity, it is called pericardial fluid.

The human heart is divisible into four chambers.


The upper two chambers are Auricle while the lower two chambers are called Ventricles.
Working of the heart:

The heart of the human works like a pump.

As the two lateral parts of heart do not come in contact with each other thus heart works as two
pumps both the parts work independently and simultaneously.

Pure oxygenated blood enters the left auricle from lungs through pulmonary veins.

The deoxygenated blood from various part of the body enters right auricle through veins and capillaries.

The two auricles contract simultaneously so the oxygenated blood from left auricle to lef t ventricle and
deoxygenated blood from right auricle is pumped into right ventricle.

Now both the ventricles contract simultaneously so the pressure is created on the blood and the valve
between auricle and ventricle dose and the blood does not go back into auricle.

Due to this pressure, aorta valve opens and the blood comes in aorta, from here, blood is sent to different
parts of the body with the help of various arteries.

By the contraction of right ventricle, blood reaches the lungs through pulmonary arteries where it gets
deoxygenated.

Heart beat:


SA node is also known as "Pacemaker"

Heart beat in human, 72 times in one minute.


The sino-atrial node (SA node) found in the wall of the right atrium, is responsible to initiate and
maintain the heart beat by their rhythmic and spontaneous contractions.
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the wall of blood vessel in which it is present.
Types: Blood pressure is of two types.
(i) Systolic blood pressure
(ii) Diastolic blood pressure
Differences between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
AMBITION CLASSES
Characters
Systolic blood pressure
Diastolic blood pressure
1. Definition
Blood pressure at the time of maximum Blood pressure at the time of
contraction of ventricles
maximum relaxation of ventricles
2. Value
120 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
Blood vessel
In human, three types of blood vessels are present.
(i)
Arteries
1.
Arteries: The vessels which carry blood from heart to various, organ of the body are called arteries.
2.
Veins: They collect the blood from different parts of the body and pour it into the heart.
3.
Capillaries: The thin branches of the blood vessels are called capillaries. The major differences between various
blood vessels have been given in Table
AMBITION CLASSES
(ii) Veins
(iii) Capillaries
(A)
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTION
1.
Which of these has a closed type of circulatory system?
(a) Cockroach
2.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
(b) Forges
(c) Reptiles
(d) Man
(b) Tortoise
(c) Salamander
(d) Crocodile
Right atrium of mammalian heart receives blood from:
(a) Sinus venosus
5.
(d) Mollusc
Four chambered heart is found in:
(a) Cobra
4.
(c) Scorpion
Signle heart circuit occurs in:
(a) Fishes
3.
(b) Fish
(b) Pulmonary veins
(c) Precavals
(d) Pre-and Postcavals
Mitral valve in mammals guards the opening between:
(a) Right atrium and right ventricle
(b) Left atrium and ventricle
(c) Right atrium and left ventricle
(d) Left atrium and right ventricle
Tricuspid valve is present between:
(a) Right atrium and ventricle
(b) The two atria
(c) The two ventricles
(d) Left atrium and ventricle
Eustachian valve is found in:
(a) Middle ear
(b) Internal ear
(c) Left ventricle of heart (d)
Right auricle of heart
Heart is covered by:
(a) Peritoneum
(b) Pleural membrane
(c) Left ventricle of heart (d)
Visceral membrane
Mitral valve connects:
(a) Left atrium and left ventricle
(b) Left atrium and right ventricle
(c) Right atrium and left ventricle
(d) Right atrium and right ventricle
Which of the following has the thickest walls?
(a) Right ventricle
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Left ventricle
(c) Right auricle
(d) Left auricle
11.
12.
Pacemaker influences:
(a) Contraction of pelvis (b)
Hearbeat rate
(c) Row of blood in heart (d)
Contraction of heart muscles
The pacemaker of heart is:
(a) AV node
13.
14.
16.
(b) Decreases heartbeat
(c) Initiate heartbeat
(d) Control blood supply to heart
Contraction of right ventricle pumps blood into:
19.
(b) Pulmonary artery
(d) Coronary artery
(a) In the wall of right atrium
(b) On the Interauricular septum
(c) On interventricular septum
(d) In the wall of atrium
The impulse of heartbeat originates from:
(b) Vagus nerve
(c) AV node
(d) Cardiac nerve
The heart of a healthy man beats normally per minute
(b) 80-90 times
(c) 70-80 times
(d) 60-70 times
Systole causes:
(a) Entry of blood into lungs
(b) Entry of blood into heart
(c) Exit of blood from heart
(d) Exit of blood from ventricles
First heart sound is
(a) Lubb' sound at end of systole
(b) ‘Dubb’ or ‘dupp’ sound at the end of systole
(c) Lubb' sound at beginning of ventricular systole
(d) ‘Lubb’ sound at beginning of ventricular
20.
(c) Pulmonary vein
Pacemaker is situated in heart:
(a) 85-90 times
18.
(d) Tricuspid valve
(a) Increase heartbeat
(a) SA node
17.
(c) SV node
Role of pacemaker is to :
(a) Dorsal aorta
15.
(b) SA node
‘Dupp’ sound is produced during closure of:
AMBITION CLASSES
21.
(a) Semilunar valves
(b) Biscuspid valve
(c) Tricuspid
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Typical lubb-dupp' sounds heard during heartbeat are due to:
(a) Closing of bicuspid and tricupid valves
(b) Closing of semilunar valves
(c) Blood under pressure through aorta
(d) Closure of bicuspid-tricuspid valves followed by semilunar valves
22.
The instrument used to hear heart sound is.
(a) Electrocardiograph
(b)
(c) Stethoscope
23.
(b) 120/80 mm Hg
(b) BP meter
(d) 80/120 mm Hg
(c) Stethoscope
(d) Sphygmomanometer
(c) Respiration
(d) Digestion
William Harvey is known for discovery of:
(a) Blood circulation (b) Blood clotting
26.
(c) 100/1201 mm Hg
The instrument by which BP of man is determined:
(a) Ultrasound
25.
(d) Haemometer
In adult man, normal BP is:
(a) 100/80 mm Hg
24.
Sphygmomanometer
Mammals are said to have double circulation. It means:
(a) Blood vessels are paired
(b) There are two types of blood vessels attachedto every organ
(c) There are two systems, one from the heart to the lungs and back to hte rest of the body
27.
28.
The blood circulates twice through the heart in mammals, veins differs from arteries in having:
(a) Thicker walls
(b) Deeply pre
(c) Carry blood away from heart
(d) Internal values
Oxygenated blood returns from lungs to the heart through:
(a) Coronary vein
29.
(b) Pulmonary vein
The smallest blood vessel in the body is:
AMBITION CLASSES
(c) Coronary artery
(d) Pulmonary artery
(a) Capillary
30.
(b) Artery
(c) Vein
(d) Vena cave
(c) Hepatic
(d) Systemic
Arteries carry oxygenated blood except:
(a) Pulmonary
(b) Cardiac
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.
Mineral which helps in formation of RBCs is ________________
2.
Blood vessels without muscular walls are _____________
3.
First heart sound is called_______________
4.
O2 and CO2 are transported by_________________
5.
Fishes have ___________ chambered heart.
6.
Amphibians have _____________ chambered heart.
7.
____________ heart has only deoxygenated blood.
8.
Blood goes through the heart twice during each cycle is called ______________
9.
High blood pressure is called ______________
10.
The force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel is called_______________
11.
Contraction of heart chambers is called_________________
12.
Relaxation of heart chambers is called ____________
13.
Pressure in artery during ventricular diastole is called ______________
14.
____________ helps in blood clotting.
15.
White colored fluid other than blood which help in transportation is called ____________
16.
Lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from ______________
17.
Lymph drains excess fluid from extra cellular space back into ____________
18.
Lymph drains into ____________ for the intercellular spaces.
19.
Lymphatic capilleries join to form ____________ that finally form _______________
20.
Pumping organ in human body is ______________
21.
Fluid medium of blood is called _________________
22.
Oxygen is carried by the ________________
AMBITION CLASSES
23.
Blood platelets are also called _____________________
24.
Covering over heart is called ____________
25.
______________ circulation is related with lungs.
26.
The series of events which occur during one completes beat of the heart is known as __________ cycle.
27.
The pressure wave transmitted all through the arterial system is known as ___________
MATCH THE COLOUMNS
Column A
Column B
1
Capillaries
(a)
Carries digested fat
2
Lymph
(b)
Oxygenated Wood
3
Left ventricle
(c)
deoxygenated blood
4
Pulmonary artery
(d)
RBC
5
Haemoglobin
(e)
exchange of materials
6
Birds
(f)
three chambered heart
7
Amphibians
(g)
four chambered heart
8
Contraction of heart chambers
(h)
two chambered heart
9
Relaxation of heart chambers
(i)
Diastole
10
Second heart sound
(j)
Lub
(k)
Systole
(l)
Dupp
TRUE FALSE STATEMENTS
1.
Vessels are able to contract and expand.
2.
While there is only one type of RBC, there are many white cell types.
3.
All animals have a system of vessels and tubes called a circulatory system.
4.
Blood is not a tissue because it is a fluid.
5.
Arteries are the widest blood vessels.
6.
Humans have an open circulatory system.
7.
The exchange of nutrients and waste products between the blood and cells occurs with in the arteries.
AMBITION CLASSES
8.
The liquid portion of the blood is called plasma.
9.
Living organisms must maintain a constant internal environment.
10.
Circulatory system also performs the function of homeostasis.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Name the blood receiving chamber of heart.
2.
What makes RBC's red?
3.
What is pulmonary circulation?
4.
Which chamber of heart has thickest wall?
5.
Name the larger veins that pour blood into right auricle.
6.
Name the largest artery of our body.
7.
Which chamber of heart receives oxygenated blood from lungs?
8.
Name the valve present between the:
(a) Left auricle and left ventricle
(b) right auricle and right ventricle
9.
What is normal blood pressure?
10.
Name the artery that carry deoxygenated blood and the vein that carry oxygenated blood.
11.
What is SA node?
12.
Which instrument can record electrical changes during heart beat?
13.
Name the thickest artery.
14.
Name the part of the circulatory system that acts as filter for microorganisms.
15.
Name the major circulation present in our body.
16.
Give the technical term for the white vascular connectine tissue.
17.
What is the life span of human RBCs?
18.
Why is blood called river of life?
19.
Give the position of human heart?
20.
Why there is no backflow of blood from ventricles to auricles?
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
AMBITION CLASSES
1.
What are the components of the transport system in human beings?
2.
Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammal and birds?
3.
Why is circulation in man known as "double circulation?
4.
Write three differences between lymph and blood.
5.
Why is heart beat rate equal to the arterial pulse rate?
6.
Is human circulatory system open or closed? Why?
7.
In which direction does O2 diffuse between a capillary and a cell? Why does it diffuse in that direction?
8.
What is the primary function of RBC’s?
9.
Predict the effect on the heart if blood flow through the anterior interventricular artery is restricted or
completely blocked.
10.
Write two advantages and disadvantages of a closed circulatory system.
11.
Point out three differences between artery and vein.
12.
Why is SA node also called pacemaker?
13.
What is cardiac cycle?
14.
What is lymph? What is its function in human body?
15.
Which part of the human heart is considered as pacemaker? Why is it so called?
16.
What is the role of blood pressure in circulation?
17.
Give the difference between plasma and lymph.
18.
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
19.
Give the difference between pulmonary artery and pulmonary vain.
20.
Which blood cell in human blood carries haemoglobin? What is its average life span?
21.
What is blood pressure? How it is measured?
22.
Differentiate between systolic and diastolic pressure.
23.
Give an account on different types of blood vessels.
24.
Give the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
AMBITION CLASSES
The working together of the various organs of an organism to adjust vital activities of life is called coordination. Coordination is
mainly of two types:1.
Nervous coordination  animals.
2.
Chemical coordination  plants and animals.
There are two system to control and coordinate various activities in animals
(A)
Nervous system
(B)
Endocrine system
NEURON
The basic structural and functional unit of nervous system.
Neuron (nerve cell) is the longest cell of human body (up to 100 cm)
Neuron is made up of
(i)
Cell body
(ii)
Cell processes (axon and dendron)
(A)
BRAIN

Brain is the most important part of human body.

