Indus Indus Valley Civilization The largest of the ancient world civilizations Known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was the one at Harappa Excavated in the 19th century Present day Pakistan Most noted for their urban planning and sanitation system Their writing system has not been deciphered (no Rosetta Stone, which is Greek, Demonic and Hieroglyphics) No great monuments, pyramids, ziggurats Mohenjo Daro http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRNgJJjTh8I&featur e=related City Planning of Indus Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were a mile square, with defensive outer walls. Cities had a citadel for public meetings. Harappan settlements were found built of mud bricks, burnt bricks and chiseled stones The streets of major cities such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were laid out in a perfect grid pattern, The street layout showed an understanding of the basic principles of traffic, with rounded corners to allow the turning of carts easily. These streets divided the city into 12 blocks. Citadel of Mohenjo Daro Grid System Drainage & Sanitation The Indus civilization had an elaborate sanitary and drainage system, the hallmark of ancient Indus cities., Each and every house had a connection with the main drain. Inspection holes for maintenance. Drains in the streets for rain water Economics The economies of the Harappan and Sumerian civilizations were very similar. Relied on trade Traded with each other The Sumerians exported mostly textiles and crops, while the Harappans traded in lumber, copper, gold and ivory, which were bought by the Sumerian royalty. The Harappans developed ox-carts and small flat-bottomed boats all of which were used commercially. Ancient China Ms. Jerome What is of value to Ancient Chinese culture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWb7Rvvtblc Ancestral Veneration “in the absence of organized religion or official priesthood in ancient China, the patriarchal head of the family presided at rites and ceremonies honoring ancestors’ spirits.” Therefore, the family patriarch possessed tremendous authority. No organized religion in ancient China (change from other river valley civilizations) Oracle Bones In Mesopotamia and India, merchants pioneered writing In China, the earliest known writing served the interests of rulers rather than traders. One medium for writing was oracle bones. Oracle Bones Used by fortune-tellers in ancient China Specially prepared bones (turtle shells, bones of sheep) to inscribe questions. Subjected to heat When heated, the bone cracked Fortune tellers then studied the patterns and determined answers Will the harvest be productive? Chinese writing The earliest form of Chinese writing was the pictograph The characters used in contemporary Chinese writign are direct descendants of those used in Shang times.