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Judaism and Christianity
Important decisions
•
•
•
•
How do we decide what is fair and unfair?
What is being good?
What is happiness?
How important are humans in the
universe?
• All of these questions are asked when
people are looking for the meaning of life.
The Covenant
• 2 Major Religions Started in the Middle
East
– Judaism
– Christianity
• Thousands of years ago
• These two religions give answers to the
fundamental questions about meaning and
life.
Scripture
• Scripture
– Sacred Writings that are believed to be the
word of God
• Jews
– Tanach- Old Testament
– Torah-First Five books of Moses
• Christians
– Bible- New and Old Testament
The Tanach
• Jewish Scripture
– Laws- 10 commandments
– Poetry- Psalms and Proverbs
– History– Letters– Legends
• Purpose of writings to show how God
deals with people and how we should live
Judaism
• First book of the bible
– Genesis –The beginning
• Abraham
– 3500 years ago
– Lived in Ur
– Moved his family from Ur to Canaan
• Marks the beginning of Judaism
Ur .
The Covenant
• A relationship in which two parties agree
to depend on each other
• The covenant between Abraham and God
is called the Abrahamic Covenant
The Abrahamic Covenant
• God promises to Abraham
– Father of a great nation
– Promise of land
• Abraham promises to God
– He and his descendents would worship one
god only and trust in him
• Monotheism- the religious belief that there
is only one divine being
One God?
• New idea thousands of years ago
• There use to be a god for everything
• As a sign of the covenant
– Circumcision of male infants
– 8 days old
• The Abrahamic Covenant is the basis for the
Jewish Religion
• Most religions believe that God enters
relationships with humans through covenants
Life Before Covenants
• People made offerings to the Gods
– Stay on Their good side
• Shift in thinking that there was one God
that would take care of everything.
• This relationship personalizes God and
help people to have purpose in life and to
make decisions
The Test
• Abram (100) and Sarai (90)were getting old
– They did not have any children
• Name Change
– Abram=Abraham (father of a multitude)
– Sarai=Sarah (princess)
• God told Abraham that Sarah was going to have
a child and the child’s name should be Isaac.
– He laughed
The Test Continued (don’t write this)
• Isaac was born
• God tested Abraham
– Sacrifice Isaac
– Story Time
What do we learn from this story?
• Abraham trusted completely in God
• God provided a way for the sacrifice to be
made
• Everything comes from God
• Sacrifices were given often
– Usually the first of everything
• God keeps his promises
Abrahamic Covenant
• “I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the
heaven and as the sand which is upon the
sea shore” Gen 22:17-18
Many Descendants
• Abraham
– Isaac
• Jacob
–Twelve Tribes of Israel
First Patriarch
• Patriarch
– A man who is a founder or father of a group of
people
• Abraham is remembered as the first
Patriarch
• Beginning of Judaism and their lasting
covenant with God
Abraham
• Jews- the covenant begins with Abraham
• Christians- Good example of what trust in
God should be like
• Muslims-Abraham’s son Ishmael is where
they descended from
Egypt
• Every year the Nile River Floods
– Irrigates the valley
– Egyptians are able to grow abundant crops
• Hebrews went to Egypt to escape a
famine
• Pharoah enslaved them
Moses
• 2nd book of the Old Testament or Tanach
– Exodus
• Moses was chosen as the leader of the
Hebrews and to deliver them out of slavery
• Exodus means the escape
– 3200 years ago
• The Exodus is celebrated each year
during the Passover
More Moses
• Moses plead with the Pharaoh to let his
people go.
• Pharaoh ignored Moses
– Plagues 10 of them
•
•
•
•
Swarms of Insects
All cattle and livestock died
Nile River turned to blood
Death of the first born
– Pharaoh’s son
Death of the First Born
• All Hebrews were warned
• Smear blood of a lamb on doorposts
– Angel of death would pass them by
• Moses told the Hebrews to be ready to
flee
• All of the first born died in the unmarked
homes
• Pharaoh finally acquiesced
Running Away
•
•
•
•
The Hebrews weren’t fast enough
Pharaoh decided he wanted them back
So he chased them
All the way to the Red Sea
The Ten Commandments
• Moses called to go to the top of Mount Sinai
• Moses came back with a message
• “Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians,
and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and
brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye
will harken unto my voice indeed, and keep my
covenant, then ye shall be mine own treasure. . .