Brain is situated in a cranial box (cranium) which is made of bones.




Parts of Brain: (l)Fore brain
(a)Cerebrum
(b) Diencephalon
© Olfactory lobes
(2) Mid brain
(b)Crura cerebri
(c) Corpora quadrigemina
(3) Hind brain
(a) Cerebellum
(b) Pons
(c) Medulla oblongate
(a)
Cerebrum (Telencephalon):-

It is the most developed and the most complex part of brain.

It makes 2/3 part of total brain.

Cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres. (Left and right cerebral hemispheres)
Thalamus:
They act as relay station.

They receive all sensory impulse from all parts of body and these impulses are send to the cerebral
hemispheres.
(D)
Hypothalamus:-
AMBITION CLASSES

It forms lower lateral wall of diencephalon.

A cross like structure is found on anterior surface of hypothalamus called as optic chiasma.

Pituitary body is attached to middle part of hypothalamus by infundibulate.

Functions :
(i) Thermoregulation
(ii) Behavior and emotion
(iii) Endocrine control
(iv) Biological clock system
(v) There are centres of temperature control, pain, hunger and thirst
Epithalamus

It forms the roof of diencephalon.

Pineal body is found in it.

Olfactory lobes:-

These are small pair of lobes.

Each lobe consists of an olfactory bulb and an olfactory tract (stalk).

These control sense of smell.
Cerebellum:

It is made up of 3 lobes (2 lateral lobes and 1 vermis).

Lateral lobes are also called cerebellar hemisphere.

Function: It is related with body balance & posture.
(c)
Medulla oblongata:-

It is the posterior-most, tubular and cylindrical part of brain.

The lower end medulla extends in the from of spinal cord.

Functions:
(i)
It controls all the involuntary activities of the body. e.g. - heart beats, respiration.
(ii)
It also concerned with some reflexes- sneezing reflex, coughing reflex, vomiting reflex, yawning reflex.
(B) SPINAL CORD

It is a downward continuation of the medulla oblongata, which lies in the vertebral column.
Functions of spinal cord (i)
Spinal cord regulates and conducts the reflex action,
(ii)
It acts as bridge between brain & organs of the body,
(iii)
It also provides relay path for the impulses coming from brain.
AMBITION CLASSES
Cranial Nerves :
Nerves arising from brain are called cranial nerves.

Nerves may be sensory, motor or rhixed.

12 pairs of cranial nerves are found in reptiles birds and mammals but amphibians and fishes have only 10 pairs.
(B)
Spinal Nerves:-

Nerves arising from spinal cord.

Each spinal nerve is mixed type and arises from the roots of the horns of grey matter of the spinal cord.

In human only 31 pairs of spinal nerves are found.
AMBITION CLASSES
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS :1.
2.
Chemical transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another at a synapse is by
(a) Cholesterol
(b) Acetylcholine
(c) Choleystokinin
(d) ATP
"Nodes of Ranviers" are found in
(a) Brain
3.
(b) Heart
(b)
(c) Receptor to effector
5.
Receptor to C.N.S.
(d) Effector to receptor
Saltatory conduction occurs in
(a) Non-myelinated fibers
(b) Myelinated
(c) Both of them
(d) None of these
Power of regeneration is lowest in
(a) Brain cell
6.
(d) Eye
Afferent nerve fiber conducts impulse from
(a) C.N.S. to effector
4.
(c) Axon
(b) Liver cell
(c) Bone cell
(d) Muscle cell
The Schwann sheath is
(a) A non myelinated nerve fibre
(b) Associated with myelin
(c) A connective tissue cell
(d) Associated with myelinated & myelinated nerve fibre Cholecystokinin
7.
8.
9.
Non Myelinated axons differ from myelinated in that they
(a) Are more excitable
(b) Lack nodes of Ranvier
(c) Are not capable of regeneration
(d) Are not associated with Schwann cells
Meninges surrounding the brain of Human from outside to inside are
(a) Duramater, arachnoid, piamater
(b) Piamater, arachnoid, duramater
(c) Duramater, piamater, arachnoid
(d) Piamater, duramater, arachnoid
Corpus callosum connects
(a) Two cerebral hemispheres
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Two optic lobes
(c) Two olfactory lobes
10.
11.
Cerebellum is concerned with
(a) Co-ordination of muscular movement
(b) Memory
(c) Vision
(d) Reflex action
How many lobes are present in cerebellum
(a) 1
12.
(b)
3
(c) 5
(d) 7
The box like bony structure which encloses the brain is called
(a) Cranium
13
(d) Optic chiasma
(b)
Pericardium
(c) Peritoneum
(d)
Periosteum
The function of cerebrospinal fluid surrounding CNS is to
(a) Protect the brain from external Jerks
(b) Provide nourishment and 02 to the brain
(c) Take away unwanted substance from the brain
(d) All of the above
14.
Largest cavity in brain is called
(a) Diocoel
15.
18.
(d) Rhinocoel
(b) Cerebrum
(c) Crura cerebri
(d) Cerebellum
(c) 11
(d) 29
Number of cranial nerves in human
(a) 12
17.
(c) Metacoel
Voluntary activates of body are controlled by
(a) Diencephalon
16.
(b) Paracoel
(b) 24
Reflex action is controlled by
(a) Muscles
(b) Limbs
(c) Central nervous system
(d) Autonomic nervous system
Find out the correct sequence of a simple reflex are
(a) Brain-spinal cord - nerves - effector
(b) Effector - CNS - sensory nerves - receptor
(c) Musdes - spinal cord - brain - receptor
AMBITION CLASSES
(d) Receptor - sensory nerves - CNS - effector
19.
20.
Most of the involuntary action are controlled by
(a) Medulla oblongata
(b)
Cerebrum
(c) Cerebellum
(d)
Diencephalon
If cerebellum of man gets damaged, his movement become
(a) Shaky & speech become defective
(b) Unbalanced, walk uncontrolled, defective speech & intention tremor
(c) Jerky & defective speech
(d) Jerky & walked uncontrolled
AMBITION CLASSES
TRUE OR FALSE:
1.
All the voluntary actions of the body are coordinated by the cerebrum.
2.
Axon endings of a neuron recieve the stimuli.
3.
Neuron has an insulating and protective sheath of myelin around it.
4.
Coelenterates have a primitive type of nervous system, called diffused nervous system.
5.
Human brain is covered by two meninges.
6.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are antagonistic to each other in their functions.
7.
Cranial nerves are arise from brain and they are 12 in number.
8.
Tangoreceptors detect touch.
9.
Speed of nerve impulse depends on the diameter of axon.
10.
Medulla oblongata controls involuntary functions.
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.
Cavities of brain are called........................
2.
All information from our environment is detected by the specialized........................cells.
3.
........................receptors detect taste while........................receptors detect smell.
4.
........................tissue is made up of an organised network of neurons.
5.
........................is the part of a neuron where information is acquired.
6.
Through the neuron, information travels as an........................
7.
Peripheral nervous system consisting of........................nerves arising from brain and spinal nerves arising
from........................
8.
........................is the main thinking part of the brain.
9.
........................ is a part of hind brain which maintain the posture and balance of body.
10.
........................coordination is seen in both plants and animals.
11.
Part of brain acting as relay centre is........................
12.
Largest part of brain is........................
13.
........................is the reaction of an organism to stimulus.
AMBITION CLASSES
14.
........................is the functional and structural unit of nervous system.
15.
Main parts of a neuron are........................and........................
16.
A close relation between axon endings of a neuron and dendrites of next neuron is known as……….
17.
Cyton of a neuron contains ............................ granules which are made up of .............................. and
endoplasmic reticulum.
18.
........................are places on axon where myelin sheath is absent.
19.
........................fluid is found in ventricles of brain.
20.
Central nervous system is consisting of........................ and........................
MATCH THE COLUMN
Column A
Column B
(i)
Cerebellum
(a)
Neuron
(ii)
Spinal cord
(b)
Acetylcholine
(iii)
Phonoreceptors
(c)
Thinking part of brain
(iv)
Functional and structural unit of nervous system
(d)
Close relation between two neuron
(v)
Neurotransmitter
(e)
Flatworms
(vi)
Cerebrum
(f)
Detect sound
(vii)
Synapse
(g)
Dendron
(viii)
Algesireceptors
(h)
Detect pain
(ix)
Small cell process of neuron
(i)
Reflex actions
(x)
Ladder type nervous system
(j)
Maintain balance and posture
VERY SHORE TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
What is neuron?
2.
Name the part of hind-brain which takes part in regulation of respiration.
3.
We suddenly withdraw our hand when a pin pricks. Name the type of response involved in this action
4.
Which part of the brain contains respiratory centre?
5.
Name the two systems that control and coordinate all other systems in human body.
6.
Name the specialised cell of multicultural animals that perceive external stimuli.
7.
Which group of multicultural animals do not possess neurons?
8.
Where are Nissl's granules found and what is their components?
AMBITION CLASSES
9.
What happens when an impulse travel through a neuron?
10.
What is the function of medulla oblongata?
11.
How many cranial nerves are present in a mammal?
12.
What is the basic function of a receptor?
13.
Mention the function of fore-brain.
14.
Name the largest and second largest part of the brain.
15.
Name the reflex centre of the brain.
16.
Name the structural and functional unit of nervous system.
17.
Mention the various components of hind-brain?
18.
State one main function of cerebrum.
19.
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
20.
What is the significance of reflex action?
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Where does cerebrospinal fluid occur in our body? Mention any two of its functions.
2.
Name the four regions of the fore-brain and mention any one function per region.
3.
Write the difference between cerebellum and cerebrum.
4.
Write the difference between motor nerve and mixed nerve.
5.
Define nerve Impulse. Which structure in a neuron helps to conduct a nerve impulse.
(i) towards the cell body
(ii) away from the cell body
6.
7.
Which parts of human brain are responsible for auditory reception and sensation of smell?
Write the functions of pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.
8.
Explain how nerve impulse travels in the body.
9.
Define reflex arc. Give a flow chart of a spinal reflex arc.
10.
What is the cerebrum? State the functions of cerebrum.
11.
Give an account of the structure of hind brain in brain.
AMBITION CLASSES
12.
What are voluntary and involuntary actions? Give examples.
13.
Enumerate the three main parts of nervous system in man.
14.
Draw a diagram of a neuron.
15.
How is the brain protected against shock?
16.
Differentiate between medullated and non-medullated nerve fibres.
17.
List the specific functions of four lobes a cerebral hemispheres.
18.
Give the technical names for the following receptors in the animals
(i)
Receptors for light
(iii) Receptors for sound (iv)
19.
What is the ganglion?
20.
What is the autonomic nervous system?
AMBITION CLASSES
(ii) Receptors for temperature
Receptors for smell
ANSWER
Objective Answer :
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
B
C
B
B
A
D
B
A
A
A
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
B
A
D
B
B
B
C
D
A
B
True and False:
1.
T
2.
F
3.
F
4.
T
5.
F
6.
T
7.
F
8.
T
9.
T
10.
T
Fill in the blanks:
1.
Ventricles
2.
Nerve
3.
Gustatory; Olfactory
4.
Nervous
5.
Dendrite
6.
Electric impulse
7.
Cranial; Spinal cord
8.
Cerebrum.
9.
Cerebellum
10.
Chemical
11.
Response
12.
Thalamus
13.
Cerebrum
14.
Neuron
15.
Cyton; Cell processes
16.
Synapse
17.
Nissl’s; Ribosomes
18.
Nodes of Ranvier
19.
Cerebrospinal
20.
Brain; Spinal cord
Match the column:
(i) - j, (ii) - i, (iii) - f, (iv) - a, (v) - v, (vi) - c, (vii) - d, (viii) - h, (ix) - g, (x) - e
AMBITION CLASSES
Nutrition is the sum of all those activities which are concened with ingestion, digestion, absorption of digested food,
egestion and oxidation of simple food to produce energy for growth, development and maintenance of living organism.
A nutrient is an organic or inorganic substances required for the maintenance of life and survival of a living organism.
There are various types of nutrients on the basis of function they perform:
e.g.
Energy foods: Carbohydrates and fats.
Body building foods: Proteins and minerals salts.
Regulating foods: Vitamins and minerals.
Modes of nutrition: Mainly two modes of nutrition are there on the basis of the method of food procurement.
(A)
Autotrophic (Holophytic) nutrition: In this mode of nutrition, the living organisms synthesise their food on their
own with the help of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. They are also called autotrophs.
e.g. Plants, Bacteria and Cyanobacteria etc.
(B)
Heterotrophic nutrition: In this mode of nutrition, the living organisms depend upon autotrophs for their food
supply either directly or indirectly. They take ready made organic food from other dead or living plants or
animals. The living organisms showing heterotrophic nutrition, are called heterotrophs.
e.g. All animals, fungi, many bacteria and some non-green plants (insectivorous plants) and man.
Types of heterotrophic nutrition: Depending upon the mode of obtaining food, the heterotrophic nutrition is of
following types:
(i) Holozoic nutrition (Holo-Complete + Zoon-animal)

In this type of nutrition all the animals including humans obtain their nourishment by ingesting the whole food
through mouth or some similar structure by the process of ingestion.

