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Judaism and Christianity Important decisions • • • • How do we decide what is fair and unfair? What is being good? What is happiness? How important are humans in the universe? • All of these questions are asked when people are looking for the meaning of life. The Covenant • 2 Major Religions Started in the Middle East – Judaism – Christianity • Thousands of years ago • These two religions give answers to the fundamental questions about meaning and life. Scripture • Scripture – Sacred Writings that are believed to be the word of God • Jews – Tanach- Old Testament – Torah-First Five books of Moses • Christians – Bible- New and Old Testament The Tanach • Jewish Scripture – Laws- 10 commandments – Poetry- Psalms and Proverbs – History– Letters– Legends • Purpose of writings to show how God deals with people and how we should live Judaism • First book of the bible – Genesis –The beginning • Abraham – 3500 years ago – Lived in Ur – Moved his family from Ur to Canaan • Marks the beginning of Judaism Ur . The Covenant • A relationship in which two parties agree to depend on each other • The covenant between Abraham and God is called the Abrahamic Covenant The Abrahamic Covenant • God promises to Abraham – Father of a great nation – Promise of land • Abraham promises to God – He and his descendents would worship one god only and trust in him • Monotheism- the religious belief that there is only one divine being One God? • New idea thousands of years ago • There use to be a god for everything • As a sign of the covenant – Circumcision of male infants – 8 days old • The Abrahamic Covenant is the basis for the Jewish Religion • Most religions believe that God enters relationships with humans through covenants Life Before Covenants • People made offerings to the Gods – Stay on Their good side • Shift in thinking that there was one God that would take care of everything. • This relationship personalizes God and help people to have purpose in life and to make decisions The Test • Abram (100) and Sarai (90)were getting old – They did not have any children • Name Change – Abram=Abraham (father of a multitude) – Sarai=Sarah (princess) • God told Abraham that Sarah was going to have a child and the child’s name should be Isaac. – He laughed The Test Continued (don’t write this) • Isaac was born • God tested Abraham – Sacrifice Isaac – Story Time What do we learn from this story? • Abraham trusted completely in God • God provided a way for the sacrifice to be made • Everything comes from God • Sacrifices were given often – Usually the first of everything • God keeps his promises Abrahamic Covenant • “I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which is upon the sea shore” Gen 22:17-18 Many Descendants • Abraham – Isaac • Jacob –Twelve Tribes of Israel First Patriarch • Patriarch – A man who is a founder or father of a group of people • Abraham is remembered as the first Patriarch • Beginning of Judaism and their lasting covenant with God Abraham • Jews- the covenant begins with Abraham • Christians- Good example of what trust in God should be like • Muslims-Abraham’s son Ishmael is where they descended from Egypt • Every year the Nile River Floods – Irrigates the valley – Egyptians are able to grow abundant crops • Hebrews went to Egypt to escape a famine • Pharoah enslaved them Moses • 2nd book of the Old Testament or Tanach – Exodus • Moses was chosen as the leader of the Hebrews and to deliver them out of slavery • Exodus means the escape – 3200 years ago • The Exodus is celebrated each year during the Passover More Moses • Moses plead with the Pharaoh to let his people go. • Pharaoh ignored Moses – Plagues 10 of them • • • • Swarms of Insects All cattle and livestock died Nile River turned to blood Death of the first born – Pharaoh’s son Death of the First Born • All Hebrews were warned • Smear blood of a lamb on doorposts – Angel of death would pass them by • Moses told the Hebrews to be ready to flee • All of the first born died in the unmarked homes • Pharaoh finally acquiesced Running Away • • • • The Hebrews weren’t fast enough Pharaoh decided he wanted them back So he chased them All the way to the Red Sea The Ten Commandments • Moses called to go to the top of Mount Sinai • Moses came back with a message • “Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will harken unto my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be mine own treasure. . . For all the earth is mine” Exodus 19:4-5 The 10 Commandments • • • • The Hebrews agreed to the covenant Moses went back up to the mountain Given the 10 Commandments Placed in a special box – The Ark of the Covenant The Ten Commandments 1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me 2. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven images 3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain 4. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy 5. Honor thy Father and Mother 6. Thou shalt not kill 7. Thou shalt not commit adultery 8. Thou shalt not steal 9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor 10. Thou shalt not covet How do we remember them 1.None no other gods 2. Zoo No graven images 3. Tree The leaves have veins Don’t take the Lord’s name in vain 4. Store Don’t go to the store on the Sabbath 5. Drive You need your parents car 6.Six shooter Don’t kill 7.Heaven Don’t commit adultery 8. Gate Gates are made of bars stealing puts you in prison 9. Line Don’t be lyin’ 10. Hen Don’t covet anything The Ten Commandments • The Ten Commandments give basic rules about how people should treat their fellow beings and God. Additional Commandments • Moses also brought an additional set of commandments – Detailed rules about how the Jewish people should live and worship – The Torah=Books of Moses=Pentateuch • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy • Contain what God showed Moses at Mount Sinai • Torah=He taught • Pentateuch=Five Scrolls The Torah • Stories – Abraham – Moses – Adam and Eve – Noah’s Ark – 10 Commandments – Other rules 613 Mitzvah The Torah ("Teaching") [also known as the Pentateuch/Humash] consists of: 1. Genesis [ / בראשיתB'reshit] 2. Exodus [ / שמותSh'mot] 3. Leviticus [ / ויקראVayiqra] 4. Numbers [ / במדברB'midbar] 5. Deuteronomy [ / דבריםD'varim] The books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") are: 6. Joshua [ / יהושעY'hoshua] 7. Judges [ / שופטיםShophtim] 8. Samuel (I & II) [ / שמואל Sh'muel] 9. Kings (I & II) [ / מלכיםM'lakhim] 10. Isaiah [ / ישעיהY'shayahu] 11. Jeremiah [ / ירמיהYir'mi'yahu] 12. Ezekiel [ / יחזקאלY'khezqel] 13. The Twelve Minor Prophets [ תרי ]עשר I. Hosea [ / הושעHoshea] II.Joel [ / יואלYo'el] III. Amos [ / עמוסAmos] IV. Obadiah [ / עובדיהOvadyah] V. Jonah [ / יונהYonah] VI. Micah [ / מיכהMikhah] VII. Nahum [ / נחוםNakhum] VIII. Habakkuk [/ חבקוקKhavaquq] IX. Zephaniah [ / צפניהTs'phanyah] X. Haggai [ / חגיKhagai] XI. Zechariah [ / זכריהZ'kharyah] XII. Malachi [ / מלאכיMal'akhi] The Ketuvim ("Writings") are: 14. Psalms [ / תהליםT'hilim] 15. Proverbs [ / משליMishlei] 16. Job [ / איובIyov] 17. Song of Songs [ שיר / השיריםShir Hashirim] 18. Ruth [ / רותRut] 19. Lamentations [ / איכה Eikhah] 20. Ecclesiastes [ / קהלת Qohelet] 21. Esther [ / אסתרEst(h)er] 22. Daniel [ / דניאלDani'el] 23. Ezra-Nehemiah [ עזרא / ונחמיהEzra wuNekhem'ya] 24. Chronicles (I & II) [ דברי / הימיםDivrey Hayamim] • Abraham and Moses are the 2 most important figures in the Torah • Important in Jewish history – Abraham—beginning of the covenant – Moses—Led the Jews out of Egypt and taught them the religion • Hebrews fought in many wars with the tribes that lived in Canaan. • King Saul at war with the Philistines – 3000 years ago • David and Goliath David • David becomes the king • Unites all of the tribes • Captured Jerusalem and made it the capitol • Brought peace to the land • Talented musician. 23rd Psalm Solomon • • • • Son of David Builds a temple in Jerusalem Solomon Dies The kingdom is split – North—Israel– capital Sumaria – South—Kingdom of Judah –Jerusalem • Northern Kingdom is invaded and most of the population disappears The Southern Kingdom • • • • • Judah Lasted 150 more years Conquered by the King of Babylon Destroyed Solomon’s Temple Babylonian Captivity – In exile—remained faithful to the covenant The Prophets • The Jews began to connect God’s fairness with their expectations of themselves. • God is just and cares for others • God is just and punishes the opposite of caring • The message of the prophets • Prophet – In the Bible, a person who is inspired by God • The prophets warned that the disasters that faced the Jewish kingdom were a punishment from God because of religious offenses and social injustices • Prophets pet peeve was the forgetting of the covenants • False Idols Social Injustices • Jews were expected to care for others – Widows – Slaves – Infirm – Disabled – Anyone else who might be in need of aid • During the time of Solomon – The gap between the rich and poor increased • The prophets told the rich that God was angry because they weren’t taking care of the needy(Amos 5: 11-14) • Amos • Assyria to punish the Jews for their wickedness Isaiah • Isaiah prophesied – God will humble the arrogant kings – All people would see the God of Israel as the lord of creation – There would be peace on earth – All people would divert their energy to peaceful activities instead of war. The Return to Jerusalem • 2500 years ago • Cyrus – King of Persia (Iran) • Destroyed the Babylonian Empire • Allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple. • The Jews were able to enjoy self rule under Persian protection Alexander the Great • 2,300 Years ago – Protected the Jews as well • Other Greek Speaking kings ruled the Jews for about 200 years Hannukkah • One king wanted to stamp out Judaism – Antiochus IV – Tried to seize the wealth of the Temple – Tried to make the Jews worship Greek Gods – Insulted the Jews • Ordered a pig to be sacrificed at the temple • Pigs were considered impure Hannukkah • The Jews rallied around Judas Maccabeus and his brothers – Simeon, Eleazar, Jonathan – Fought off king Antiochus IV and his armies – They succeded and purified the Temple and restored the worship of God • 8 Days – Following the victory they found one cruz of oil that had not been desecrated. – Each cruze was suppose to be enough