Download The Patient s Guide to Heart Valve Surgery

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

List of medical mnemonics wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
You Are Not Alone
700,000
Yearly there are 700,000 heart surgeries performed across
the world
• 250,000 of them are valve surgeries
• Heart valve surgery has been shown to be safe and has a low
mortality rate (2.4%)
• Safer in less symptomatic patients
• Safer in high volume centers
Some valve surgery patients you may know:
• Barbara Walters, Barbara Bush, Robin Williams, Liz Taylor, Arnold
Schwarzenegger, and more
1. The Patient’s Guide to Heart Valve Surgery, by Adam Pick
Why Minimal Incision Valve Surgery?
A decade worth of clinical data shows that minimal
incision or minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) can
achieve great results, comparable to open chest valve
surgery. MIVS also includes these additional benefits2:
•
•
•
•
Less trauma and physical impact to the body
Faster recovery and return to normal activities
Less scarring and improved cosmetic results
Reduced blood loss and risk of post-operative complications
2. Rosengart, TK, et al. Percutaneous and Minimally Invasive Valve Procedures. A Scientific Statement. Circulation, 2008;117. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188525 The Human Heart
• Made of a muscle,
called myocardium
y
• Four chambers:
•
•
2 atria (upper
chambers)
2 ventricles (lower
chambers)
Right side (blue)
receives oxygen-poor
blood from the entire
b d and
body
d pumps it tto
the lungs
Left side ((red))
receives oxygenrich blood from
the lungs and
pumps it to the
entire body
The Heart Valves
• Valves keep blood flowing in one direction through your
heart
• Your heart has 4 valves:
•
•
Mitral and tricuspid valves control blood flow between the
upper and lower chambers of the heart
Pulmonary and aortic valves control blood flow out of the heart
Tricuspid
p valve
Mitral valve
Aortic valve
Pulmonary valve
Heart Valve Disease
• There are two types of heart valve
diseases:
• Congenital (from birth)
• Degenerative (aging process)
• The most common p
problems or defects
Stenosis
are:
• Stenosis or hardening where the valves
have a problem opening
• Regurgitation or back-flow of blood where
the valves have problems closing
• These problems make your heart work
harder to pump the needed amount of
blood to your body
• Symptoms tend to develop over time
Regurgitation
Diagnosing Heart Valve Disease
Physicians may use some of the following examinations to
detect heart valve disease:
Each patient and their conditions are different. These exams should be conducted by expert diagnosticians.
Symptoms and Physical Findings
off Heart
H
Valve
V l Di
Disease3
Symptoms
• Shortness of breath
• Fatigue during exertion
• Cough (especially when
laying down)
y sleeping
p g due to
• Difficulty
coughing
• Heart palpitations (racing)
• Chest pain or tightness
• Dizziness
Physical Findings
• Heart murmur
• Swollen feet or ankles
3. Bonow, RO, Carabello, BA, Kanu C, et al. 2008 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease. Circulation 2008;118;e523‐e661.
Treatment with Medication
“…There is no specific medical therapy for patients who
have not yet developed symptoms. Patients who
d
developed
l
d symptoms
t
require
i surgery, nott medical
di l
therapy.”3
3. Bonow, RO, Carabello, BA, Kanu C, et al. 2008 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease. Circulation 2008;118;e523‐e661.