The ingested matter is subsequently digested, absorbed in the body and finally egested out of the body. e.g. All
animals including vertebrates and non vertebrates.

Depending upon the type of the food habit, animals are divided into three categories.
(a)
Herbivores: Animals which depend on green plants are known as herbivores. e.g. Goat. Cow. Deer. Rabbit etc.
(b)
Carnivores: Animals which eat other animals as food are called as carnivores. e.g. Lion, Tiger etc.
AMBITION CLASSES
(c)
Omnivores: Animals which eat both plants and animals as food are known as omnivores. e.g. Rat. Pigs. Crows.
Cockroaches and Humans.
(ii)
Saprophytic or saprotrophic (Sapro - Rotten + Phyton - plant; Trophos - Feeder) Nutrition: In this type of
nutrition the organisms obtain their food from decaying organic substances. Organisms are also called
saprophytes or saprotrophs.
e.g. Bacteria, Fungi etc.
(iii)
Parasitic nutrition (Para-other): This mode of nutrition is the characteristic of parasites. The Parasites live on or
inside the body of their hosts. So the parasites are dependent either wholly or partially on the host for nutrition.
e.g. Tape worm. Ascaris. Plasmodium, Liver flukes, Cuscuta etc.
(iv)
Mutualistic nutrition: The mutualistic nutrition can be defined as the interdependent nutrition in which e ach
organism is dependent mutually on the other.
e.g. The lichens share mutualistic nutrition between a fungus and a cynobacterium
Alimentary canal: The alimentary canal is basically a long tube extending from the mouth to the anus. I t is
differentiated into following parts.
(i) Mouth
(ii) Buccal cavity
(iii) Pharynx
(iv) Oesophagus
(v) Stomach
(vi) Small intestine
(vii) Large intestine
(viii) Anus
Diseases and their symptoms due to the deficiency of important vitamins
Sl No.
Vitamin
1
Vitamin-A
2
Diseases due to deficiency
Symptoms of disease
Night blindness
Patient can't see in dim light or at night
Thiamine (VitaminB1)
Beriberi
Reduced heart beat, muscles and nerves
become weak.
3
Riboflavin (VitaminB2)
Riboflavinosis
4
Niacin
(Vitamin-B3)
Pellagra
Scaling on tongue and skin
5
Ascorbic acid
(Vitamin-C)
Scurvy
Bleeding-gums, formation of spots on skin.
6
Calciferol (VitaminD)
Rickets in children and
Osteomalacia in adults.
Bending of bone of legs, knees come nearer
Rupturing of skin around the mouth and lips,
memory loss.
Prominent minerals, their source and function
Sl
No.
1
Name of
element
Sodium
AMBITION CLASSES
Main Sources
Common salt, fish, meat, eggs, milk
Main Function
Muscle contraction, neural impulse conduction,
maintenance of electrolytic balance of body
2
Potassium
All food materials
Muscle contraction, neural impulse
conduction, maintenance of electrolytic
balance of body. Control of different cell
activities.
3
Calcium
Milk, eggs, green vegetables, cereals
Strength of bonds and teeth along with
vitamin
4
Phosphorus
Milk, green vegetables, millets, oat, dry
fruits, liver and kidney
5
Iron
Liver, kidney, eggs, blood, millets, oat,
green vegetables
Formation of hemoglobin in blood, tissue
oxidation
6
Iodine
Common salt, sea food, green,
vegetable, mineral salts, aquatic fish.
Goiter disease is caused due to deficiency of
hormone Thyroxin
Strengthening of bones and teeth in addition to
calcium.
Green plants make their food by the process of photosynthesis. It is the process of conversion of solar energy into
chemical energy. It takes place in the leaves of a plant.
Photosynthesis:

Green plants, which are autotrophic, synthesize food through the process of photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is a process by which green plants, having chlorophyll, synthesize the simple sugar (glucose) from
the simple raw materials water and carbondioxide using the energy of sunlight Oxygen is released in this process.

"The process of absorption and conversion of light energy into chemical energy by green plants is called as
photosynthesis".

This chemical energy is stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide phosphate |NADPH2]
The over all equation of photosynthesis is:
Sunlight
6CO2  12H2O 
 C6 H12O6  6H2O  6O2
Chlorophyll
Leucoplast: They are colourless and generally found in those parts of the plants which are deprived of sunlight as for
example - underground stem and embryo cells etc.
(b)
Chromoplasts: They are coloured plastids other than green. Chromo lasts are abundantly present in the petals
of flowers and provide them attractive colours.
(c)
Chloroplasts: They are green coloured plastids. Their green colour is due to the presence of green pigments the
chlorophylls. Each developed chloroplast has two distinct areas - stroma and grana.
AMBITION CLASSES
Stroma: It forms the matrix of the chloroplast. The ribosomes known as sites of protein synthesis remain
scattered in the matrix. The dark reactions of photosynthesis take place in stroma.
Grana (Singular-granum): The light reaction of photosynthesis take place in this part of chloroplast 40-60 grana
are present in each chloroplast. In a granum large number of lamellae remains arranged like a stack of coins.
These lamellae are called as thylakoids.
Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is an important pigment of photosynthesis.
It is an essential factor which absorbs energy of light to be utilized in photosynthesis

The chlorophylls and other pigments in plant absorb light energy and transform it into chemical energy.
Feature
Requirement of light
Light Reaction
Dark Reaction
Required
Not required
Thylakoid membranes of the
chloroplast
The stroma region of chloroplast
ATP and NADPH2 are
produced by the conversion
of light energy into chemical
energy
ATP and NADPH2 formed during
light reaction are used for the
fixation of C02 into carbohydrate
Sugar formation
No sugar formation takes
place
Sugar formation takes place
Release of oxygen
Oxygen is released
No oxygen is released
Takes place inside
ATP and NADPH2
AMBITION CLASSES
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
Human beings are
(a) Omnivorous
2.
(d) Autotrophic
(b) Alkaline
(c) Neutral
(d) Slightly alkaline
(c) Spleen
(d) Liver
Bile is produced and secreted by
(a) Gall bladder
4.
(c) Carnivorous
Gastric juice is
(a) Acidic
3.
(b) Herbivorous
(b) Pancreas
The main function of intestinal villi is
(a) Stimulate peristalsis
(b) Prevent antiperistalsis
(c) Provide large surface area of absorption (d) Distribute digestive enzymes uniformly.
5.
Pepsin digests
(a) Protein
6.
7.
10.
11.
(d) Cellulose
(a) Providing acidic medium for pepsin
(b) Kill microorganism
(c) Dissolve food
(d) Facilitate absorption of food
The end product of fat digestion is
(b) Fatty acids
(c) Amino acids
(d) Alkaloids
(c) Esterification
(d) Dehydrogenation
The action of bile can be called
(a) Oxidation
9.
(c) Carbohydrate
Major function of HC1 of gastric juice is
(a) Glucose
8.
(b) Fat
(b) Emulsification
Saliva converts
(a) Proteins into amino acids.
(b) Glycogen into glucose
(c) Starch into maltose
(d) Fats into vitamins
Which set is mixed with the food in small intestine?
(a) Saliva, gastric juice, bile
(b) Gastric, juice, blie, pancreatic juice
(c) Bile, pancreatic juice, success entericus
(d) Bile, pancreatic juice and saliva
A good source of lipase is
AMBITION CLASSES
(a) Saliva
12.
(b) Trypsin
(b) Pancreatic juice
(b) Liver
(b)
(c) Lipase
19.
20.
21.
(d) Saliva
(c) Stomach
(d) Duodenum
Invertase
(d) Zymase
(b) 4 pairs
(c) 3 pairs
(d) 2 pairs
(c) Gastric gland
(d) Adrenal
Largest gland in the body is
(a) Liver
18.
(c) Intestinal juice
The number of silvery glands present in human beings is
(a) 5 pairs
17.
(d) Lipase
Starch is changed to maltose by
(a) Diastase/amylase
16.
(c) Pepsin
Which one does not produce any digestive enzyme?
(a) Pancreas
15.
(d) Pancreatic juice
Ptyalin is an enzyme present in
(a) Gastric juice
14.
(c) Bile
Enzyme required for digestion of fat is
(a) Amylase
13.
(b) Gastric juice
(b) Pancreas
In light phase of photosynthesis there is formation of
(a) ATP
(b) NADPH2
(c) Both ATP and NADPH2
(d) Carbohydrates.
Photosynthesis proceeds in sequence of
(a) Dark phase and light phase
(b) Light phase alone
(c) Light phase and dark phase
(d) Dark phase alone
The energy change in photosynthesis is form
(a) Light energy to electrical energy
(b) Light energy to molecular energy
(c) Light energy to chemical energy
(d) Light energy to activation energy.
Photosynthetic pigments are located in the chloroplast in
(a) Intrathylakoid space
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Thylakoid membranes
(c) Intermembrane space?
22.
(d) Inner membrane of envelope
The oxygen in photosynthesis is released from
(a) CO2
23.
(b) H2 O
(c) Carbohydrate
(d) Chlorophyll
The process in which water is split during photosynthesis is
(a) Photolysis
24.
(b) Hydrolysis
(c) Plasmolysis
(d) Hemolysis
(c) Matrix
(d) Cytoplasm
Dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs in
(a) Grana
25.
(b) Stroma
In bacterial photosynthesis, the hydrogen donor is
(a) H 2O
(b) H2SO4
(c) NH3
(d) H2S
Answer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
A
D
C
A
A
B
B
C
C
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
D
D
D
B
A
C
A
C
C
C
21
22
23
24
25
B
B
A
B
D
AMBITION CLASSES
Excretion in Animal:
EXCRETION:
The process of removal of harmful nitrogenous metabolic wastes from the body is called Excretion.
The waste products in animals include:
(i)
Carbon dioxide and water from the oxidation of food during the process of respiration.
(ii)
Nitrogenous compounds like ammonia, urea and uric acid from the breakdown of excess amino acids.
(iii)
Bile pigments from the breakdown of haemoglobin of RBCs.
(iv)
Excess salts and vitamins.
Animals on the basis of excretory matter are mainly divided into three categories:Type of animals
Character
Ammonotelic
Ureotelic
Uricotelic
1.
Excretory matter
Ammonia
Urea
Uric acid
2.
Requirement of water
Very large
Less than ammonotelic
Least
3.
Toxicity
Highest
Less than ammonia
Least
4.
Examples
Teleosts, Tadpoles,
Mammals, Sharks,
Birds, Insects,
Aquatic insects
Land snails,
many reptiles
Excretory Organs/Structures in Animals:Insects
Animals
Amoeba
Hydra
Flatworm
Earthworm
Exeretory
Structures
Contractile
vacoule
Body surface
Protonephridia
(flame cells)
Nephridia
Malpighian
tubules
Kidneys
Waste
products
CO2 and
CO2 and
ammonia
ammonia
Mainly
ammonia
ammonia and
urea
Uric acid
Urea
AMBITION CLASSES
e.g.
cockroach
All chordates
Human Excretory system:

Accessory excretory organs are Skin, Liver, Lungs, and Intestine.

