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Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. Seeley
Idaho State University
Trent D. Stephens
Idaho State University
Philip Tate
Phoenix College
Chapter 04
Lecture Outline*
*See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.
4-1
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Chapter 4
Histology: The Study of
Tissues
4-2
Tissues and Histology
• Tissue Level of Organization
–
–
–
–
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
• Histology: Microscopic Study of Tissues
4-3
Embryonic Tissue
• Germ layers
– Endoderm
• Inner layer
• Forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives
– Mesoderm
• Middle layer
• Forms tissues as muscle, bone, blood vessels
– Ectoderm
• Outer layer
• Forms skin and neuroectoderm
4-4
Epithelium Characteristics
• Consists almost entirely
of cells
• Covers body surfaces
and forms glands
• Has free and basal
surface
• Specialized cell contacts
• Avascular
• Undergoes mitosis
4-5
Functions of Epithelia
•
•
•
•
•
Protecting underlying structures
Acting as barriers
Permitting the passage of substances
Secreting substances
Absorbing substances
4-6
Classification of Epithelium
• Simple
– Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
• Stratified
– Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
• Pseudostratified
– columnar
• Transitional
– Cuboidal to columnar when not stretched and
squamouslike when stretched
4-7
Types of Epithelium
4-8
Types of Epithelium
4-9
Types of Epithelium
4-10
Types of Epithelium
4-11
Types of Epithelium
4-12
Types of Epithelium
4-13
Types of Epithelium
4-14
Types of Epithelium
4-15
Functional Characteristics
• Cell layers and shapes
– Diffusion, Filtration, Secretion, Absorption, Protection
• Cell surfaces
– Microvilli: Increase surface area absorption or
secretion
– Cilia: Move materials across cell surface
• Cell connections
– Desmosomes, tight, gap
• Glands
– Exocrine: Have ducts
– Endocrine: Have no ducts
4-16
Cell Connections
• Functions
– Bind cells together
– Form permeability
layer
– Intercellular
communication
• Types
– Desmosomes
– Tight
– Gap
4-17
Exocrine Glands
• Unicellular
– Goblet cells
4-18
Multicellular Exocrine Glands
4-19
Exocrine Glands and Secretion Types
• Merocrine
– Sweat glands
• Apocrine
– Mammary
glands
• Holocrine
– Sebaceous
glands
4-20
Connective Tissue
• Abundant
• Consists of cell separated by extracellular
matrix
• Diverse
• Performs variety of important functions
4-21
Functions of Connective Tissue
• Enclosing and separating as capsules around
organs
• Connecting tissues to one another as tendons
and ligaments
• Supporting and moving as bones
• Storing as fat
• Cushioning and insulating as fat
• Transporting as blood
• Protecting as cells of the immune system
4-22
Connective Tissue Cells
• Specialized cells produce the extracellular matrix
– Suffixes
• -blasts: create the matrix
• -cytes: maintain the matrix
• -clasts: break the matrix down for remodeling
• Adipose or fat cells
• Mast cells that contain heparin and histamine
• White blood cells that respond to injury or
infection
• Macrophages that phagocytize or provide
protection
• Stem cells
4-23
Extracellular Matrix
• Components
– Protein fibers
• Collagen which is most common protein in body
• Reticular fill spaces between tissues and organs
• Elastic returns to its original shape after distension or
compression
– Ground substance
• Shapeless background
– Fluid
4-24
Connective Tissue Categories
• Embryonic or mesenchyme
• Adult
–
–
–
–
–
–
Loose
Dense
Connective tissue with special properties
Cartilage
Bone
Blood
4-25
Loose Connective Tissue
•
•
•
•
Also known as areolar tissue
Loose packing material of most organs and tissues
Attaches skin to underlying tissues
Contains collagen, reticular, elastic fibers and variety of cells
4-26
Dense Connective Tissue
• Dense regular
– Has abundant collagen fibers
• Tendons: Connect muscles to bones
• Ligaments: Connect bones to bones
• Dense regular elastic
• Ligaments in vocal folds
• Dense irregular
• Scars
• Dense irregular collagenous
• Forms most of skin dermis
• Dense irregular elastic
• In walls of elastic arteries
4-27
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
4-28
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
4-29
Connective Tissue with Special
Properties
• Adipose tissue
– Consists of adipocytes
– Types
• Yellow (white)
– most abundant, white at birth and yellows with age
• Brown
– found only in specific areas of body as axillae, neck and near
kidneys
• Reticular tissue
– Forms framework of lymphatic tissue
– Characterized by network of fibers and cells
4-30
Adipose Tissue
4-31
Reticular Tissue
4-32
Cartilage
• Composed of chondrocytes located in
spaces called lacunae
• Next to bone firmest structure in body
• Types of cartilage
– Hyaline
– Fibrocartilage
– Elastic
4-33
Hyaline Cartilage
• Found in areas for strong support and some flexibility
– Rib cage and cartilage in trachea and bronchi
• Forms most of skeleton before replaced by bone in embryo
• Involved in growth that increases bone length
4-34
Fibrocartilage
• Slightly compressible and very tough
• Found in areas of body where a great deal of pressure
is applied to joints
– Knee, jaw, between vertebrae
4-35
Elastic Cartilage
• Rigid but elastic properties
– External ears, epiglottis
4-36
Bone
• Hard connective tissue that consists of
living cells and mineralized matrix
• Organic and inorganic
• Types
– Cancellous or spongy bone
– Compact bone
4-37
Bone
4-38
Blood
• Matrix between the
cells is liquid
• Hemopoietic tissue
– Forms blood cells
– Found in bone
marrow
• Yellow
• Red
4-39
Bone Marrow
4-40
Muscle Tissue
• Characteristics
– Contracts or shortens with force
– Moves entire body and pumps blood
• Types
– Skeletal
• Striated and voluntary
– Cardiac
• Striated and involuntary
– Smooth
• Nonstriated and involuntary
4-41
Skeletal Muscle
4-42
Cardiac Muscle
4-43
Smooth Muscle
4-44
Nervous Tissue
• Found in brain, spinal cord and nerves
• Ability to produce action potentials
• Cells
– Nerve cells or neurons
• Consist of dendrites, cell body, axons
• Consist of multipolar, bipolar, unipolar
– Neuroglia or support cells
4-45
Neurons
4-46
Neuroglia
4-47
Membranes
• Mucous
– Line cavities that open to
the outside of body
– Secrete mucus
• Serous
– Line cavities not open to
exterior
• Pericardial, pleural,
peritoneal
• Synovial
– Line freely movable joints
– Produce fluid rich in
hyaluronic acid
4-48
Inflammation
• Response when tissues
damaged or with an
immune response
• Manifestations
– Redness, heat, swelling,
pain, disturbance of
function
• Mediators
– Include histamine, kinins,
prostaglandins,
leukotrienes
– Stimulate pain receptor
and increase blood vessel
permeability
4-49
Tissue Repair
• Substitution of viable cells for dead cells
• Skin repair
– Primary union: Edges of wound close together
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wound fills with blood
Clot forms
Scab
Pus
Granulation tissue
Scar
– Secondary union: Edges of wound not close
• Clot may not close gap
• Inflammatory response greater
• Wound contraction occurs leading to greater scarring
4-50
Tissue Repair
4-51
Tissues and Aging
• Cells divide more slowly in older than
younger people
• Tendons and ligaments become less flexible
and more fragile
• Arterial walls become less elastic
• Rate of blood cell synthesis declines in
elderly
• Injuries are harder to heal in elderly
4-52