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AP PSYCHOLOGY COURSE OUTLINE Standard #1: History & Approaches and Research Methods Textbook: Unit 1 (pages 2-15), Unit 2 (pages 19-46) Learning Targets: a. Define psychology and trace its historical development. b. Compare and contrast the seven major psychological perspectives. c. Identify basic and applied research subfields of psychology. d. Explain the need for psychological science. e. Identify basic elements of an experiment (variables, groups, sampling, population, etc.). f. Compare and contrast research methods (case, survey, naturalistic observation). g. Explain positive and negative correlations and why they cannot predict cause-effect. h. Describe the three measures of central tendency and measures of variation. i. Discuss the ethics of animal and human research. Standard #2: Biological Basis of Behavior Textbook: Unit 3 (pages 51-110) Learning Targets: a. Describe the structure of a neuron and explain neural impulses. b. Describe neural communication and discuss the impact of neurotransmitters. c. Classify and explain major divisions of the nervous system. d. Describe the functions of the brain structures (thalamus, cerebellum, limbic system, etc.). e. Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex and their functions. f. Discuss the association areas of the cortex. g. Explain brain lateralization and the split-brain studies as well as neuroplasticity. h. Describe the nature of the endocrine system and its interaction with the nervous system. i. Explain the key concepts of evolutionary psychology. Standard #3: Sensation and Perception Textbook: Unit 4 (pages 115-169) Learning Targets: a. Contrast the processes of sensation and perception. b. Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds. c. Identify the structures of the eye and explain their function in vision. d. Assess the different theories of color vision. e. Explain the monocular and binocular cues used in depth perception. f. Classify theories of form and motion perception. g. Identify the structures of the outer ear and explain their function in audition. h. Explain the chemical senses of olfaction and gustation and how they interrelate. i. Identify the specialized cells in pressure, pain, and temperature sensation. j. Compare kinesthesis to the vestibular sense. k. Explain the influence of attention and context on sensation and perception. l. Evaluate claims of different types of extrasensory perception (ESP). Standard #4: States of Consciousness Textbook: Unit 5 (pages 175-210) Learning Targets: a. Define the different levels of consciousness and theories of attention. b. Describe the cyclical nature and possible functions of sleep. c. Compare differences between NREM and REM sleep. d. Identify the major sleep disorders. e. Discuss the content and possible functions of dreams. f. Discuss hypnosis, noting the behavior of hypnotized people and claims regarding its uses. g. Discuss the nature of drug dependence. AP PSYCHOLOGY COURSE OUTLINE h. Describe the physiological and psychological effects of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. Standard #5: Learning & Memory Textbook: Unit 6 (pages 215-249), Unit 7a (pages 255-294) Learning Targets: a. Explain the process of classical conditioning and its components (Pavlov’s experiments). b. Describe the process and elements of operant conditioning (Skinner’s experiments). c. Describe the process of observational learning (Bandura’s experiments). d. Discuss the biological and cognitive factors in learning. e. Describe memory in terms of information processing, and distinguish among sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. f. Distinguish between automatic and effortful processing. g. Explain the encoding process (including imagery, organization, etc.) h. Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory. i. Describe the importance of retrieval cues. j. Discuss the effects of interference and motivated forgetting on retrieval. k. Describe the evidence for the constructive nature of memory. Standard #6: Thinking & Language Textbook: Unit 7b (pages 298-322) Learning Targets: a. Explain the physiological structures involved in language. b. Describe the components of language (phonemes, morphemes, and grammar). c. Identify the stages of language development. d. Assess the theories of linguistic relativity. e. Classify the kinds of thinking. f. Explain the strategies and obstacles to problem solving. g. Demonstrate an understanding of reasoning and logic. h. Evaluate the elements of creativity. Standard #7: Motivation and Emotion Textbook: Unit 8 (pages 327-406) Learning Targets: a. Compare the early theories to contemporary views on motivation. b. Discuss the theories of hunger and hunger regulation. c. Define achievement motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. d. Identify the three theories of emotion (James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter-Singer). e. Describe the physiological changes that occur during emotional arousal. f. Explain how emotions are measured and studied. g. Describe the biological response to stress. Standard #8: Developmental Psychology Textbook: Unit 9 (pages 411-473) Learning Targets: a. Discuss the course of prenatal development. b. Explain changes in physical, cognitive, and social development throughout the lifespan according to Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, Kohlberg, and Gilligan. c. Differentiate between continuous and discrete models of development. d. Discuss the effect of body contact, familiarity, and styles of parenting on children’s temperament and attachments. e. Describe the early development of self-concept. f. Explain the influences on gender identity development. g. Discuss the effects of age on cognitive abilities. h. Distinguish between cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. i. Evaluate the debate on nature and nurture. AP PSYCHOLOGY COURSE OUTLINE Standard #9: Personality Textbook: Unit 10 (pages 479-518) Learning Targets: a. Describe the psychodynamic theory of personality in terms of the interactions of the id, ego, and superego. b. Identify defense mechanisms and how they protect the individual from anxiety. c. Compare Freud’s theory to neo-Freudian theories. d. Discuss the humanistic perspective on personality. e. Trace the formation of the trait theory of personality and the methodologies used. f. Explain the role of biology in personality. g. Explain the uses of different projective and objective personality tests. h. Compare and contrast the different theories of personality. Standard #10: Intelligence Textbook: Unit 11 (pages 523-556) Learning Targets: a. List and explain the historical concepts of intelligence and intelligence testing. b. Describe the importance and types of validity and reliability. c. Evaluate the different contemporary approaches to intelligence. d. Identify the factors that influence intelligence. e. Summarize research on the nature/nurture debate concerning intelligence. f. Discuss the two extremes of the normal distribution of intelligence. g. Examine whether intelligence tests are culturally biased. Standard #11: Abnormal Psychology Textbook: Unit 12 (pages 561-600), Unit 13 (pages 605-638) Learning Targets: a. Differentiate and explain the various approaches to disorders. b. Understand the aims of the DSM-IV and discuss the potential dangers of diagnostic labels. c. Describe each category of disorders and the explanations for the cause from each perspective. d. Apply the five main approaches to psychotherapy to the different classifications of disorders. e. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each model of psychotherapy. f. Discuss eclectic approaches to psychotherapy. g. Identify the common forms of drug therapy and the use of electroconvulsive therapy. h. Examine ethical issues of treating individuals with disorders. Standard #12: Social Psychology Textbook: Unit 14 (pages 643-692) Learning Targets: a. Explain the relationship between attitudes and behaviors and how we form and change attitudes. b. List and describe attributional heuristics and biases. c. Assess the different theories of attraction and love. d. Explain the concepts of obedience and conformity through the research of Asch and Milgram. e. Discuss how group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink. f. Describe the social, emotional, and cognitive factors that contribute to the persistence of cultural, ethnic, and gender prejudice and discrimination. g. Discuss the issues related to aggression. h. Identify the factors that may facilitate or inhibit performance. i. Trace the development of prosocial and antisocial behaviors. j. Discuss the power of the situation versus the power of the individual. k. Identify the factors in group conflict and principles of conflict resolution.