The main excretory organ in Humans is kidney.

Human excretory system consists of :
A pair of kidneys

A pair of ureters.

Urinary bladder

Urethra
kidneys:

The main excretory organ of our body are kidneys.

Each kidney is surrounded and covered by a tough, fibrous, capsule of connective tissues. This capsule is called
Renal Capsule.

They are dark red in colour and bean-shaped.

Located on the lower part of body cavity on both sides of Vertebral Column.

Each kidney measures 10 cm in length, 5 cm in breadth (width) and 3 cm in thickness.

Weighing about 125-170 g in an adult.

Lateral surfaces of kidney are convex while medial surfaces are concave.

On the inner border of each kidney is a depression called Hilum/Hilus.
Functions of Kidney:

Regulation of water and electrolyte balance.

Regulation of acid base balance.

Regulation of blood pressure.

Excretion of metabolic waste and foreign chemicals.

Secretion of hormones like erythropoietin and renin.
Ureter:

The collecting ducts open into the Ureter.

Each ureter originate from interior part of kidney.

The anterior part of the ureter is broad, like a funnel and called Pelvis and its posterior part is in the form of long
tubule.
Urinary Bladder:

Each ureter opens into the Urinary bladder.

The structure of urinary bladder is muscular sac like and pear shaped.
AMBITION CLASSES

Its wall is flexible, it collect urine when necessary by the contraction of muscles, the urine is ex creted through
urethra.
Urethra:

It is a muscular and tubular structure, which extends from the urinary bladder to the outside. It carries the urine
to the outside.
EXCRETION: The phenomenon of removing of waste product from the body.

Plants get rid of excess water by transpiration.

The main waste products produced by plants are carbon dioxide, water vapour and oxygen.

CO2 and water are produced as wastes during respiration by plants.

Oxygen is produced as a waste during photosynthesis.

The gaseous wastes of respiration and photosynthesis in plants are removed through the stomata in leaves and
lenticels in stem and released to the air.

Many plant waste products are stored in cellular vacoules.

Waste product may be stored in leaves that fall off.
SPECIAL POINTS:

The plants excrete carbon dioxide produced as a waste during respiration in night time.

CO2 produced during respiration in day time is all used by the plant itself in photosynthesis. Plants excrete
oxygen as a waste only during day time.

Plants also store some of the waste products in their body parts (leaves, bark and fruits) e.g.
oils, latex, gums, resins.

Tea leaves, amla, betal nut and bark of tree contain tannins.

Leaves of Eucalyptus, lemon, tulsi, contain essential oils.

Leaves of yellow oleander contain latex.

Gums are found in babul tree.

Resins are found in stem of conifers

Quinine and morphine are medicines derived from alkaloid stored in Cinchona bark and opium fruits
respectively.
AMBITION CLASSES
Tanins, essential

Caffeine found in coffee seeds and nicotine in tobacco leaves are also alkaloids.

Calcium Oxalate crystals accumulate in some tubers like Yam (zamikand)

Aquatic plants lose most of their metabolic wastes by direct diffusion into the water surrounding them.