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Aortic Stenosis
Normal
Calcified
• Narrowing of the valve
opening
i th
thatt results
lt in
i
less blood flow through
Open
the valve
• Caused by a progressive
build-up of calcification or
Closed
hardening of the valve
leaflets (flaps)
• The most common type
yp of
disease associated with A narrowed aortic valve reduces
efficient blood flow from the left ventricle
the aortic valve
to the aorta, thus to the rest of the body
Aortic Stenosis Grades
• Aortic stenosis ((AS)) is best
described as a disease continuum
with varying grades:
•
•
•
Mild
Moderate
Severe
• Physicians establish how severe
the disease is based on the
amount of blood that moves
appropriately through your valves
Aortic Valve Replacement
S i lO
Surgical
Options
i
Conventional
Open-chest or Sternotomy
Minimal Incision
Right Anterior
Thoracotomy
Mini-sternotomy
Mitral Valve Regurgitation
Mitral Valve Disease
• Prolapsed cusps (flaps) are the most
common disease to affect the mitral
valve
• Many people have prolapsed cusps with
no other problems
• Some patients with more progressive
disease, however, will have what is
called mitral regurgitation
• Mitral regurgitation is a condition where
the mitral valve does not close tightly,
allowing blood to flow backward inside
the heart
• Mitral regurgitation can also be referred
to as mitral insufficiency or mitral
incompetence
Normal
Prolapsed
Causes of Mitral Valve Regurgitation
• Degeneration – age related wear
and tear
• Infection:
• Prior infection such as rheumatic fever
that causes scarring and valve damage
• Active infection such as endocarditis
• C
Congenital
it l h
heartt d
defects
f t – acquired
i d
from time of birth
• Weakened heart muscle from prior
heart attacks can also affect the
function of the heart valves
Mitral Valve Regurgitation Grades
• Mitral valve regurgitation
g g
is best described as
a disease continuum with varying grades:
• Mild
• Moderate
• Severe
• Physicians establish how severe the disease
is based on the amount of blood that is
moving backward through the mitral valve
• They also evaluate the size of the left ventricle
(pumping chamber) of your heart
Mitral Valve Surgical Approaches
• With th
the mitral
it l valve,
l
surgeons d
do one off ttwo thi
things
to the valve:
• Repair
p –p
place a ring
g around the valve to help
p stabilize the
valve leaflets (indicated by guidelines3 as primary approach)
• Replacement – remove the damaged valve completely and
replace
p
with a new valve ((either mechanical or tissue))
• Depending on the severity of the regurgitation, a
repair can very often be performed instead of a full
valve replacement
3. Bonow, RO, Carabello, BA, Kanu C, et al. 2008 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease. Circulation 2008;118;e523‐e661.
Mitral Valve Surgical Options
Conventional
Minimal Incision
Open-chest or Sternotomy
Thoracotomy
Minimal Incision
Valve Surgery
What is Minimal Incision Valve Surgery?
g y
Minimal incision valve surgery is a minimally or less invasive
approach to surgery that is designed to offer patients an
option for valve surgery that is equivalent4 to traditional openg y
chest heart valve surgery.
Minimal incision valve surgery can treat various cardiac
diseases
diseases, including:
• Aortic valve stenosis
• Mitral valve regurgitation
Additional indications and contraindications
4. Schmitto et al. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Valve Surgery, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, State‐of‐the‐Art paper, Vol. 56, n.. 6, 2010.
Mitral valve
surgery
Aortic valve
surgery
Why Choose Minimal Incision
V l S
Valve
Surgery?
?
• Less pain 5
• Less trauma to the body 6
• Faster recovery and return to
normal activity 7
• Less scarring and better cosmetic
results 8
•
Less time in the hospital and
i t
intensive
i care unitit 9
•
Shorter amount of time on a
breathing machine 9
•
Less potential need for blood
transfusions 10
• Less risk of infection or
complications in the chest bone 6
5. Casselman FP, Van Slyke S, Dom H, Lambrechts D, Vermeulen Y, Vanermen H. Endoscopic Mitral Valve Repair: Feasible, Reproducible, and Durable. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2003; 125: 273 282
273‐282
6. Glower DD, et al. Mitral valve operation via Port Access versus median sternotomy. European Journal of Cardio‐thoracic Surgery; 14 (Suppl. 1) 1998: S143‐S147.
7. Casselman FP, Slycke SV, Wellens F, De Geest R, Degrieck I, VanPraet F, Vermueulen Y, Vanermen H. Mitral Valve Surgery Can Now Routinely Be Performed Endoscopically. Circulation. 2003: 108 Suppl 1:II48‐54
8. Mishra YK, Khanna SN, Wasir H, Sharma KK, Mehta Y, Trehan N. Port‐Access Approach for Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Our Experience in 776 Patients. Indian Heart Journal. 2005; 57: 688‐693.
9. Ryan WR, et al., “Mitral Valve Surgery: Comparison of Outcomes in Matched Sternotomy and Port Access Groups”. Presentation at 5th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Heart Valve Disease, June, 2009.
