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Introduction to the
microcontroller
Atmel 8-bit AVR Microcontroller
Atmega328P
What is microcomputer?
History ot computer
Microprocessor vs microcontroller
Datasheet of Atmega328P
What is microcomputer?
Mainframe
Minicomputer
Microcomputer
Computer
Microcomputer
Processor
Microprocessor
Microcontroller
Semiconductor manufacturing processes
10 µm – 1971
6 µm – 1974
3 µm – 1977
1.5 µm – 1982
1 µm – 1985
800 nm – 1989
600 nm – 1994
350 nm – 1995
250 nm – 1997
180 nm – 1999
130 nm – 2001
90 nm – 2004
65 nm – 2006
45 nm – 2008
32 nm – 2010
22 nm – 2012
14 nm – 2014
10 nm – 2017
7 nm – ~2018
5 nm – ~2020
Half-nodes
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Semiconductor_manufacturing_processes
Evolution of technology nodes in semiconductor manufacturing processes in log scale.
(Source:http://www.spinograph.org/blog/why-nanoelectronics-better-microelectronics)
Old stuff
What was that in the hands?
Source: http://www03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/images/icp/Q969732S50503Q79/us__en_us__ibm100__punched_card__hand_c
ards__620x350.jpg
That was a program file.
Punch card programming
Figure: An 80 column punch card
(Source: http://watson.latech.edu/book/future/futureEvolving.html)
Punch cards for many programs
Source of figure: http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/punched-cards/2/4
Evolution of computers
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=
i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=image
s&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=&url
=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.computer
history.org%2Fatchm%2Ftheworlds-smallestcomputer%2F&psig=AFQjCNFbFjt
v4f1pvJJ6i5F2awOFHqQdQ&ust=14869987
15371280
Definition of a microcomputer
A microcomputer
- is a computer
- Is smaller and cheaper than a mainframe and minicomputer
- Contains a microprocessor, memory, and input/output circuitry on a single printed circuit board
- Becomes a personal computer when equipped with a keyboard and a display
- Is popular in 1970s and 1980s
Early microcomputers
Model
Processor
Year
Intel SIM8-01
Intel 8008
early 1972
MOS Technology KIM-1
MOS Technology 6502
1975
Motorola MEK6800D2
Motorola 6800
1976
Rockwell AIM-65
6502
Synertek SYM-1
6502
1978
Intel SDK-85
Intel 8085
1978
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_early_microcomputers
Intel processors
http://keywordsuggest.org/gallery/141277.html
Evolution of Intel processors
http://www.slideshare.net/JCzakera/it322-intro-0
Microcontroller vs microprocessor
Source:
https://vinothembedd
ed.wordpress.com/ta
g/microprocessor/
https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.quora.
com%2FWhat-is-the-difference-between-a-microprocessor-andmicrocontroller&psig=AFQjCNHbTiPg5YESdmuuWCHI0Zl_E1JvKg&ust=1487008265592343
Introduction in the datasheet
Introduction
The Atmel® picoPower® ATmega328/P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced RISC architecture. By
executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega328/P
achieves throughputs close to 1MIPS per MHz. This empowers system
designer to optimize the device for power consumption versus processing
speed.
RISC vs CISC
RISC processors
We currently see a transition from CISC processors (Complex Instruction Set Computer), which work with a relatively large set of
instructions, to RISC processors, which work with a small set of simple, basic instructions. Because the RISC processor has less
instructions and therefore less circuits, it is easier to make, it can be miniaturised further and it has a higher processing speed.
The high processing speed more than compensates for the fact that a RISC processor must carry out more instructions than a
CISC processor to execute the same command. The clock speed of the current processors is usually 100 MHz at the most. The
fastest RISC processor of this moment is the Alpha processor by DEC, with 300 MHz. The speed is expected to reach 500 MHz.
http://home.kpn.nl/daanrijsenbrij/vision/eng/vis490h1.htm
Block diagram
Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Hardvard vs von Neumann Architectures
Architecture
Contrast
Advantage
Hardvard
Separate instruction and data
address spaces
Faster at a same
circuit complexity
Von Neumann
Same address space for
instructions and data