Terrestrial plants excrete some waste into the soil around them.
OBJECTIVE ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
Excretion is
(a) Removal of substances not required by body
(b) Removal of useless substances and substances present in excess
(c) Formation of substances having some role in body
(d) All the above
2.
In mammals the urinary bladder opens into
(a) Uterus
3.
6.
(c) Plevis
(d) Pyramid
(b) Medulla
(c) Pelvis
(d) Ureter
(a) Claude Bernard
(b) Walter cannon
(c) Marcello Malpight
(d) Henle
Bile pigments are formed in
(b) Spleen
(c) Every body cells
(d) 1 &2 both
(c) Liver
(d) Every cell in body
Excretory material are formed in
(a) Kidney
8.
(b) Cortex
"Homeostasis" term was proposed by
(a) Liver
7.
(d) Ureter
Loops of Henle occurs in
(a) Cortex
5.
(c) Vestibule
Malpighian corpuscles occur in
(a) Medulla
4.
(b) Urethra
(b) Rectum
Diameter of the renal afferent vessel is
(a) Same as that of efferent
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Smaller than of efferent
(c) Larger than that of efferent
9.
10.
Nitrogenous waste products are eliminated mainly as
(a) Urea in tadpole & ammonia in adult frog
(b) Ammonia in tadpole and urea in adult frog
(c) Urea in both tadpole & adult frog.
(d) Urea in tadpole and uric acid in adult frog.
Which blood vessel contains the least amount of urea
(a) Hepatic vein
11.
12.
13.
(d) There is no efferent vessel
(b) Renal vein
(c) Hepatic portal vein (d) Renal artery
Reabsorption of useful substances from glomerular filtrate occurs in
(a) Collecting tube
(b) Loop of Henle
(c) Proximal convoluted tubule
(d) Distal convoluted tubule
Which one is uricotelic
(a) Frog and toads
(b) Lizards and birds
(c) Cattle, money and man
(d) Molluscs and teleost fishes
What will happen if one kidney is removed from the body of a human being?
(a) Death due to poisoning
(b) Uremia and death
(c) Stoppage of urination
(d) Nothing, the person will survive and remain normal kidney will become hypertrophied
14.
In cockroach, the excretory product is
(a) Ammonia
15.
(b) Reproduction
(c) Diffusion
(d) Osmosis
(b) Insulin
(c) Protein
(d) Glucose
The hormone that promotes reabsorption of water from glomerular filtrate is
(a) Oxytocin
18.
(d) Both land 3
In diabetes mellitus the patient drinks more water as there is urinary loss of
(a) Salt
17.
(c) Urea
The mechanism of urine formation in nephron involves
(a) Ultrafiltration
16.
(b) Uric acid
(b) Vasopression
(c) Relaxin
(d) Calcitonin
(c) Liver
(d) Oral cavity
Ornithine cycle operates in
(a) Stomach
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Pancreas
19.
20.
Main functions of kidney is
(a) Passive adsorption
(b) Ultrafiltration
(c) Selective reabsorption
(d) Both 2 and 3
Urea is transported by
(a) Plasma
21.
22.
23.
26.
(b) Removal of uric acid
(c) Passing out urine
Removal of faces
(d)
Ornithine cycle performs
(a) ATP synthesis
(b) Urea formation
(c) Urea formation in liver
(d) Urine formation in liver
The snakes living in deserts are mainly
(b) Aminotelic
(c) Ureotelic
(d) Uricotelic
(c) Uric acid
(d) All are equally toxic
Which excretory material is least toxic
(b) Urea
Correct order of excretory organs in Cockroach, Earthworm and Rabbit respectively
(a) Skin, malpighi tubules, kidney
(b) Malpighi tubules, nephridia, kidney
(c) Nephridia, malpighi tubules, kidney
(d) Nephridia, kidney, green gland
The yellow colour of urine of the vertebrates is due to:
(a) Cholesterol
27.
(b) Urochrome
(c) Uric acid
(d) Melanin
In the kidney, the formation of urine involve the following processes arranged as
(a) Glomerular filtration, reabsorption and tubular secretion
(b) Reabsorption, filtration and secretion
(c) Secretion, absorption and filtration
(d) Filtration, secretion and reabsorption
28.
(d) All
(a) Removal of urea from blood
(a) Ammonia
25.
(c) WBC
Micturition is
(a) Ammonotelic
24.
(b) RBC
A condition of failure of kidney to form urine is called:
AMBITION CLASSES
(a) Deamination
29.
(b) Entropy
(c) Anuria
(d) None of these
(b) amoeba
(c) earthworm
(d) Human
(b) Spleen
(b) Kidney
(d) None of these .
Excretion is carried out by nephridia in:
(a) cockroach
30.
Urea is formed in:
(a) Liver
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
B
B
B
B
B
D
D
C
C
B
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
C
B
D
B
A
D
B
C
A
A
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
D
C
B
B
A
C
C
A
C
C
FILL IN THE BLANKS:
1.
The excretory system of human beings includes a pair of................, a pair of................a...............and a..............
2.
Kidneys are located in the..............one on either side of the..............
3.
Urine produced in the..............one of either side of the..............
4.
Urine is stored in..............
5.
CO2 is removed from the blood in the..............
6.
Nitrogenous waste in human beings is..............
7.
Functional unit of kidney is..............
8.
The urinary bladder is muscular and is under..............control.
9.
Passing of urine from body is called..............
10.
An artificial kidney is a device to remove nitrogenous waste products from the blood through............................
11.
Artificial kidney contain a number of tubes with a..............lining, suspended in a tank filled with dialysing fluid.
12.
Dialysing fluid has the..............osmotic pressure as blood.
13.
Glomerular filtration rate in one day in human beings is..............L.
14.
The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for..............
AMBITION CLASSES
15.
Excretory organs in fishes are..............
16.
Artery which carry blood into kidney is..............
17.
Double walled cup shaped structure in nephron is called..............
18.
Tuft of capillaries in Bowman's capsule is called..............
19.
Structure which help in excretion in tapeworm is..............
20.
The structure which help in excretion in earth worm is..............
21.
Urine leaves the kidney through..............
22.
Substance which is completely reabsorbed by nephron is..............
23.
Nitrogenous wastes are formed from the breakdown of..............
ANSWERS:
1.
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
2. Abdomen, backbone
3.
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder
4. Urinary bladder
5.
Lungs
6. Urea
7.
Nephron
8. Nervous
9.
Micturition
10. Dialysis
11.
Semi permeable
12. Same
13.
180
15.
Kidneys
16. renal artery
17.
Bowman's cupsule
18. Glomerulus
19.
Flame cell
20. Nephridia
21.
Urethra
22. Glucose
23.
Amino acids
14.
Excretion
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:
1.
Name the structural and functional unit of kidney.
2.
Why is urine yellow in colour?
3.
Name the structure which stores urine temporarily.
AMBITION CLASSES
4.
Name the U shaped tubule of nephron.
5.
What is the main drawback of artificial kidney?
6.
Name the tube which passes out urine from urinary bladder,
7.
Name chief nitrogenous waste materials in human beings.
8.
What is the advantage of presence of two kidneys in man?
9.
Name the structure which help in excretion in.
(a) Earthworm
(b) Tapeworm
10.
Name two parts of a nephron.
11.
Where does ultrafiltration occur in nephron?
12.
Name three parts of nephric tubule.
13.
Define glomerulus.
14.
Give the technical term for passing the useful substances from nephric filtrate back into blood in blood
capillaries.
15.
Give the technical term for the process of expelling of urine.
16.
Which part of skeleton protects the kidney?
ANSWERS:
1.
Nephron
2.
due to a pigment urochrome
3.
Urinary bladder
4.
Loop of Henle
5.
Some anticoagulants have to be added to the blood during dialysis
6.
Ureter
7.
Ammonia, Urea, Uric acid
8.
If one kidney fails man can live on the other kidney.
9.
(a) Nephridia
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) Flame cells
10.
Bowman's capsule and nephric tubule.
11.
Bowman's capsule
12.
PCT, loop of Henle, DCT
13.
A tuft of capillaries present in the cavity of Bowman's capsule.
14.
Selctive reabsorption
15.
Micturition
16.
11th , 12th ribs
MATCH THE COLUMS
1.
Column I
Column II
(i)
Loop of Henle
(a)
Counter current system
(ii)
Glomenies
(b)
Hypertonic urine
(iii)
Vasa recta
(c)
Urine concentration
(iv)
ADH
(d)
Ultra fiiteration
(v)
Ureotelism
(e)
Frog
(f)
Shark
2.
Column I
Column II
(i)
Ammonotelism
(a)
Birds
(ii)
Bowman's capsule
(b)
Hypertonic urine
(iii)
Micturition
(c)
Counter current system
(iv)
Uricotelism
(d)
Bony fish
(v)
Vasa recta
(e)
Urinary bladder
(vi)
Sebum
(f)
Glucose
AMBITION CLASSES
(vii)
ADH
(g)
. Glomerular fiiteration
(viii)
Tubular reabsorption
(h)
Skin
TRUE - FALSE:
1.
Micturition is carried out by a reflex.
2.
ADH help in water elemination making the urine hypotonic.
3.
Henle's loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine.
4.
Glucose is completely reabsorbed in the PCT.
5.
Ureter is the reservoir of urine in the body.
6.
Kidneys filter about 180 L urine per day.
7.
Functional unit of kidney is nephron.
8.
Human being is uricotelic.
9.
Collecting duct is not a part of nephron.
10.
Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries around loop of Henle.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:
1.
Define:
(a) Osmoregulation
(b) Haemodialysis
(c) Malpighian body
2.
Name the excretory matter in:
(a) Fishes
(d) Birds
(c) Frog
(f) Earthworm
(b) Tadpole
3.
What is the role of afferent and efferent arteriole in glomerular filtration?
4.
Explain the role of ADH is excretion.
5.
Differentiate between ureter and urethra.
AMBITION CLASSES
(e) Human
6.
What will happen if there is no tubular reabsorption in the nephrons of kidneys?
7.
Differentiate between excretion and osmo regulation.
8.
How is the amount of urine produced regulated?
9.
What happens to glucose which enters the nephron along with fiiterate during excretion in human beings? State
two vital functions of kidney.
FILL IN THE BLANK
1.
Plants get rid of excess water by........................
2.
........................and water are produced as wastes during respiration by plants.
3.
........................is produced as a waste during photosynthesis.
4.
The gaseous wastes of respiration and photosynthesis in plants are removed through the....................in leaves
and.......................in stem and released to the air.
5.
The plants excrete CO2 produced as a waste during..................process in night time.
6.
Gums and resins are the......................products of plant.
7.
The phenomenon of removing of waste product from the body is known as......................
8.
Leaves of......................contain essential oils.
9.
......................are found in stem of conifers as waste product.
10.
Aquatic plants lose most of their metabolic wastes by......................process.
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Name the two part of a plant through which its gaseous waste products are released into the air.
2.
Name a waste gas excreted by the plants only during the day time and only during the night time.
3.
Name the process by which plants get rid of excess water.
4.
Name the phenomenon of removing of waste product from the body.
5.
Name the waste product which produced by the stem of conifers.
6.
Name the by products of photosynthesis.
7.
Name some waste products which are stored by the plants
8.
Name the plant from which quinine is obtained.
9.
Name the plant from which morphine is obtained.
AMBITION CLASSES
10. From which part of opium morphine is obtained?
11. From which part of cinchona quinene is obtained?
MATCH THE COLUMN
Column A
Column B
(A)
Waste product of respiration
(i)
Resin
(B)
Waste product of photosynthesis
(ii)
CO2
(C)
Leaves of lemon
(iii)
essential oil
(D)
Stem of conifers
(iv)
O2
Short type Questions:
1.
Define the excretion
2.
Write about the various waste products produced by the plants.
ANSWERS
Fill in the blanks:
1.
transpiration
2. CO2
3. Oxygen
4. stomata; lenticels
5.
respiration
6. waste
7. excretion
8. tulsi/lemon
9.
Resins
10. diffusion
3. Transpiration
Very short type:
l.
(i) Stomata
(ii) Lenticels
2. O2; CO2
4.
Excretion
5. Resins
6. Oxygen; Water; Starch
7.
Tanins; Gums; Resins; Latex
8.
Cinchona
9.
Opium
10.
Fruits
11.
Bark
Match the column:
A - (ii)
B-(iv)
C-(iii)
AMBITION CLASSES
D-
Health is state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease of
infirmity.
The WHO definition of health recognizes three dimension of health i.e. Physical, mental and social.
In 1978 this definition was updated by including- the ability to lead a "Socially and economically productive life".
Disease and its cause:
Human health is effected by various factors cause or sources these factors can be of two major types.
(v) Helminthic
BACTERIAL DISEASE
S.No. Disease
1.
Tuberculosis
Path xjen
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mode of infection- Droplet
infection
Symptoms and curve
Chronic cough. Fever, weakness, bloody
sputum, breathlessness.
Treatment: DOTS Direction observation
2
Cholera
Vibrio cholere
3
Typhoid Fever
Salmonella typhi
Diarrhoea
dehydration, vomiting
treatment -strategy.
Antibiotics - ORS and salt sugar solution.
B.C.G.
bacille Calmette
Guerin
*Vaccine
Fever,: loss
of appetite,
intestinal
ulcers.
* Erruption of spots and rashes on abdomen
* diarrhoea
* Detection by widal test. Antibiotics and
vaccine. TAB: Typhoid, Paratypoid, A and B
4.
Diarrhoea
AMBITION CLASSES
Salmonella ; Shigella
Watery stools, vomiting, headache, fever,
abdominal pain - Antibiotics like penicillin.
3.
Diptheria
6.
Whooping cough
(Pertussis)
Pneumonia
7
8.
Tetanus or
Lock jaw
9.
Plague or Black
Corynebacte ium diptheriae
Boredella pertusis
* Streptococi us pneumoniae
Earllier
Clostridium tetani
Diplococcu pneumoniae
Yersinia pestis
Earlier
pasteurella pestis
Mycobacterium
leprae
10.
Death
Leprosy or
Hanson disease
11.
Anthrax
Bacillus anthracis
12.
Acne (Black heads or
pimples)
Propionibact mum acnes
High grade fever, difficulty in breathing DPT
vaccine : Diptheria. Pertussis. Tetanus
vaccine
Persistant large bouts of cough Prevention by
DPT vaccine
' Infection in lungs and difficulty in breathing *
high fever cure - Tetra cycline
* Sustained contraction of body muscles,
spams,* Lock jaw, unconsiousness. streching
of faceial muscles. T.T. vaccine (Tetanus,
toxoid)
* High Fever, headache, unconsciousness
* Enlargement of axillary lymphnodes
*Antibiotics
Patches on skin, ulcer and nodules
formation in skin and nerves deformilites
wasting of fingers and toes Treatment Multidrug therapy (MDT)
Symptoms like common cold Nausea,
Vomiting, Ultimately Blood vomiting.
Acne or Pimples in age of adolescence
VIRAL DISEASE
1.
2.
3
4.
5.
6.
7.
Polio/Poliomyelitis
Fever, headache. Paralysis Prevention by
OPV - ORAL Polio vaccine.
Influenza
Orthomyxovirus or Influenza virus Sneezing, fever, headache. Muscular
Pains Coughing, Discharge from nose.
Antibiotic suggested by doctor.
Measles
Paramvxovirus
High grade fever, white brown patches
on body and blisters Antibiotics and
M.M.R. vaccine.
Chicken Pox
Pox virus/ varicella herpes virus
Rashes on body with fever (Rashes are
dewdrop like in appearance)
MUMPS
Paramyxovirus
Painful swelling in Parotid gland Anti
biotics - Mumps vaccine
Dengue fever or Break Arbovir is flavi vector / Aedes agypti Fever, Pain in muscles and joints
done fever
haemorrhagic condition in body.
Rabies (Hydrophobia)
Rhabdo virus or street virus vector- Affect CNS- Madness hydrophobia due to
dog, cat, wild animal
laryngeal spasm and 100% death occur
vaccine - Human diploid cell culture
vaccine.
AMBITION CLASSES
Polio virus
PROTOZOAN DISEASE
1.
Malaria
Plasmoc urn SPS
2.
3.
4.
Amoebiasis
Diarrhoea
African sleeping sickness
Entamoeba histolytica
Giardia intestinalis
Trypanosoma gambiens
5.
Kala azar
Lehmania donovani
High fever with chill of intermittent Periodically
Pain in joints - Quinine
Intestinal spasms dysentry Antibiotics
Vomiting loose motions
Patient feels sleepy, nervous system
impairment
High fever associated with enlargement of
spleen and liver
HELMINTH DISEASE
1
Ascariasis
Ascaris
lumbricoides Abdominal spasm, insomia, vomiting
loosemotion, restlessness
2.
Dracunculiasis
Dracunculus Medinensis
Blisters on skin of arms shoulder and legs
3.
Elephantiasis filariasis
Wuchereria bancrofti
Sweling of hand scrotum testis and breasts
4.
Taeniasis
Taenia solium
Abdominal pain, nausea, Anemia, loss of
appetite, indigestion, nervous disorders
NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
S.No.
Cause
Name of
deficiency
disease
due
to Symptoms of Disease
1.
Protein energy Malnutrition Marasmus Infants – below 1 year Shriveled appearance, thinning of
(PEM)
age
limbs Prominent ribs, retarded
physical and Mental growth,
digestive
disorder,
repeated
diarrhea
2.
Protein (PEM) Calorie
Kwashiorkor (1-3 year age)
loss of appetite stunted growth,
bulging eyes, enlarged stomach,
long, thin and curved legs.
3.
Iron
Anaemia
Becomes pale, loose appetite feels
tired
4.
Vitamin
B12
cobalamine)
5.
Folic acid
AMBITION CLASSES
(cyno Pernicious anaemia
Macrocytic anaemia
Person become pale
appetite, feels tired
number of RBC
loss of
reduced
Become pale loose appetite, feels
tired
reduced growth of RBC
6.
Iodine
Goitre
Abnormal enlargement of thyroid,
swelling in the neck reduced
thyroid function, retarded growth.
7.
Vitamin A (Rational)
Xeropthalmia
Night blindness dryness of cornea
8.
Vitamin D Calciferol
Rickets[Children]
adults
9.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Beri-Beri
Muscular
disorder
10.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Pellagra
4D'
syndrome
(dermatitis,
diarrhea, dementia death)
11.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Scurvy
Bleeding gums, loosening and
falling of teeth, loss of weight.
osteomalacia Twisted, thin, soft, bent bones,
deformed ribs
dystrophy
Nervous
Some (STD their Pathogens and symptoms (Sexual Transmitted disease)
S.No.
Bacterial
Pathogens
Symptoms
1.
Syphilis or French Pox
Treponema pallidum
Round elevated ulcers on genital
organs
2.
Gonorrhoea
Neisseria gonorrhoae
Infection of urethra in male,
discharge of white thick fluid from
urethra Pain during urination.
Infemale - Infection in cervix pain
and burning during micturition.
3.
Vaginitis
Gardnerella vagindlis
Greyish white discharge from
vagina.
Viral
Pathogen
Symptoms
1.
Herpes genitails
HSV-2 (DNA)virus
In males Painful rashes on
prepuce gland
and Penis.
In females : Rashes on vulva and
upper part of vagina.
2.
AIDS
Acquired Immuno
deficiency syndrome
Human mmuno deficiency virus
(HIV)
Immune system
diarrhea etc.
failure,
fever
Vaccination Schedule for Babies/Children
Age
Birth of 12 months
Vaccination
1.
AMBITION CLASSES
Doses
Safety
D.P.T-Hib (triple vaccine, against Three doses (commonly oral) at 90–99%
diphtheria, whooping cough/pertusis intervals of 4- 6 weeks, starting
and tetanus) and Haemophilius from 2nd months
2.
3.
4.
9-15 months
18-24 months
1.
2.
3.
5–6 years
Measles vaccine(M.M.R. or
Measles. Mumps and Rubella)
D.P.T
Polio (oral)
Cholera vaccine (can be repeated every
year before summer)
100%
100%
70%
One dose
Booster dose
Booster dose
One
100%
100%
2.
D.T (Bivalent vaccine against diphtheria Booster dose
and tetanus)
TAB (vaccine against Salmonella typhi, Two doses at interval of
S. paratyphi B) or Typhoid-Paratyphoid
1–2 months
vaccine.
90%
10 years
1.
2.
Tetanus
TAB (Typhoid)
Booster dose
Booster dose
100%
100%
16 years
1.
2.
Tetanus
TAB
Booster dose
Booster dose
100%
100%
Tetanus
Non-Immunised. Two doses,
first between 16-24 weeks and
second between 24-32 weeks.
Immunised Previously. One
dose four weeks before the
100 %
expected date of delivery
Mothers
Women)
1.
influenzae type B
Polio (Sabin’s oral, previously Salk’s
injectible)
Hepatitis B, now A also
B.C.G. (against T.B., Bacillus CalmetteGuerin) vaccine
(Pregnant
AMBITION CLASSES
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Typhoid is an infectious disease cause by:
(a) virus
2.
4.
(d) genetic disorder.
(c) no effect on health
(d) occasional bad effects on health.
Haemophilia is a :
(b) congenital disease
(b) Fluorine
(b) Penetration
(b) 1st October
(d) deficiency disease.
(c) infection
(d) incubation period.
(c) 11th June
(d) 1st December.
Vector of malaria is:
(b)
Male Anopheles
(d) Male Culex.
Disease-causing factors existing within the body itself are called:
(a) extrinsic factors
(c) congenital factors
11.
(c) Iodine
AIDS day is celebrated on:
(c) Female Culex
10.
(d) deficiency disease.
The interval between infection and appearance of a disease is known as:
(a) Female Anopheles
9.
(c) acute disease
Goitre is caused due to deficiency of:
(a) 5th June
8.
(c) acute disease
(b) shot-term effects on health
(a) inoculation
7.
(b) Congenital disease
(a) long-term effects on health
(a) Vitamin A
6.
(d) Worm
Elephantiasis is a disease that result in:
(a) Chronic disease
5.
(c) Protozoan
Common cold is a :
(a) Chronic disease
3.
(b) bacteria
(b) hereditary factors
(d)
intrinsic factors
The disease that can be transmitted through body fluids are:
(a) TB and cholera
(b) Typhoid and cholera
(c) Cholera and rabies
(d) AIDS and hepatitis B.
A healthy person is one who is free from:
AMBITION CLASSES
12.
13.
14.
(a) disease
(b) mental tension
(c) disease and mental tension
(d) bacteria.
Fruits and vegetables bought from the market:
(a) may be coated with pesticides
(b) may carry germs
(c) may carry egg of worms
(d) all the above.
Breathing polluted air causes diseases of the :
(a) nervous system
(b) circulatory system
(c) respiratory system
(d) digestive system.
Which disease is likely to occur in crowded areas?
(a) Non infections
15.
16.
(a) An acute disease
(b) A chronic disease
(c) An infectious disease (d)
A communicable disease.
(c) Arthritis
(d) Cataract.
(b) Malaria
(c) Dengue
(d) Yellow fever.
(b) rabies
(c) malaria
(d) AIDS.
(c) a protozoan
(d) Air pollution.
Mosquitoes spread:
Tuberculosis is caused by :(a) a bacterium
20.
(b) Diabetes
House flies are the vectors of:
(a) influenza
19.
(b) a virus
The infectious agents responsible for which disease can be spread when the patient coughs?
(a) AIDS TB, and hepatitis (b) TB, influenza and cholera
(c) TB and influenza
21.
(d) Deficiency disease.
Which of the following is due to external causes?
(a) Cholera
18.
(c) Genetic
What kind of a disease is arthritis?
(a) Jaundice
17.
(b) Infections
(d) TB and hepatitis.
The disease that can be transmitted through body fluids are :(a) AIDS and hepatitis B
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) TB and typhoid
(c) influenza and cholera
22.
(d) cholera and rabies
A patient was advised to take asprin are bed rest by her doctor. She must have been suffering form :(a) hepatities
(b) influenza
(c) cholera
(d) beri beri.
FILL IN THE BLANKS :
1.
Impairment of functioning of some body system is called………….
2.
Tuberculosis is a………..disease.
3.
Disease that can be transmitted from one individual to another are called communicable or……….. disease.
4.
The bad odour associated with unwashed bodies is caused by……………
5.
An animal that spreads a disease is called a………
6.
Malaria is transmitted by the female………….Mosquito.
7.
Disease present from the birth are called………….
8.
Any organism capable of producing a disease is called………..
9.
Disease are of two main kinds : congenital and…………
10.
Rabies is also called………
MATCH THE DESCRIPTION IN COLUMN A WITH TERM / STATEMENT IN COLUMN B :Column A
Column B
(i)
Health
(a)
Disease
(ii)
Antibodies
(b)
Ronald Ross
(iii)
AIDS
(c)
Tuberculosis
(iv)
BCG
(d)
Measles
(v)
Impairing of Health
(e)
Brain fever
(vi)
Malaria-mosquito relation ship
(f)
Immunity
(vii)
Communicable disease
(g)
State of normal functioning
(h)
Sexually transmitted disease
(viii) Japanese encephalitis
ANSWER KEY
AMBITION CLASSES
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
B
C
A
B
C
D
D
A
D
D
C
D
C
B
B
B
A
C
A
C
A
B
Fill in the blanks :
1.
Disease
2.
Bacterial
3.
Infectious
4.
bacteria
5.
Vector
6.
Anopheles
7.
Congenital
8.
Pathogen
9.
Acquired
10. Hydrophobia Match
Match the column:
(i) g
(ii) f
(iii) h
(iv) c
(v) a
(vi) c
(vii) d
(viii) e
AMBITION CLASSES

