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Indus Valley Civilization
 The largest of the ancient world civilizations
 Known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be
unearthed was the one at Harappa
 Excavated in the 19th century
 Present day Pakistan
 Most noted for their urban planning and sanitation system
 Their writing system has not been deciphered (no Rosetta Stone,
which is Greek, Demonic and Hieroglyphics)
 No great monuments, pyramids, ziggurats
Mohenjo Daro
City Planning of Indus
 Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were a mile square, with
defensive outer walls.
 Cities had a citadel for public meetings.
 Harappan settlements were found built of mud bricks, burnt
bricks and chiseled stones
 The streets of major cities such as Mohenjo-daro and
Harappa were laid out in a perfect grid pattern,
 The street layout showed an understanding of the basic
principles of traffic, with rounded corners to allow the turning
of carts easily.
 These streets divided the city into 12 blocks.
Citadel of Mohenjo Daro
Grid System
Drainage & Sanitation
 The Indus civilization had an elaborate sanitary and
drainage system, the hallmark of ancient Indus cities.,
 Each and every house had a connection with the main
 Inspection holes for maintenance.
 Drains in the streets for rain water
 The economies of the Harappan and Sumerian civilizations
were very similar.
 Relied on trade
 Traded with each other
 The Sumerians exported mostly textiles and crops, while the
Harappans traded in lumber, copper, gold and ivory, which
were bought by the Sumerian royalty.
 The Harappans developed ox-carts and small flat-bottomed
boats all of which were used commercially.
Ancient China
Ms. Jerome
 What is of value to Ancient Chinese culture:
Ancestral Veneration
 “in the absence of organized
religion or official priesthood in
ancient China, the patriarchal
head of the family presided at
rites and ceremonies honoring
ancestors’ spirits.”
 Therefore, the family patriarch
possessed tremendous
 No organized religion in
ancient China (change from
other river valley civilizations)
Oracle Bones
 In Mesopotamia and India,
merchants pioneered writing
 In China, the earliest known
writing served the interests of
rulers rather than traders.
 One medium for writing was
oracle bones.
Oracle Bones
 Used by fortune-tellers in ancient China
 Specially prepared bones (turtle shells, bones of
sheep) to inscribe questions.
 Subjected to heat
 When heated, the bone cracked
 Fortune tellers then studied the patterns and
determined answers
Will the harvest be
Chinese writing
 The earliest form of Chinese writing was the pictograph
 The characters used in contemporary Chinese writign
are direct descendants of those used in Shang times.