to light the eternal flame for 1 day – The cruze lasted 8 days – 8 days was enough time to prepare and consecrate new oil. • Hannukkah-means to dedicate • Judas died in the battle – His family ruled Jerusalem for many generations • Roman power took over in Jerusalem – Jews struggled for independence – Regarded God as their ruler, not the Romans – The second temple is destroyed and Jerusalem is left in ruins Hopes for the Messiah • Isaiah foretold of the Messiah • Messiah- the anointed one; and agent of God who comes to set things right for God’s people • Messiah=Savior • The Messiah was to free Israel and establish righteousness around the world • The more the Jews went through the more they looked forward to the Messiah The Life of Jesus • Most of what we have about the life of Jesus was written down by his followers – The New Testament – First four books (the gospels) • Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. – The Gospels • New Testament books that tell the life story of Jesus and explain his message • According to the Gospels – Jesus was not an ordinary man • Story Time John the Baptist • • • • Cousin of Jesus Parents Zacharias and Elisabeth They were old Story Time Jesus and John meet up • John was living in the desert – He ate locusts and honey – He told the people to repent of their sins because the Messiah was coming. – He baptized those that believed in the Jordan R. • Jesus comes to John to be baptized. – After he came up from the water • Spirit of God descended on him like a dove • A voice from heaven spoke: “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” Jesus is Tempted • Jesus went into the desert to pray • He fasted for 40 days and 40 nights • While he was fasting he was tempted by the devil – Stones to bread – Worship him (satan) and everything would be his (Jesus) – Pinnacle of the temple Deut 6:16 Jesus Leaves the Desert • Jesus starts to gather a following – Teaches publicly for 3 years – These teachings are found in the Gospels • How to turn to God • How to live a moral life • Jesus would teach anywhere – Road sides, lake shores, towns, dinner • Jesus spent time with anyone – Tax collectors, diseased people and outcasts Miracles of Jesus • Most of them involved curing sick people – Healing the sick – Restoring sight and hearing – Bringing people back from the dead – Multiplying fish and bread • Miracles were used to benefit someone else and not to make Jesus famous • Sometime he was reluctant to do miracles Parables • Many times Jesus taught in parables • Parable – A brief teaching story designed to make a moral point The Prodigal Son Jesus wanted people to pay more attention to helping their fellow humans than following correct ritual. The Two Great Commandments • A lawyer asked: – What is the most important of the Torah’s commandments – This was a subject that was very hotly debated – No win situation The Two Great Commandments • His answer: – “Thou shalt love Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself” • Both commandments were in the Torah • All of the prophets messages were contained in these two commandments Sermon on the Mount • Matthew 5-7 – Beatitudes • 8 types of people that are blessed – How to behave • “Turn the other cheek” • Love your friends and your enemies • The Golden Rule – “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” • The Lord’s Prayer The Beatitudes • Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. • Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. • Blessed are you when they revile and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely for My sake. • Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven. • Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. • Blessed are the meek, For they shall inherit the earth. • Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. • Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. Final Days in the Life of Jesus • Eventually Jesus and His followers went to Jerusalem – Jerusalem was under Roman control – Pontius Pilate • Jesus knew that there would be trouble • Celebrates the Passover – Last Supper The Garden of Gethsemane • Jesus is betrayed by one of his Apostles – Judas Iscariot • 30 pieces of silver for the betrayal – Showed the priests who Jesus was with a kiss on the cheek – Jesus is arrested. Trial • First tried in a religious court of the Jews • Sent to Pilate – Condemned Jesus to death for saying that he was the king of the Jews • Treason • Jesus is stripped, whipped and mocked – Placement of a crown of thorns – Nailed to a cross to be crucified Crucifixion • A form of execution in which a person is nailed or tied to a large cross. • Used frequently by the Romans – Used for people that were guilty of awful crimes • Agonizing and Slow death (took days) • People usually died because their lungs collapsed. • Jesus died after a few hours • Some followers took him down and buried him in a tomb • 3 days after his burial his body vanished • Romans announced that the body had been stolen by the followers of Jesus • The followers of Jesus said that he had risen from the dead and was exalted to heaven Resurrection • Resurrection-to be miraculously