Reproduction is a process by which organisms are able to produce new organisms of its kind.

Reproduction is not an essential process for the survival of organisms like respiration, excretion or nutrition.
TYPE OF REPRODUCTION:
There are two main methods of reproduction in living organism
(1)
Asexual reproduction
(2)
Sexual reproduction
(1)
Asexual reproduction:

Production of a new organism from a single parent without the involvement of sex cells or gametes is called
asexual reproduction.

New organisms are genetically identical to parents.

Asexual reproduction take place by different methods.
(i)
Fission: parent organism splits to form two new organisms.
e.g. Euglena.
(ii)
Budding: Process in which an outgrowth (bud) is formed on the body of parent organism which then detaches
and become a new organism, e.g. Yeast and Hydra.
(iii)
Spore formation: Spores are the microscopic asexual reproductive bodies with a thick wall.

Spores are formed in 'Sporangium'

Each spore on germination give rise to a new organism e.g. Rhizopus, Penicillium.
(iv) Fragmentation: In this process an organism breaks up into two or more fragments and each fragment develops
into an adult organism, e.g. Spirogyra
(v)
Regeneration: The process of getting back a full organism from its body parts is called regeneration e.g. Hydra.
(vi)
Vegetative propagation: This is an asexual method of reproduction in plants where vegetative part namely root,
stem and leaves give rise to new plants.
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS:Sexual reproduction takes place through the agency of flowers in angiosperm.
A typical flower has four whorls arranged on the thalamus.
1.
Calyx
2.
Corolla
3.
Androecium
AMBITION CLASSES
Non essential organs
Essential organs
4.
Gynoecium
CALYX:
It is the outermost whorl consisting of sepals.

Sepals are green and leaf like structure.

Calyx protects the flower bud before it opens.
2.
COROLLA

It is the second whorl, inner to calyx, consisting of petals.

Petals are generally large coloured and showy.

Corolla attracts insects for pollination.
3.
ANDROECIUM:

it Is the third whorl, inner to corolla, consisting of male reproductive parts called stamens.

Each stamen has two parts - Filament and anther.

Anther is lobed structure present at the tip of filament. Each anther has pollen sacs which contain pollen grains.

Each pollen grain produces two male gametes/ male germ cells.
4.
GYNOECIUM

It is the fourth and innermost whorl consisting of carpel.

Each carpel has three parts - Ovary, Style and Stigma.

Ovary is a swollen basal part of carpel. It contains ovules which are attached to placenta.

Each ovule contain female gamete (egg).
POLLINATION
T he Process in which pollen grains are transfer from the ripe anther to the stigma. It is of two types:
Transfer of pollen from one flower to another is achieved by agents like wind, water or animals.
FERTILIZATION :
Fertilization is the process of fusion of the male and female gametes, which ta kes place in the embryo sac present in the
ovule.

