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Transcript
Safety Unit for Lithium Battery Packs
Manual
for the
Lithium Battery Safety Unit
LBSU-4-100
Version:
Worley
Energy Cells Group
Singapore
Tel: +65 9792 7656
Fax: +65 6735 7444
energy@worley.com.sg
www.worley.com.au/wecs
1.0
1
Contents
1
CONTENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 2
2
DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................................................................. 3
3
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 4
4
DESCRIPTION OF THE HARDWARE .................................................................................................. 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
STRUCTURE OF THE SAFETY UNIT ............................................................................................................. 4
POWER SUPPLY ......................................................................................................................................... 4
VOLTAGE INPUTS ...................................................................................................................................... 5
TEMPERATURE SENSORS ........................................................................................................................... 7
RESET OUTPUT .......................................................................................................................................... 7
LOAD RELAY OUTPUT ............................................................................................................................... 8
SERIAL INTERFACE (RS232) ...................................................................................................................... 8
FRONT PANEL ............................................................................................................................................ 9
5
TECHNICAL DATA................................................................................................................................. 12
6
APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................................................ 13
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2
Disclaimer
THIS SAFETY UNIT IS A PROTOTYPE AND THEREFORE YOU MUST AGREE THE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS DEFINED BELOW; BEFORE YOU USE THE SAFETY
UNIT.
YOU ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT USE OF THE SAFETY UNIT IS AT YOUR
OWN RISK AND THAT IT IS PROVIDED WITHOUT ANY WARRANTIES OR
CONDITIONS WHATSOEVER. WORLEY DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE
FUNCTIONS OF THE SAFETY UNIT WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS OR THAT
THE OPERATION OF THE SAFETY UNIT WILL BE ERROR FREE. YOU ASSUME
RESPONSIBILITY FOR SELECTING THE SAFETY UNIT TO ACHIEVE YOUR
INTENDED RESULTS, AND FOR THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE SAFETY
UNIT.
YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE SAFETY UNIT IS NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN (I)
ON-LINE CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT, AIR TRAFFIC, AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION OR
AIRCRAFT COMMUNICATIONS; OR (II) IN THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,
OPERATION OR MAINTENANCE OF ANY NUCLEAR FACILITY.
WORLEY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT
NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES RELATED TO: NON-INFRINGEMENT, ACCURACY
OR COMPLETENESS OF RESPONSES OR RESULTS, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .
IN NO EVENT SHALL WORLEY BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR FOR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF
BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS
INFORMATION, PERSONAL INJURY, LOSS OF PRIVACY OR OTHER PECUNIARY
OR OTHER LOSS WHATSOEVER) ARISING OUT OF USE OR INABILITY TO USE
THE SAFETY UNIT, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, WORLEY AGGREGATE LIABILITY
ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT SHALL NOT EXCEED THE
TOTAL AMOUNT PAYABLE BY YOU UNDER THIS AGREEMENT. THE
FOREGOING LIMITATIONS, EXCLUSIONS AND DISCLAIMERS SHALL APPLY TO
THE MAXIMUM EXTENT ALLOWED BY APPLICABLE LAW.
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3
Introduction
Lithium is the lightest metal on earth. It also has the greatest energy potential of any solid
material. With this unique combination of light weight, high energy and temperature
endurance, lithium is an ideal material for making batteries. But, because lithium is
flammable, it requires careful handling during charging and discharging. Therefore lithium
batteries must be controlled in voltage and temperature during their whole lifecycle.
The Lithium Battery Safety Unit (LBSU-4-100) is designed to control the single cell voltages
and watch the temperature of a Lithium Battery with a nominal voltage of 100V.
4
4.1
Description of the Hardware
Structure of the Safety Unit
The LBSU-4-100 consists of 4 measurement modules where each can control up to 7 cell
voltages and 2 temperatures. The measurement modules are optically coupled and one of the
modules has a master function. Every standard measurement module sends its data to the
master module. The master module transmitts everey minute a set with the data of every
measurement module to the RS232 interface. If any of the measurement modules detects an
error, an error message is sent to the master module immediately. The master module then
sends a message to the RS232 interface and shuts down the battery. Once the battery is shut
down (load relay is open), you must fix the error and press the RESET button to restrat the
safety unit.
4.2
Power Supply
The measurement modules are powered by the cells that they are connected to. The minimum
voltage is 6.5V (3 cells) and the maximum voltage is 30V (7 cells).The voltage at the
measurement module is regulated with an on board DC/DC-Converter to a value of 5V. This
is the reason, why the current consumption of the module is lower, the more cells are
connected (approximately 8mA, when 7 cells are connected).
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4.3
Voltage Inputs
For the measurement of the cell voltages a switched capcity is used. The single cells are one
after the other switched to a capacitor via a multiplexer for a predefined time, so that the
capacitor reaches the same voltage as the cell. After that the capacitor is cut off the cell and
switched to the input of a A/D-Converter. The A/D-Converter is able to measure voltages
from 0V up to 4.5V with an accuracy better than 1% (45mV).
The single cells are connected to the measurement modules with a 8 wire module cable. At
the one end of the cable there is a 9-pin female SUB-D connector, where the wires are
connected in the following order to the SUB-D connector:
Pin Nr
1
2
3
4
5
6
Color
Black
Brown
Green
Yellow Orange Violett
7
8
9
Blue
Red
n.c.
At the other end of the cable there are 8 blank wires. By connecting this wires to the battery,
there must be observed the following rules in order to prevent hazardous situations:

For each wire there must be installed a fuse as near as possible at the battery

The nominal value of the fuse must be between 0.5Amp...1Amp.

The voltage drop over the fuses must be as small as possible (RFuse < 1Ohm), as this
voltage reduces the measured value and therefore reduces accuracy of the measurement.
Caution:
The SUB-D connector must not be connected to the safety unit box during the cable is
soldered to the battery.
To connect 7 cells of a battery to a measurement module, you need 8 fuses and 1 module
cable.
Here is an example, how to connect the first 7 cells of a battery to a module cable (see also
figure in Appendix A):
1. Connect one end of the first fuse to the minus pole of the first cell (this is also the minus
pole of the battery). Then connect the black wire of the module cable to the other end of
the fuse
2. Find the position, where the plus pole of the first cell and the minus pole of the second
cell is connected. Connect one end of the second fuse to this connector. Then connect the
brown wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
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3. Find the position, where the plus pole of the second cell and the minus pole of the third
cell is connected. Connect one end of the third fuse to this connector. Then connect the
green wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
4. Find the position, where the plus pole of the third cell and the minus pole of the fourth cell
is connected. Connect one end of the fourth fuse to this connector. Then connect the
yellow wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
5. Find the position, where the plus pole of the fourth cell and the minus pole of the fifth cell
is connected. Connect one end of the fifth fuse to this connector. Then connect the orange
wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
6. Find the position, where the plus pole of the fifth cell and the minus pole of the sixth cell
is connected. Connect one end of the sixth fuse to this connector. Then connect the violett
wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
7. Find the position, where the plus pole of the sixth cell and the minus pole of the seventh
cell is connected. Connect one end of the seventh fuse to this connector. Then connect the
blue wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
8. Find the position, where the plus pole of the seventh cell and the minus pole of the eighth
cell is connected. Connect one end of the eighth fuse to this connector. Then connect the
red wire of the module cable to the other end of the fuse
Now the first module cable is completely connected. With the second module cable you must
start at that point, where you stopped with the first module cable (the position, where the plus
pole of the seventh cell and the minus pole of the eighth cell is connected) and repeat the
procedure described above. The third module cable is connected in the same way. But there is
an exception to the fourth module cable. Here only the remaining 6 cells are connected and
the remaining red wire of the module cable is left blank (cut off, or isolate this wire).
After all the module cables are wired with the battery, they can be plugged at the four 9 pin
male SUB-D connectors at the safety unit box, labeled with Module1, Module2, Module3 and
Module4. The software at the measurement modules will use the following numbering
scheme:

Cell1...Cell7
at measurement module 1

Cell8...Cell14
at measurement module 2

Cell15...Cell21
at measurement module 3

Cell22...Cell27
at measurement module 4
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After all 4 cables are connected to the box, you should press the RESET button at the front
panel. By doing this, all measurement modules begin working properly.
4.4
Temperature Sensors
The temperature sensors are already completely connected to the safety unit box. Place the
sensors at that points of the battery, where the highest temperatures are estimated. Although it
would be possible to measure 8 temperatures with 4 measurement modules, in the present
case only 4 sensors are connected (T3, T4, T5 and T6). This is the reason, why T1, T2, T7 and
T8 will always be displayed with 0.0DegC in the terminal program window.
The accuracy of the temperature sensor is typically ±1°C at 25°C and ±2°C over the total
rated temperature range between +5°C and +85°C. The value of the temperature sensor is
sampled with a resolution of 10bits at the A/D-converter.
The battery will be shut down, when the temperature at any sensor rises above 50.0°C.
4.5
Reset Output
At the lower side of the safety unit box, near the 9 pin SUB-D connectors, there is a 2.5mm
connector labeled RESET. Here you can plug a 2 wire cable to reset the safety unit remotely.
To use this feature, you must prepare the cable. The plug is shipped with the box. At the plug
you can solder two wires and shield. If you use a shielded cable you must solder one wire to
one pin and the other wire to the remaining pin. It doesn’t make any difference, which wire is
soldered to which pin, but the shield must be soldered to the outermost contact. If you use an
unshielded cable, leave this contact blank. At the other side of the cable you must connect a
push-button switch (normally open) with two pins. Solder one pin to one wire of the cable and
the remaining pin to the second wire. If you have a good (strong) ground potential near the
push-button, connect the shield to this potential. But if you do this, you must guarantee, that
the voltage between ground potential and minus pole of the battery is always less than 10V.
The length of the cable should be as short as possible (let’s say not more than 4m), because
noisy electromagnetic environment may cause malfunction at the safety unit.
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4.6
Load Relay Output
Near the RESET plug at the lower side of the safety unit, there is the plug for the load relay. It
is labeled with „Relay“. This output must be used to shut down the battery (stop charging or
discharging). This output is optically isolated. This means, that it has no electric connection to
any potential inside the safety unit box. The battery must be shut down with „normally open“
contacts of an external load relay, that can cut the current between battery and load. The coil
of the load relay must be equipped with a rectifier, that is able to clamp the inductive voltage
peaks, when the relay is shut down. To understand, how to connect the relay, see also the
figure in Appendix A. The coil of the relay must be connected to the plus pole of an external
power supply at one end. The other end of the coil must be soldered to one wire of the cable
that leads to the relay output connector. The other wire of the cable must be connected to the
minus pole of the power supply for the coil of the load relay. At the other side of the cable the
cinch connector has to be soldered. The wire with the higher voltage has to be soldered to the
inner pin and the wire with the lower voltage (this one that leads to the minus pole of the
power supply) to the outer pin. To shut down the battery, the safety unit will cut the current
through the coil of the load relay and so the relay will no longer be activated and the load
current will be cut. This also means, that it is not possible to activate the battery if the load
relay output is disconnected.
4.7
Serial Interface (RS232)
Behind the Relay and RESET plug at the bottom side of the safety unit, there is the 9 pin
female connector for the serial interface, labeled with RS232. Here you can plug a standard 9
pin PC serial cable. The serial interface is unidirectional, this means, that data is only
transmitted from the safety unit to the computer. Sending data from computer to safety unit
will have no effect. Use the following settings at the PC, to make data transmission working
properly.
Baudrate
9600
Databits
8
Parity
None
Stopbits
1
Protocol
None
In this version the serial interface is just used for displaying data and status messages. For
displaying the data at the computer, you can use any standard terminal program (i.e. Hyper
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Terminal© with Windows© operating system). During normal operation every minute a set of
data is transmitted from safety unit to PC. The dataset includes 28 cell voltages and 8
temperature values. Here is an example for one dataset.
C1= 4026mV; C2= 3674mV; C3= 3687mV; C4= 3682mV; C5= 3700mV; C6= 3696mV; C7= 3678mV;
C8= 3788mV; C9= 3744mV; C10= 3696mV; C11= 3700mV; C12= 3748mV; C13= 3722mV; C14= 3748mV;
C15= 3960mV; C16= 3674mV; C17= 3704mV; C18= 3726mV; C19= 3704mV; C20= 3700mV; C21= 3682mV;
C22= 3572mV; C23= 3220mV; C24= 3198mV; C25= 3220mV; C26= 3203mV; C27= 3194mV; C28= 0mV;
T1= 0.0DegC; T2= 0.0DegC; T3= 25.8DegC; T4= 26.2DegC;
T5= 26.1DegC; T6= 26.1DegC; T7= 0.0DegC; T8= 0.0DegC;
Each cell is shown with cell number and voltage value in millivolts. C1= 4026mV means, that
cell number one has a voltage of 4.026V. Cell number 28 will always be displayed with 0mV,
as no cell is connected to input 7 of measurement module 4 (4*7=28). Below the voltage