For all the earth is mine” Exodus 19:4-5
The 10 Commandments
•
•
•
•
The Hebrews agreed to the covenant
Moses went back up to the mountain
Given the 10 Commandments
Placed in a special box
– The Ark of the Covenant
The Ten Commandments
1. Thou shalt have no
other gods before me
2. Thou shalt not make
unto thee a graven
images
3. Thou shalt not take the
name of the Lord thy
God in vain
4. Remember the Sabbath
day, to keep it holy
5. Honor thy Father and
Mother
6. Thou shalt not kill
7. Thou shalt not commit
adultery
8. Thou shalt not steal
9. Thou shalt not bear false
witness against thy
neighbor
10. Thou shalt not covet
How do we remember them
1.None
no other gods
2. Zoo
No graven images
3. Tree
The leaves have veins
Don’t take the Lord’s name in vain
4. Store
Don’t go to the store on the
Sabbath
5. Drive
You need your parents car
6.Six shooter
Don’t kill
7.Heaven
Don’t commit adultery
8. Gate
Gates are made of bars stealing
puts you in prison
9. Line
Don’t be lyin’
10. Hen
Don’t covet anything
The Ten Commandments
• The Ten Commandments give basic rules
about how people should treat their fellow
beings and God.
Additional Commandments
• Moses also brought an additional set of
commandments
– Detailed rules about how the Jewish people
should live and worship
– The Torah=Books of Moses=Pentateuch
• Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and
Deuteronomy
• Contain what God showed Moses at Mount Sinai
• Torah=He taught
• Pentateuch=Five Scrolls
The Torah
• Stories
– Abraham
– Moses
– Adam and Eve
– Noah’s Ark
– 10 Commandments
– Other rules 613 Mitzvah
The Torah ("Teaching") [also known as
the Pentateuch/Humash] consists of:
1. Genesis [ / ‫בראשית‬B'reshit]
2. Exodus [ / ‫שמות‬Sh'mot]
3. Leviticus [ / ‫ויקרא‬Vayiqra]
4. Numbers [ / ‫במדבר‬B'midbar]
5. Deuteronomy [ / ‫דברים‬D'varim]
The books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") are:
6. Joshua [ / ‫יהושע‬Y'hoshua]
7. Judges [ / ‫שופטים‬Shophtim]
8. Samuel (I & II) [ / ‫שמואל‬
Sh'muel]
9. Kings (I & II) [ / ‫מלכים‬M'lakhim]
10. Isaiah [ / ‫ישעיה‬Y'shayahu]
11. Jeremiah [ / ‫ירמיה‬Yir'mi'yahu]
12. Ezekiel [ / ‫יחזקאל‬Y'khezqel]
13. The Twelve Minor Prophets [ ‫תרי‬
]‫עשר‬
I. Hosea [ / ‫הושע‬Hoshea]
II.Joel [ / ‫יואל‬Yo'el]
III. Amos [ / ‫עמוס‬Amos]
IV. Obadiah [ / ‫עובדיה‬Ovadyah]
V. Jonah [ / ‫יונה‬Yonah]
VI. Micah [ / ‫מיכה‬Mikhah]
VII. Nahum [ / ‫נחום‬Nakhum]
VIII. Habakkuk [/ ‫חבקוק‬Khavaquq]
IX. Zephaniah [ / ‫צפניה‬Ts'phanyah]
X. Haggai [ / ‫חגי‬Khagai]
XI. Zechariah [ / ‫זכריה‬Z'kharyah]
XII. Malachi [ / ‫מלאכי‬Mal'akhi]
The Ketuvim ("Writings") are:
14. Psalms [ / ‫תהלים‬T'hilim]
15. Proverbs [ / ‫משלי‬Mishlei]
16. Job [ / ‫איוב‬Iyov]
17. Song of Songs [ ‫שיר‬
/ ‫השירים‬Shir Hashirim]
18. Ruth [ / ‫רות‬Rut]
19. Lamentations [ / ‫איכה‬
Eikhah]
20. Ecclesiastes [ / ‫קהלת‬
Qohelet]
21. Esther [ / ‫אסתר‬Est(h)er]
22. Daniel [ / ‫דניאל‬Dani'el]
23. Ezra-Nehemiah [ ‫עזרא‬
/ ‫ונחמיה‬Ezra
wuNekhem'ya]
24. Chronicles (I & II) [ ‫דברי‬
/ ‫הימים‬Divrey Hayamim]
• Abraham and Moses are the 2 most
important figures in the Torah
• Important in Jewish history
– Abraham—beginning of the covenant
– Moses—Led the Jews out of Egypt and taught
them the religion
• Hebrews fought in many wars with the
tribes that lived in Canaan.
