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By Tristan Foro and Jordan Comstock
General information
Major Intel processors
Current and future projects
Impact of Intel
Founded in July 1968 by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore
Based in Santa Clara, California
Company name stands for “integrated electronics”
First product was 64‐bit Static Random Access Memory
In 1971 created the first commercially available microprocessor Found success when IBM used Intel’s microprocessor in their PC
Battled with AMD for dominance of the microprocessor market
51st on Fortune 500 list with annual revenue of $55.4 billion
 Central processing unit (CPU) included on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip
 Acts as the brain of all computers and most digital electronics
 Multiple microprocessors work together in the heart of PCs, data centers, supercomputers, cell phones, and other digital devices
 Over the past 40 years microprocessors have become faster and more powerful, while also becoming smaller and cheaper
 Are designed to perform arithmetic and logical operations
 On initial startup microprocessors get information from the basic input/output system, then are given instructions to perform by the BIOS or OS
Released in November 1971 Problem: Nippon Calculating Machine Corporation needed custom chips for its Busicom 141‐
PF printing calculator.
Solution: Intel created four chips, including the 4004, which was the first chip that could be programmed for a variety of products.
General Information:  This 4‐bit CPU became the first general‐purpose programmable processor on the market
 Includes 2300 transistors  Executes approximately 92,000 instructions per second
 A single instruction cycle is 10.8ms Task:
Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) needed to implement an instruction set for their programmable terminal
Result:  To solve this, Intel produced the 8008
 It was delivered too late for CTC, who ended up not using it
 Instead, Intel bought the rights back and sold the chip for themselves
 Released in April 1972
Details:  Doubled from 4‐bits in 4004 to 8‐
bits allowing for more memory access
 Worked at two clock frequencies, 500 kHz and 800 kHz
 Included external 14‐bit address bus that could address 16 KB of memory
Reason for Development:
Intel’s failing 8800 tried jumping straight from 8 bits to 32 bits and lost traction in the microprocessor market to Zilog
 A software engineer named Stephen Morse was chosen to lead the 8086 project
 His goal was to determine features to make the software more efficient
 Led to the x86 architecture, which would be Intel’s main line of products
IBM, Intel’s Success Story:  IBM was looking to design their first PC
 IBM chose the 8088, a cheaper version of the 8086 with the same underlying code
 IBM’s dominance in the PC market helped Intel to soar
 Other companies tried copying IBM’s PCs, so Intel was designed into more products
General Information: Released in 1993
 First superscalar processor ‐
implements instruction‐level parallelism using two pipelines  Can execute multiple instructions during a clock cycle by sending multiple instructions to different execution units at the same time
 Faster floating‐point unit
 Wider data bus
 Separate instruction and data caches
 FDIV Bug: The processor could sometimes return incorrect decimal results during division
 Dual pipeline increased speed at which instructions could be completed
 64‐bit data bus doubled amount of info to read or write on each memory access, allowing cache accesses faster than ever before
 Separation of code and data caches lessens the fetch and operand conflicts from previous models
 Fully hardware based multiplier allowed for faster multiplication functions
Pentium Pro (1995): Designed to replace the original Pentium
 Considerably faster than Pentium because of its dynamic execution
 Includes multiple branch prediction, data flow analysis, speculative execution
 Extended the pipeline length to 14 stages
 Struggled in 16‐bit operations compared to Pentium, which had been optimized for them
Pentium II (1997): Overcame many negative aspects of the Pentium Pro
 L2 Cache ran at half‐frequency because it couldn’t operate at the CPU’s full speed
 Used affordable cache chips attached to larger silicon packages to reduce costs
 Doubled L1 cache size from the Pro (to 32 KB)
Pentium III (1999): First 1GHz processor
 Reduced pipeline to 10 stages
 Moved to a 180 nm transistor fabrication process
 Moved L2 cache back into the CPU, improving performance
Netburst: Released in 2000 (Considered a failure)
Used the deepest pipeline Intel had created at the time (20 stages)
Longer pipelines require more bandwidth and have higher latency, but can operate at much higher clock speeds to increase performance Pentium 4: The first processor released with Netburst
Netburst extended the pipeline, but the processor could not reach the desired clock rates beyond 2 GHz because of heat and power consumption issues
This processor struggled compared to competitors and the previous P6 Architecture because of the increased latency without a significant increase in clock speed Performance:
General Information:
 Core 2 Duo tripled the  Intel gave up on the Netburst architecture because of its amount of on‐board cache performance and returned to the successful P6 to 6 MB
 Processor base frequency  Core launched in 2006, and consists of multi‐core of 2.93 GHz
processors (processors with multiple independent  Used for both desktop and processing units)
 Quad (four cores), Duo (two cores), Solo (Duo with  Uses a deep pipeline and one disabled core)
out‐of‐order execution
 In 2006 the Core 2 Duo was released for desktop use and was used as the CPU for the first generation MacBook Pro  Outperformed Pentium 4 while operating at lower  Signified Apple’s major shift to Intel processors clock rates
across their entire line
 Allowed Intel to catch up to AMD
(Descendants of the P6 architecture)
These desktop and laptop processors currently use the Skylake microarchitecture that was launched in 2015, which has improvements in performance and power consumption
 Core i3: Low end performance processor, following the end of the Core 2 brand
Dual‐core processor, with hyper‐threading (which creates two virtual cores for every physical core)
 Core i5: Mid tier performance processor, a variant of the i7 processor
Quad‐core processor, with Turbo Boost (which allows higher clock speeds when running at low temperatures and with fewer cores)
 Core i7: Upper end performance processor, targeting high‐end consumer markets for desktops and laptops
Quad‐core processor, similar to i5 but with higher clock speeds and 8 MB of cache
Microprocessor Architectures: Kaby Lake: 14nm architecture released in 2016, focused on optimization and performance
Coffee Lake: 14nm architecture to be released in 2017 for desktops, refinement of Kaby Lake
Cannonlake: 10nm architecture to be released in 2017 for notebooks
Ice Lake: 10 nm architecture to be released in 2018 for all designs, will continue to use CMOS transistors
Digitalizing Analog Circuitry: Converting analog parts to digital, because analog parts do not benefit from scaling If digitalizing isn’t completely possible, then digital devices coexist with analog devices to reduce their use
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD): Competes directly with Intel processors, has struggled to keep pace recently
 Intel is larger, older, and has a greater market share
 There has been litigation between the companies, with Intel being accused of anti‐
competitive tactics
 AMD chips are typically less expensive, while Intel chips have better performance
 Intel chips generate less heat
 Intel uses hyperthreading to run multiple threads on each core, while AMD increases the number of cores
 AMD uses overclocking to increase the clock rate of the processor
 The rivalry has helped push the whole industry forward at a rapid pace
Microprocessor Impact:
 In 1960s computers filled entire rooms
 Processors were expensive and only available to government labs, research universities and large corporations
 Development of integrated circuit allowed for miniaturization of circuits onto single silicon chip
 Reduction in cost for high‐performance processing power  Personal computer (PC) became possible, and computers were more readily available to all
 Intel’s Gordon Moore observed that the number of transistors per square inch on an IC will double every year (known as Moore’s Law), which has held true thus far
It’s possible that without Intel, computers wouldn’t be where they are today