One male gamete + Egg cell

Second male gamete + Two polar nuclei
Syngamy


Zygote
Triple fusion

Triploid nucleus (Primary Endosperm Nucleus)
Syngamy + Triple fusion = Double fertilization
AMBITION CLASSES
OBJECTIVE ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Vegetative Propagation in BryophyUum takes place by:(a) stem
2.
(c) root
(d) none of these
(b) scion
(c) stalk
(d) stem
(b) cutting
(c) layering
(d) none of these
(c) stigma
(d) petal
Pollen grains are produced by:(a) ovary
6.
(b) calyx
In roses, the method commonly used to produce new plants is:(a) tissue culture
5.
(d) none of these
During grafting, the portion of paint that is grafted is called:(a) stock
4.
(c) root
The group of petals is called:(a) sepals
3.
(b) leaf
(b) anther
Which one is applicable to insect pollinated flowers:
(a) Flowers are very small produced in large quantities.
(b) Rowers are not prominent and without nectar.
(c) Flowers are conspicuous and scented having nectar.
(d) None of these
7.
The group of sepals is called:(a) Gynoecium
8.
9.
(d) Androecium
(a) self pollinated
(b) cross pollinated by rain
(c) cross pollinated by insects
(d) cross pollinated by wind
Which of the following produces male gametes in a flower:(b) petals
(c) carpels
(d) stamens
During pollination, pollen grains get carried to which part of the carpel?
(a) Ovary
11.
(c) corolla
Maize is
(a) sepals
10.
(b) calyx
(b) Stigma
(c) Ovule
At the time of entering into ovule, pollen tube has:
AMBITION CLASSES
(d) Style
(a) three male nuclei
(b)
two male nuclei
(c) one gamete nucleus (d)
12.
The transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma is termed
(a) ovulation
13.
18.
(d) stigma
(b) jasmine
(c) cotton
(d) sugarcane
(b) stem cutting
(c)
stem grafting
(d) none of these
(b) geitnogamy
(c) autogamy
(d) all of these
(b) Only stamens and carpel
(c) Only ovary
(d) Only carpel
In angiosperm after the fertilization endosperm become
(b) Diploid
(c) Triploid
(d) Tetraploid
(c) placenta
(d) None
(c) Anther
(d) Style
(c) Style
(d) None
After fertilization ovule grows into
(b) fruit
Which is not a part of carpel:
(a) Stigma
21.
(c) pollen tube
(a) Whole flower
(a) seed
20.
(b) style
Which part of the flower forms the fruit?
(a) Haploid
19.
(d)fertilization
If the pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower, it is termed:
(a) allogamy
17.
pollination
Vegetative reproduction in plants like citrus, jasmine and grapevine i s done by the process of:
(a) stem layering
16.
(c)
Stem cutting are commonly used for propagation in
(a) mango
15.
(b) double fertilization
Fertilization in plants occurs in the
(a) embryo sac
14.
four male garnets
(b) Ovary
Which is a part of stamen
(a) Stigma
(b) Filament
FILL IN THE BLANKS:
1.
In Rhizopus asexual reproduction take place by................. formation.
2.
In Bryophyllum vegetative propagation take place through their..................
AMBITION CLASSES
3.
The process in which new organisms are formed by existing organism is called.................
4.
In Spirogyra, asexual reproduction, take place by.................
5.
Natural vegetative propagation takes place in sweet potato by.................
6.
In ................. method a branch of parent plant is buried in the soil.
7.
In ................ method a cutting part if a plant is grafted on the other plant part.
8.
Unorganised mass of cells is known as.................
9.
Tissue culture is also known as.................
10.
Grafting is not possible in.................plants.
11.
All floral leaves are placed on the ................. of flower.
12.
Stalk of flower is known as.................
13.
................. protects the flower bud before it opens.
14.
If both sepals and petals are coloured can not be distinguished from each other then their whorl is known as
……………
15.
Each stamen has two parts filament and .................
16.
Each pollen grain produces................. male gametes.
17.
A carpel has three parts ovary.............. ...and stigma.
MATCH THE COLUMN
Column I
Column II
(a)
Calyx
(i)
Ovary
(b)
Corolla
(ii)
Sepal
(c)
Stemen
(iii)
Stigma
(d)
Carpel
(iv)
Petal
(v)
Anther
(vi)
Filament
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS :
1.
Mention the reproductive parts of a flower.
2.
Which parts of plants can grow vegetatively?
AMBITION CLASSES
3.
What is the function of pollen grains in flowers?
4.
What is the other name of (i) Calyx (ii) Corolla (iii) Androecium (iv) Gynoecium ?
5.
Name two plants other than fungi that reproduce through spores.
6.
Give one example of each plant which propagates artificially by (a) cutting, (b) layering.
7.
Which vegetative part is used in the propagation of Bryophyllum?
8.
What is stock in grafting?
9.
Name the agencies through which cross-pollination take place.
10.
Name two abiotic agents of pollination.
11.
Which group of plants shows double fertilisation?
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
What methods will you use for growing jasmine and rose plant?
2.
Some crop plants can be grown from a seed as well as vegetatively from stem cutting. List any four advantages
of vegetative propagation in such cases.
3.
Leaves of Bryophyllum fallen on the ground produce new plants whereas the leaves of rose do not. Why?
4.
What are the two possibilities of self-pollination?
5.
What are the advantages of tissue culture?
6.
Why is cross-pollination considered to be superior than the self-pollination?
7.
List two main advantages of sexual reproduction.
8.
What is the importance of parthenogenesis?
9.
'Grafting is a common method of obtaining a superior plant from two different plants'. Explain.
10.
Describe about the different parts of a stamen in male reproductive organ of a plant.
11.
What is vegetative propagation? Classify is along with examples.
12.
How are these ornamental plants propagated? Mention the name of the method:
(i) Jasmine
(ii) Rose
(iii) Bougainvillea
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Define the terms unisexual and bisexual giving one example of each.
AMBITION CLASSES
(D) Hibiscus
2.
Explain double fertilisation in plants.
3.
What is vegetative propagation? When is it used? Name three methods of vegetative propagation.
4.
Differentiate between 'self-pollination' and 'cross-pollination'. Describe 'double fertilisation in plants'.
5.
Draw a diagram of a flower to show its male and female reproductive parts. Label on it:
(i) The ovary
(ii) The anther
(iii)
the filament
(iv) The stigma
6.
Draw a lebelled diagram of the logitudinal section of a pistil showing pollen gerrpjnation.
7.
Give two advantages of vegetative propagation.
8.
What are the various methods of vegetative propagation? Discuss any one method with example.
9.
What is pollination? Describe corss-pollination.
10.
Describe double fertilisation in plants.
ANSWER
Objective Answer:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
B
D
B
B
B
C
B
D
D
B
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
B
C
A
D
A
C
C
C
A
C
21
B
Fill in the blanks:
1.
Spore
2.
leaf
3. reproduction
4.
layering
5. grafting
6. callus
7.
thalamus
8. callus
9. micropropagation
10.
monocot
11. thalamus
12. pedicel
13.
Calyx
14. perianth
15. anther
16.
two17.
pedicel
18. Ovary
19.
Stigma
Match the column: (a) - (ii), (b) - (iv), (c) - (v, vi), (d) - (i, iii)
AMBITION CLASSES
The process by which living beings produce offspring of their own kind is called reproduction.

Offsprings are genetically similar to their parents.

Reproduction is necessary for the existence and continuity of species in universe.
Type: Reproduction is of two types:
(i) Asexual Reproduction
(ii) Sexual Reproduction
(i)
Asexual Reproduction:

Production of offsprings by a single parent without the formation and fusion of gametes is called asexual
reproduction.

It is a primitive type of reproduction

In this type of reproduction offsping is produced by a cell or any vegetative organ of an organism

In this type of reproduction offspings are genetically identical to their parents.
.
(ii)
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes is called sexual reproduction.
(i)
It involves two different parents i.e. one male and female.
(ii)
Each parent produces gamete.
(iii)
Male gametes are called sperms while female gametes are called ova or eggs.
AMBITION CLASSES
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.
Binary fission occurs in:
(a) Amoeba
2.
4.
(b) Spores
(c) Gametes
(a) Budding
(b) Fragmentation
(c) Sexual reproduction
(d) Gametogenesis
(b) Growth
(c) Fragmentation
(d) Reproduction
(c) Planaria
(d) All of these
Multiple fission occurs in:
(b) Plasmodium
The animals consist of both male & female sex known as:
(a) Viviparous
(b) Oviparous
(c) Sterile
7.
Animals which give birth to young ones are called:
8.
Testes of man occur
9.
(a) inside body
(b) on side of kidney
(c) on either side of dorsal aorta
(d) In scrotal sacs
(d) Hermaphrodite
Fertilization of ovum takes place in
(a) ovary
10.
(d) Gonads
The most fundamental characteristics of living being
(a) Hydra
6.
(d) A & B both
Which type of reproduction of Hydra is most common?
(a) Movement
5.
(c) Planaria
Which one of the following Is concerned with asexual reproduction?
(a) Zygote
3.
(b) Paramecium
(b) fallopian tube
(c) cervix
(d) uterus
(c) Sperms and ova
(d) Oocytes
(b) acrosome
(c) vacuole
(d) mitochondria
(b) Testosterone
(c) triploblastic
(d) Gonadotropin
Oogenesis is a process of formation of
(a) Sperms
(b) Ova
11. Middle piece of a mammalian sperm contains:
(a) nucleus
12. Male hormone is
(a) Corpus luteum
AMBITION CLASSES
13. Sperms move by
(a) head
(b) acrosome
(c) middle piece
(d) tail
14. Binary fission is a form of
15.
(a) sexual reproduction
(b) asexual reproduction
(c) both of these
(d) none of these
Fertilization of frog takes place in
(a) Uterus
(b) Fallopian tube
(c) Water
(d) Upper part of oviduct
(c) Flatworm
(d) All of these
16. Which of these can undergo regeneration?
(a) Tapeworm
17.
18.
Development of an organism from an unfertilised ovum is called
(a) oogenesis
(b) parthenogenesis
(c) vegetative propagation
(d) axexual reproduction
Egg-producing animals such as birds are called
(a) unisexual
19.
20.
21.
(c) viviparous
(d) hermaphrodite
(a) They are diploid
(b) They form gonads
(c) They are formed from gonads
(d) They produce hormones
Which of these secretes seminal fluid?
(a) Prostate gland
(b) Cowper's gland
(c) They are tormed from gonads
(d) They produce hormones
The normal duration of menstrual cycle is
(b) one day
(c) 3-4 days
(d) none of the above
(c) A & B both
(d) All the above
Female sex hormones are
(a) progesterone
23.
(b) oviparous
What is true for gametes?
(a) 7-8 days
22.
(b) Spirogyrs
(b) Estrogen
The process of attachment of blastocyst in the endometrium of uterus is knwon as
(a) placentation
AMBITION CLASSES
(b) implantation
(c) gestation
(d) cleavage
24.
Which of the following is an IUCD?
(a) Copper-T
25.
(b) Diaphragm
(c) Oral pills
The primary reason for increase in human population is
(a) the increase in agricultural production
(b) the increase in birth rate and decrease in death rate
(c) the improvement In medical technology
(d) all of the above
A.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Where does fertilization takes place?
2.
What is a foetus?
3.
How is an embryo produced?
4.
What is a zygote?
5.
Write three examples of animals in which external fertilization occur.
6.
Draw a labelled diagram of male reproductive system.
7.
Name the parts present in human sperm. Show by labelled diagram.
8.
What is syngamy?
9.
What is the name given to primary sex organs?
10. What are copulatory organs?
B.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
What are the parts of a male reproductive system?
2.
Define metamorphosis.
3.
How is internal fertilization differ from external fertilization?
4.
How does a sperm differ from an ovum?
5.
Draw a labelled diagram of female reproductive system.
6.
What are oviparous & viviparous animals?
7.
Describe the process of development from zygote to foetus in brief.
AMBITION CLASSES
(d) Tubectomy
8.
What is puberty?
9.
At what age do human males and females attain puberty?
10. What is tubectomy?
11. Why is it important to study about reproductive health?
12
What is ovulation?
13. Which organ enables the developing foetus to obtain nourishment from the mother's Wood?
14. What are Graffian follicles?
15. What is gestation?
16. How many follicles mature every month during the reproductive phase of a human female?
17. What is internal fertilization? Give an example.
18. What happens if the mature ovum is not fertilised in a female?
19. Distinguish between
(i) Egg and Embryo
(ii) Male and Female Urethra
20. Why is vagina called as "birth canal?
C.
REASONING ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
1.
Why do female frogs produce eggs in large number?
2.
"Sexual reproduction is more advance than asexual reproduction'' why?
3.
How foetus is different from embryo?
4.
In which female reproductive organ does the embryo get embedded and why?
5.
How could a single cell become such a big individual?
D.
FILL IN THE BLANKS:
1.
The....................is also called womb.
2.
The....................is primary reproductive organ in male.
3.
The....................is connecting structure which helps in the transfer of substance to and from the foetus body.
4.
The process of laying eggs in large number is called....................
AMBITION CLASSES
5.
....................is the primary reproductive organ in female.
6.
Testes produce....................
7.
The cells involved in sexual reproduction are called....................
8.
In animals like fish and frog....................fertilisation takes place.
9.
The human zygote gets implanted in the....................
10.
IVF stands for....................
E.
CHOSE TRUE AND FALSE STATEMENTS FROM FOLLOWINGS:
1.
Internal fertilisation takes place outside the female's body.
2.
Birds and snakes are oviparous animals.
3.
A tadpole is the young one of a frog.
4.
Animals like amoeba multiply by budding.
5.
The fusion of male and female sex cells is called fertilisation.
ANSWER
Objective Answer:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
D
B
A
D
B
D
D
D
B
B
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
D
B
D
B
C
D
B
B
C
D
21
22
23
24
25
C
C
B
A
D
AMBITION CLASSES
GENETICS
The science of heredity and variation is termed Genetics.
The term Genetics comes from "gene" word – means "to grow".
The term "Genetics" coined by Bateson.
Father of Genetics - Gregor Johann Mendel.
Father of Modem Genetics - Bateson.
Father of Experimental Genetics - Thomus Hunt Morgan.
"Heredity" term coined by Spencer.
Bateson coined terms Genetics, Allele, Homozygous, Heterozygous, F1 and F2 Generation.
Heredity :- The transmission of characters from the parents to their offsprings.
Variations :- The differences in the characters [or traits] among the individuals of a species are called variations. e.g.
Plant height - Tall, dwarf & middle.
In 1856-57, he started his historical experiments of herediity on pea(Pisum sativum) plant. His experimental work
continued on pea plant till 1865 (19th centuary).
The results of his experiments were published in the science journal. "Nature For schender varein" in 1866