values, the temperature values are displayed. T3= 25.8DegC means, that at temperature sensor
3 a temperature of 25.8 degrees centigrate was measured.
4.8
Front Panel
At the front panel of the safety unit box, there are attached 3 LEDs and a push button.
The push button is for resetting the complete safety unit. By pressing this button every 4
measurement modules inside the box are restarted. This button is connected parallel to the
RESET-Output described above, and therefore has the identical function.
The first LED (red color) indicates differnt conditions. When this LED is blinking, everthing
is ok and the battery is working properly. When the red LED is continously on, there is a fault
at one of the 4 measurement modules. In this case there will be an error message transmitted
to the computer. Two different messages are possible:
1. #Fault at module number X, battery shut down !!! Please check and press RESET
In this case the module with number X sends no more data to the master module. There is
probably a technical defect at the module, or no, respectively too less cells are connected
to the module. The battery is shut down and all measurement modules are powered down,
to reduce current consumption. If you can fix the problem, the modules can be restrated by
pressing the RESET button.
2. #Undefined ERROR occured, Battery shut down !!! Please press RESET to restart
measurement modules !!!
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In this case the internal data transmission between the measurement modules was bad for
several times. The load relay is opened, but the modules continue measuring the cell
voltages and temperatures. The reason for this error may be a noisy electromagnetic
environment. Postioning the cables or the safety unit box on another place may fix this
problem. To restart the safety unit press the RESET button.
The second LED (yellow color) indicates OVERVOLTAGE. When this LED is continously
on, there was measured a voltage of more than 4.2V at any of the connected cells. In this case
the battery is shut down and all measurement modules are powered down to reduce current
consumption. Also the following error message is transmitted to the computer:
#Overvoltage at Module Number X, Battery shut down !!!
Where X is the number of the measurement module, that transmitted the error message. To
find the cell that caused the error message, you must check the last data set transmitted to the
computer. Here you must check the voltages of the 7 cells connected to the measurement
module with the number transmitted with the error message. The voltage that is nearest to
4.2V belongs to that cell, that caused the battery shut down. You will not be able to restart the
safety unit (by pressing the RESET button), until all cell voltages at the battery are below
4.2V.
The third LED (yellow color) indicates UNDERVOLTAGE. When this LED is continously
on, there is a voltage of less than 2.7V at any of the connected cells. In this case the battery is
shut down and all measurement modules are powered down to reduce current consumption.
Also the following error message is transmitted to the computer:
#Undervoltage at Module Number X, Battery shut down !!!
Where X is the number of the measurement module, that transmitted the error message. To
find the cell that caused the error message, you must check the last data set transmitted to the
computer. Here you must check the voltages of the 7 cells connected to the measurement
module with the number transmitted with the error message. The voltage that is nearest to
2.7V belongs to that cell, that caused the battery shut down. You will not be able to restart the
safety unit (by pressing the RESET button), until all cell voltages at the battery are over 2.7V.
Both yellow LEDs are continuously on, indicates OVERTEMPERATURE. In this case
one of the temperature sensors measured a temperature of more than 50 degrees centigrade.
The battery is shut down and all measurement modules are powered down to reduce current
consumption. Also the following error message is transmitted to the computer:
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#Overtemperature at Module Number X, Battery shut down !!!
Where X is the number of the measurement module, that transmitted the error message. To
find the number of the sensor, that caused the error message, you must check the last data set
transmitted to the computer. The temperature that is nearest to 50°C is that one, that caused
the battery shut down. You will not be able to restart the safety unit (by pressing the RESET
button), until all temperatures at the battery are below 50°C.
First LED (red)
Second LED (yellow)
Third LED (yellow)
Push-Button
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5
Technical Data
Cell voltage inputs (7 per
module)
Temperature (2 per module)
Overvoltage
Undervoltage
Overtemperature
Power supply
Current on/off output












Operating temperature Range 
Current consumption
Resolution 10 bits
Voltage range full scale +4.5V
Resolution 10 bits
Temperature range 5°C to 75°C
Cell voltage ≥ 4.2V
Cell voltage ≤ 2.7V
Temperature at sensor ≥ 50°C
From battery,
6.5V min. per module
30V max. per module
Plug for coil of external relay , current over plug. 100mA
max
8mA max. with 7 cells connected
4mA in power save mode
0°C – 70°C
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6
Appendix A
Titel:
EAGLE Draw ing P:/3130 271Edison/Mes smodul/LithiumBSM/CellConnect.sc h
Ers tellt v on:
EAGLE
Vors chau:
Dies e EPS-Grafik w urde nicht ges peic hert
mit einer enthaltenen Vorsc hau.
Kommentar:
Dies e EPS-Grafik w ird an einen
PostScript-Druc ker gedruc kt, aber nic ht
an andere Druckertypen.
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