brought back to life • Believed to have happened to Jesus – Proves that he was not an ordinary man – Son of God • Followers insisted that he was the Messiah • Jesus Christ- the anointed one- messiah • A new covenant had begun. The Rise of Christianity • One of the most important teachings of Jesus was that God wanted everyone to be with him in his kingdom – Not a new idea according to Jewish scripture – The time that Isaiah had propecied about was now – Jesus had begun the work and would return soon – The kingdom is for all of the world • Not just the Jews • Immediately after the death of Christ – His followers thought that the end was coming very soon – Second coming to happen any moment • Missionary work begins – Work begins with the Jews • Not to accepting of the idea of Jesus Christ as the Messiah – Caused many arguments and fights – This is the seperation into two religions – Still causes problems today • Hatred, oppression, and slaughter The Spread of Christianity • Christianity began in Palestine – Followers began to travel and spread the word as they moved • Alexandria-Egypt • Damascus-Syria • Antioch-Southern Turkey • Paul – One of the most important early Christians • Story Time Paul • Saul – Going to damascus to find and arrest Christians – Flash of Light – Voice • “Why persecutest thou me” – “Who art thou” • “I am Jesus whom thou persecutest” – The voice tells him to continue to Damascus • The men with Saul didn’t see anything but heard the voice • Saul was blind afterward • Ananias – Told by the Lord to go to Saul – Ananias was afraid – Ananias laid his hands on Saul and he was healed • Saul becomes a Christian ---Paul Paul the Missionary • Paul began to preach the Gospel of Christ – Preach means to try and persuade people • Turkey, Syria, Greece • Successful at convincing the non-jews to believe – Once a community was established he would move on • Epistles Epistles • Epistles – The letters of early Christian leaders that form part of the New Testament and explain important Christian teachings – General Epistles • James; 1st, 2nd Peter; 1-3 John; Jude – Pauline Epistles • 14 of them What the Epistles Contain • Advice on how to live good christian lives • Reflections on the life of Jesus Christ • What it means to believe in Jesus Christ – Sacrifice of Jesus was for all – When you have faith in Christ you are born again – Through baptism you acknowledge faith and become part of the Christian community – True freedom – Cannot be obtained on our own – Faith is necessary The end of Paul • • • • Paul was arrested for disturbing the peace Taken back to Rome Executed Paul is responsible for the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire by setting up Christian communities where ever he went Christianity Becomes a Major Religion • Early Christians were not well liked by their contemporaries • Ideas and practices were thought to be strange • Christians were called atheists – They did not worship the pagan gods – Someone who does not believe in any divine being • Views of Christians – Antisocial – Poor Citizens – Others blamed the christians for everything • • • • Misfortunes Droughts Famines Military Defeats – Accused of terrible crimes • Christians were persecuted for years by the Roman Government – They did not worship the Roman gods – Did not see the Emperor as divine • Many of the Christians were killed or martyred because of their faith Perpetua • • • • • Woman Noble birth Born in Carthage, North Africa 200 years after Christ Perpetua, Felicity and Saturus – Arrested and condemned to death – Perpetua and Felicity both had infants – No mercy • They were whipped and killed by wild beasts in the amphitheater – Entertainment • Despite persecution the number of Christians continued to increase. • Major religion by 3rd and 4th Centuries • 313 Constantine – Edict of Milan • The Christian Church can now legally exist in the Roman Empire – Christian Bishops in Rome Alexandrian and Atioch • Early Church leaders continued to write – Church Fathers • Saint Jerome • Saint Augustine • How does God reveal truth unto us? • How can we understand the teaching of Jesus better • Who is Jesus Who is Jesus? • • • • • God Man Combination Both If he is a God, then are there three Gods? – The Father – Jesus – The Holy Spirit • Are all three united in one? Answers • Christians relied on their bishops for answers to those questions • Differences Arose • Council of Nicea – 325 AD – Constantine and the Bishops – Idea of the Trinity Emerges The Trinity • The decision was that Christians should believe in one God • Trinity – Father – Son (Jesus Christ) – Holy Spirit (the power of God in the world) • Nicene Creed Nicene Creed • God is a Trinity • Created everything that exists • Jesus Christ died and was resurrected to save those who believe in him • Some day He will return to judge all • Establish and eternal kingdom • Christians belong to one universal church Christianity Flourishes • • • • 600 AD Christians had stong leaders Carefully reasoned beliefs Faith expressed through music and prayers • Churches arose • It became illegal to be a Pagan • Christianity shapes western civilization for all of its later history.