• King Saul at war with the Philistines
– 3000 years ago
• David and Goliath
David
• David becomes the king
• Unites all of the tribes
• Captured Jerusalem and made it the
capitol
• Brought peace to the land
• Talented musician.
23rd Psalm
Solomon
•
•
•
•
Son of David
Builds a temple in Jerusalem
Solomon Dies
The kingdom is split
– North—Israel– capital Sumaria
– South—Kingdom of Judah –Jerusalem
• Northern Kingdom is invaded and most of
the population disappears
The Southern Kingdom
•
•
•
•
•
Judah
Lasted 150 more years
Conquered by the King of Babylon
Destroyed Solomon’s Temple
Babylonian Captivity
– In exile—remained faithful to the covenant
The Prophets
• The Jews began to connect God’s fairness
with their expectations of themselves.
• God is just and cares for others
• God is just and punishes the opposite of
caring
• The message of the prophets
• Prophet
– In the Bible, a person who is inspired by God
• The prophets warned that the disasters
that faced the Jewish kingdom were a
punishment from God because of religious
offenses and social injustices
• Prophets pet peeve was the forgetting of
the covenants
• False Idols
Social Injustices
• Jews were expected to care for others
– Widows
– Slaves
– Infirm
– Disabled
– Anyone else who might be in need of aid
• During the time of Solomon
– The gap between the rich and poor increased
• The prophets told the rich that God was
angry because they weren’t taking care of
the needy(Amos 5: 11-14)
• Amos
• Assyria to punish the Jews for their
wickedness
Isaiah
• Isaiah prophesied
– God will humble the arrogant kings
– All people would see the God of Israel as the
lord of creation
– There would be peace on earth
– All people would divert their energy to
peaceful activities instead of war.
The Return to Jerusalem
• 2500 years ago
• Cyrus
– King of Persia (Iran)
• Destroyed the Babylonian Empire
• Allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem
and rebuild the Temple.
• The Jews were able to enjoy self rule
under Persian protection
Alexander the Great
• 2,300 Years ago
– Protected the Jews as well
• Other Greek Speaking kings ruled the
Jews for about 200 years
Hannukkah
• One king wanted to stamp out Judaism
– Antiochus IV
– Tried to seize the wealth of the Temple
– Tried to make the Jews worship Greek Gods
– Insulted the Jews
• Ordered a pig to be sacrificed at the temple
• Pigs were considered impure
Hannukkah
• The Jews rallied around Judas Maccabeus
and his brothers
– Simeon, Eleazar, Jonathan
– Fought off king Antiochus IV and his armies
– They succeded and purified the Temple and
restored the worship of God
• 8 Days
– Following the victory they found one cruz of
oil that had not been desecrated.
– Each cruze was suppose to be enough to
light the eternal flame for 1 day
– The cruze lasted 8 days
– 8 days was enough time to prepare and
consecrate new oil.