Chromosome: - The nucleus of ovary cell (except RBC of mammals) contained a fixed number of chromosomes. In
all the cells of eukaryotes, chromosomes show the following typical characteristicThey are present in pairs, one from the father other from the mother.
They can be seen only during cell division. In a non – division cell, they appear in the nucleus as a jumbled network
termed chromatin.
The paired chromosome are present in fixed number.
Each chromosomes is made up of one molecule of the chemical called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid and some
proteins
Before cell division the DNA molecule of chromosome replicates to give two molecules of DNA which are called
chromatids,
In the bacteria only one chromosome (that is only one molecule of DNA ) is present and since there is no well
formed nucleus, the single chromosome lies in cytoplasm in the region.
Human chromosomes:Every cell of a human being contains 46 chromosomes. In other words, the diploid number in human in 46.
This can be expressed as 2n = 46. Since gametes contain only half the number of chromosome a sperm and an
ovum has only 23 chromosome.
A pair of similar chromosomes ( one received from father and one from mother) containing the same genes are
termed homologous chromosome.
Genes :- Genes are present on chromosome. The Genes are the ‘Mendelian factor’ present in pairs ( one received
from father other from the mother), on the chromosomes. Thus one member of pair of genes present on the
chromosome has its pair on the homologous chromosome at the same location
AMBITION CLASSES
Genes are bearers of hereditary characters. It has already been mentioned that a chromosome contain one
molecule of the chemical DNA. Genes present on chromosome are segments of DNA
The DNA Molecule: - A DNA molecule is polynucleotide.( poly – many ) it is made of units called nucleotides, each
of which contain
 A nitrogenous base
 A deoxyribose sugar
 A phosphate
There are four nitrogenous bases Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine & hence four kinds of nucleotides in
DNA molecules.
The various combinations of these nucleotides in a segment of DNA from the different genes
In physical structure, a DNA molecule is a double helix containing two polynucleotide strands.
DNA replication:- Cell division takes place in a manner so that cell divides into identical cells with the same number
of identical chromosome. Therefore, prior to cell division, every chromosome should contain two chromatids made
of two identical DNA molecule. This is achieve through the process of DNA duplication. The major steps of DNA
duplication are below
The double stranded DNA molecule unwinds with the help of certain enzymes to expose two strands of DNA
A DNA polymerase enzymes catalyzes the formation of a new doughter strands which can from a double helix with
one stand of parental DNA molecule. So two DNA molecules, each with a parent strands and a new strands get
generated
The identical DNA molecule then become two chromatids which remain attached by a centromere
i.
ii.
iii.
Monohybrid Cross :- A cross in which a single pair of contrasting characters is studied at a time.
Dihybrid cross :- A cross involving two pairs of contrasting characters.
.
Dominant gene :- The gene which decided the appearance of an organism even in the presence of an alternative
gene.
Recessive Gene :- The gene which can decide the appearance of an organism only in the presence of another
identical gene.
Chromosomes :- A thread - like structure in the nuclei s of a cell formed of DNA which carries the genes.
AMBITION CLASSES
Genotype :- The genetic constitution of an organism.
The description of genes present in an organism e.g. TT, tt, Tt.
Phenotype :- External and morphological appearance of an organism for a particular character.

LAWS OF MENDEL
On the basis of Mendel's work, 3 basic laws of inheritance were proposed.
(i)
Law of dominance
(ii)
Law of segregation
(iii)
Law of Independent assortment
Law of dominance :- In crossing between organisms pure for contrasting characters of a pair, only one character
of the pair appears in the F 1 generation. This character is termed dominant while the one which does not
express itself in F1 generation is termed recessive.
Law of segregation :- Allele or genes remain together and segregate at the time of gamete formation. This
means that the alleles do not mix in the hybrids [Non-mixing of alleles]
This is also known as the Law of Purity of Gametes.
Law of Independent Assortment:- This law states that - when individuals differing in 2 or more than 2 pairs of
contrasting characters are crossed, the inheritance of any one pair is not effected by the presence of the other.
e.g. The inheritance of tall character is not way related to the smooth character of the seed. Rather, the 2
characters are inherited independent of each other.
Blood groups :- Four different types of Wood groups in human beings are :
A, B, O, AB
O  universal donor
AB  universal recipient
SEX DETERMINATION How is the sex of newborn individual determined ? In hum; n beings, the sex of the individual
is largely genetically determined. In other words, the genes inherited from our parents have assumed that
similar gene sets are inherited from both parents. If that is the case, how can genetic inheritance determine sex
?All human beings these are 23 pairs of chromosomes are present out of these 23 pairs, are autosomes (similar
in males and females) and 1 pair is called sex chromosome (different in males and females). In males sex
chromosome are XY and in females sex chromosome are XX.
AMBITION CLASSES
EXERCISE
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
Genetics is the branch of science which deals with the study of :(a) cell function
(b) cell structure
(c) heredity and variation
(d) relation between plant and environment.
The term 'genetics' was coined by .(a) William Bateson
(c) Thomas Hunt Morgan
3.
7.
(b) Bateson
(c) Morgan
(d) Johannsen
(b) heterozygotes
(c) genotypes
(d) complementary genes.
The contrasting pairs of factors in Mendelian crosses are called :(a) alloloci
6.
W.Johannsen.
When a gene exists in more than one form, the different forms are termed :(a) alleles
5.
(d)
The term 'gene' was introduced by :(a) Mendel
4.
(b) Gregor Mendel
(b) paramorphs
(c) allelomorphs
(d) multiple alleles
Alleles of a gene are found on :(a) same chromosome
(b) any chromosomes
(c) homologous chromosomes
(d) nonhomologous chromosomes.
Which statement about alleles is not true :(a) There may be several at a locus
(b) One may be dominant over another
(c) They may show incomplete dominance
(d) They occupy different loci on the same chromosome
8.
An organism which receives identical alleles of a particular gene from both parents is:
(a) homozygote
9.
(b) hemizygote
(c) homothallic
(d) heterozygote.
The genetic complement of an organism is known as :(a) genotype
(b) physiotype
(c) phenotype
(d) morphotype.
10. The physical appearance of an individual is known as :(a) heterotype
(b) genotype
(c) morphotype
11. The terms 'genotype' and 'phenotype' were introduced by :AMBITION CLASSES
(d) Phenotype.
(a) Bateson
12.
(b) Darwin
(c) Johannsen
(d) Mendel.
What was Mendel's most important contribution to the modem understanding of biology :(a) The concept of meiosis
(b) The concept of chromosome
(c) The concept that genes are ordered along chromosomes
(d) The concept that hereditary information comes in discrete units.
13.
Gregor Mendel was born in:(a) Austria
(b) Russia
(c) Czechoslovakia
14.
15.
Mendelism is related with :(a) Heredity in living beings
(b) Meiosis during sexual reproduction
(c) Mutations in living organisms
(d) None of the above.
Mendel published the results of his experiments in the year :(a) 1568
16.
17.
19.
(b) 1773
(c) 1866
(d) 1921.
In 1900 AD, three biologists independently rediscovered Mendel's principles. They were :(a) Sutton, Morgan and Bridges
(b) Bateson, Punnett and Bridges
(c) Avery, MacLeod and McCarty
(d) Hugo de Vries, Correns and Tschermak.
How many contrasting traits of pea were studied by mendel :(a) Two
18.
(d) United Kingdom
(b) Four
(c) Seven
(d) Three.
Which one of the following traits of garden pea studied by Mendel was a recessive feature ?
(a) Green seed colour
(b) Green pod colour
(c) Round seed shape
(d) Axial flower position.
Which of the following contributed to the success of Mendel :(a) His knowledge of biology (b) Qualitative analysis of data
(c) Observation of distinct inherited traits
20.
(d) consideration of one character at a time.
The reason why pea plants were suitable than dogs for Mendel's experiments :(a) Dogs have many genetic traits
(b) Pea plants can be self fertilized
(c) There are no pedigree records of dogs
(d) The pea plants favour cross-fertilization.
AMBITION CLASSES
21.
22.
23.
Mendel chose pea plants because they :(a) were cheap
(b) were easily available
(c) have great economic importance
(d) were having contrasting characters.
Selection of homozygous plant is :(a) mass selection
(b) pure line selection
(c) mixed selection
(d) none of the above.
When a cross is made between two parents with respect to a single character, it is called :(a) dihybrid
24.
26.
(b) 9 : 7
(c) 1 : 2
(d) 9 : 3 : 3 : l
(a) test cross
(b) dihybrid corss
(c) back cross
(d) monohybrid cross.
How many types of gametes will be produced in F 2 generation of a monohybrid cross of Mendel :(b) 4
(c) 8
(d) 16
Recessive gene can express only in :(a) homozygous condition
(c) both above conditions
28.
(d) none of these.
Mendel formulated the law of purity of gametes on the basis of :-
(a) 3
27.
(c) trihybrid
Which of the following is the monohybrid ratio :(a) 3 : l
25.
(b) monohybrid
(b) heterozygous condition
(d) none of these conditions
Considering tallness and dwarfness, tallness is more wide spread among pea plants because :(a) Tallness is dominant over dwarfness
(b) Tallness is determined by one gene having many effects
(c) Tallness is determined by many genes having multiple effects
(d) None of these
29.
A red-flowered pea plant was crossed with white-flowered plant. In F1 generation all plants were red. It confirms
that white colour is :(a) Recessive character
(c) nongenetic expression
30.
(b) Dominant character
(d) none of the above.
A woman with straight hair mates with a man with curry hair who is known to be heterozygous for that trait.
What is the chance that their first child will have curly hair :-
AMBITION CLASSES
(a) No chance
(b) One in two
(c) It is certain
(d) One in four.
One word answer type question.
1.
What is a gene ?
2.
Write the scientific term used for 'science of heredity and variation".
3.
Define inheritance.
4.
What term did Mendel use for what we now call the genes ?
5.
How does the creation of variations in a species promote survival ?
6.
Name the plant on which Mendel performed his experiments.
7.
Define Variation.
8.
What are the carriers of factors or genes ?
9.
Name two human traits which show variation.
10.
Write down five inherited 'characters' or traits.
11.
Which of the following combinations of sex chromosome produces a male child, XX or XY ?
12.
Which type of sex chromosomes are carried by male gametes - sperms in human male? What is their
percentage?
13.
What experiment would we do to confirm that the F 2 generation did in fact have a 1 : 2 : 1 ratio of TT, Tt and tt
trait combinations ?
Short answer type questions
1.
Why did Mendel choose pea plants for his experiment ?
2.
What is Mendel's genetics ?
3.
If a trait A exists in 10% of a population of an asexually reproducing species and a trait B exists in 60% of the
same population, which trait is likely to have arisen earlier ?
4.
A Mendelian experiment consists in breeding tall pea plants bearing violet flowers with short pea plants bearing
white flowers. The progeny all bore violet flowers, but almost half of them are short. This suggests that the
genetic makeup of the tall parent can be depicted as :(i) wTTWW
5.
(ii) TTww
(iii) TtWW
(iv)TtWw
Explain the mechanism of sex determination in human beings.
AMBITION CLASSES
6.
Define genetics. What is the contribution of Mendel in this branch of Biology ?
7.
Why are asexually reproducing organisms capable of showing the hereditary features more ?
8.
With suitable example highlight how temperature has an effect on sex determination in the animal world.
9.
Explain with an example how trait is inherited in human beings.
10.
Why are traits acquired during the life-time of an individual not inderited?
11.
How does the creation of variations In a species ensure survival?
12.
A man with blood group A marries a woman with blood group O and their daughter has blood group O. Is this
information enough to tell you which of the traits - blood group A or O — is dominant? Why or why not?
13.
Why are the small numbers of surviving tigers a cause of worry from the point of view of genetics?
14.
Draw a schematic diagram to explain the independent inheritance of two separate traits, shape and colour of
seeds.
15.
How do Mendel's experiments show that traits are inherited independently?
Answer key
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
C
A
D
A
C
C
D
A
A
D
C
D
A
A
C
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
D
C
A
D
B
D
B
B
A
D
B
A
A
A
B
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AMBITION CLASSES
ANSWER KEY
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AMU-JAMIA/XI/DIP/POLYT
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Biology
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CHEMISTRYH.O. RAMNA ROAD, NEAR: PATNA UNIVERSITY PATNA B.O. HANUMAN NAGAR, KANKARBAGH, PATNA
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