10. Greelish JP, Cohn LH, Leacche M, Mitchell M, Karavas A, Fox J, Byrne JG, Aranki SF, Couper GS. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair suggests earlier operations for mitral valve disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
2003; 126:365‐73
Questions to Ask your Surgeon
• Do yyou p
perform minimal incision valve surgery?
g y
• Of all the isolated valve surgery you perform, what
percentage are minimal incision valve surgery
procedures?
d
? If nott 100%
100%, why?
h ?
• Am I a minimal incision valve surgery candidate?
• Do I have any of the risk factors that exclude me from
minimal incision valve surgery?
• [For mitral patients] What is the likelihood that my valve
will be repaired versus replaced? Why?
Questions and Answers
Appendix
Clinical Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
www.YourHeartValve.com
www.Edwards.com
www.AmericanHeart.org
www.acc.org
www.MendedHearts.org
www.HeartValveSurgeons.com
H tV l S
www.heart-valve-surgery.com
The Patient
Patient’s
s Guide to Heart Valve Surgery”
Surgery by Adam
Pick
Minimal Incision Valve Surgery
References
1.
The Patient’s Guide to Heart Valve Surgery, by Adam Pick
2.
Rosengart, TK, et al. Percutaneous and Minimally Invasive Valve Procedures. A Scientific Statement. Circulation, 2008;117. DOI:10 1161/CIRCULATIONAHA 107 188525
DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188525
3.
Bonow, RO, Carabello, BA, Kanu C, et al. 2008 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease. Circulation 2008;118;e523‐e661
4.
Schmitto et al. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Valve Surgery, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, State‐of‐the‐Art paper, Vol. 56, n.. 6, 2010.
5.
Casselman FP, Van Slyke S, Dom H, Lambrechts D, Vermeulen Y, Vanermen H. Endoscopic Mitral Valve Repair: Feasible, Reproducible, and Durable. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2003; 125: 273 282
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2003; 125: 273‐282
6.
Glower DD, et al. Mitral valve operation via Port Access versus median sternotomy. European Journal of Cardio‐thoracic Surgery; 14 (Suppl. 1) 1998: S143‐S147.
7.
Casselman FP, Slycke SV, Wellens F, De Geest R, Degrieck I, VanPraet F, Vermueulen Y, Vanermen H. Mitral Valve Surgery Can Now Routinely Be Performed Endoscopically. Circulation. 2003: 108 Suppl 1:II48‐54
8.
Mishra YK, Khanna SN, Wasir H, Sharma KK, Mehta Y, Trehan N. Port‐Access Approach for Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Our Experience in 776 Patients. Indian Heart Journal 2005 57 688 693
Journal. 2005; 57: 688‐693.
9.
Ryan WR, et al., “Mitral Valve Surgery: Comparison of Outcomes in Matched Sternotomy and Port Access Groups”. Presentation at 5th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Heart Valve Disease, June, 2009.
10. Greelish JP, Cohn LH, Leacche M, Mitchell M, Karavas A, Fox J, Byrne JG, Aranki SF, Couper GS. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair suggests earlier operations for mitral valve disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126:365‐73
Minimal incision valve surgery (MIVS) is not indicated for patients with moderate to severe peripheral or aortic atherosclerosis, a history of thoracic trauma, aneurysm of the ascending aorta, or for people suffering from severe aortic regurgitation.
y
,
y
g
,
p p
g
g g
Complications for this procedure are similar to those with any heart surgery procedure and may include injury to the vessels and
other structures in the heart, plaque embolization, stroke, sepsis, hematoma at the access site, arrhythmia, arterial thrombosis, cardiac failure, peripheral nerve damage, allergic reaction to contract medium, or death.
Discuss all of these risks with your physician, and other options available to you for the treatment of heart disease.
The information in this booklet was compiled as an educational service by Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, a leader in advanced
cardiovascular disease treatments, the number one heart valve company in the world, and the global leader in acute hemodynamic monitoring. Edwards is a trademark of Edwards Lifesciences Corporation. Edwards Lifesciences is a service mark of Edwards Lifesciences Corporation and is registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office
Lifesciences Corporation and is registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
© 2011 Edwards Lifesciences Corporation.
All rights reserved. AR05987