Download The Earth`s Ecosystems-Chapter 20 Outline

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 Biomes on Land—a biome is a geographic area
characterized by specific types of plants and animals.
 Climate and Species—climate determines where
species live; the two most important elements of
climate are temperature and precipitation.
1) Temperate Deciduous Forest—broad-leafed
trees that shed their leaves in the fall; Deer,
foxes, squirrels and songbirds.
2) Taiga—the evergreen, coniferous trees have
needles adapted to prevent water loss; moose,
bears, wolves, and lynx.
3) Tropical Rain Forest—jungles near the equator
with large amounts of rain and little variation in
temperature; contain the greatest known
diversity of organisms on Earth; tall trees host
great numbers of insects, birds, reptiles and
Canopy—trees of various heights form a
continuous green roof.
4) Grasslands (Prairie & Savanna)—grasses, has
few trees, with cold winters and intermediate
rainfall between that of a forest and a desert;
grazing animals such as bison along with prairie
dogs and gophers; Savannas are found in
tropical and subtropical habitats and mainly in
regions with a dry climate, such as East Africa.
[Many grazers such as zebra, giraffes, and
gazelles feed on the grass; Carnivores, such as
lions and cheetahs, prey on these herbivores.]
5) Desert—a region that has little or no
vegetation, long periods without rain, and
extremely hot temperatures; Animals such as
lizards and snakes, and plants, like cacti and
succulents, are adapted to conserve water in
the desert.
6) Tundra—treeless, frozen plain; very low winter
temperatures; short, cool summers; and
vegetation that consists of grasses, lichens, and
perennial herbs; Caribou, musk oxen, snowy
owls, arctic foxes, lemmings, and snowshoe
hares are native mammals.
 Marine Biomes—The ocean can be divided into several
marine biomes, including:
1) Intertidal Zone
2) Neritic Zone
3) Oceanic Zone
4) Benthic Zone
 Zooplankton—are microscopic animals that drift in
bodies of water worldwide; act as one of the primary
sources of energy in aquatic systems.
 Coral Reefs—composed of the calcium carbonate
skeletons of thousands of coral polyps. [provides food
and shelter for as many as three thousand different
species of animals; found primarily in tropical
 Estuary—an area where fresh water from rivers
mixes with salt water from the ocean; mud flats, bays
and salt marshes.
A) Freshwater Biomes—can be divided into three zones:
1) The littoral zone—shallow zone where light reaches
the bottom and nurtures plants.
2) The limnetic zone or open–water zone is away from
the shore but still close to the surface.
3) The profundal zone or deep–water zone is the zone
in which little sunlight penetrates.
B) Tributary, River System, and Drainage Basin—
1) A tributary is a stream that flows into a lake or
into a larger stream.
2) A river system is a network formed by streams
and rivers that flow together.
3) A drainage basin is a region that collects
streams (surface runoff) that then become
part of a body of water, such as a lake or a
C) Marsh— A marsh is a treeless wetland ecosystem
found in fresh water or salt water.