• Hannukkah-means to dedicate
• Judas died in the battle
– His family ruled Jerusalem for many
generations
• Roman power took over in Jerusalem
– Jews struggled for independence
– Regarded God as their ruler, not the Romans
– The second temple is destroyed and
Jerusalem is left in ruins
Hopes for the Messiah
• Isaiah foretold of the Messiah
• Messiah- the anointed one; and agent of
God who comes to set things right for
God’s people
• Messiah=Savior
• The Messiah was to free Israel and
establish righteousness around the world
• The more the Jews went through the more
they looked forward to the Messiah
The Life of Jesus
• Most of what we have about the life of
Jesus was written down by his followers
– The New Testament
– First four books (the gospels)
• Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
– The Gospels
• New Testament books that tell the life story of
Jesus and explain his message
• According to the Gospels
– Jesus was not an ordinary man
• Story Time
John the Baptist
•
•
•
•
Cousin of Jesus
Parents Zacharias and Elisabeth
They were old
Story Time
Jesus and John meet up
• John was living in the desert
– He ate locusts and honey
– He told the people to repent of their sins
because the Messiah was coming.
– He baptized those that believed in the Jordan R.
• Jesus comes to John to be baptized.
– After he came up from the water
• Spirit of God descended on him like a dove
• A voice from heaven spoke: “This is my beloved
Son, in whom I am well pleased”
Jesus is Tempted
• Jesus went into the desert to pray
• He fasted for 40 days and 40 nights
• While he was fasting he was tempted by
the devil
– Stones to bread
– Worship him (satan) and everything would be
his (Jesus)
– Pinnacle of the temple Deut 6:16
Jesus Leaves the Desert
• Jesus starts to gather a following
– Teaches publicly for 3 years
– These teachings are found in the Gospels
• How to turn to God
• How to live a moral life
• Jesus would teach anywhere
– Road sides, lake shores, towns, dinner
• Jesus spent time with anyone
– Tax collectors, diseased people and outcasts
Miracles of Jesus
• Most of them involved curing sick people
– Healing the sick
– Restoring sight and hearing
– Bringing people back from the dead
– Multiplying fish and bread
• Miracles were used to benefit someone
else and not to make Jesus famous
• Sometime he was reluctant to do miracles
Parables
• Many times Jesus taught in parables
• Parable
– A brief teaching story designed to make a
moral point
The Prodigal Son
Jesus wanted people to pay more
attention to helping their fellow humans
than following correct ritual.
The Two Great Commandments
• A lawyer asked:
– What is the most important of the Torah’s
commandments
– This was a subject that was very hotly
debated
– No win situation
The Two Great Commandments
• His answer:
– “Thou shalt love Lord thy God with all thy
heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy
mind. This is the first and great
commandment. And the second is like unto it,
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself”
• Both commandments were in the Torah
• All of the prophets messages were
contained in these two commandments
Sermon on the Mount
• Matthew 5-7
– Beatitudes
• 8 types of people that are blessed
– How to behave
• “Turn the other cheek”
• Love your friends and your enemies
• The Golden Rule
– “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”
• The Lord’s Prayer
The Beatitudes
• Blessed are the pure in heart,
For they shall see God.
• Blessed are the peacemakers,
For they shall be called sons of
God.
• Blessed are you when they
revile and persecute you,
and say all kinds of evil against
you falsely for My sake.
• Blessed are the poor in spirit,
For theirs is the kingdom of
heaven.
• Blessed are those who mourn,
For they shall be comforted.
• Blessed are the meek,
For they shall inherit the earth.
• Blessed are those who hunger
and
thirst after righteousness,
For they shall be filled.
• Blessed are the merciful,
For they shall obtain mercy.
Final Days in the Life of Jesus
• Eventually Jesus and His followers went to
Jerusalem
– Jerusalem was under Roman control
– Pontius Pilate
• Jesus knew that there would be trouble
• Celebrates the Passover
– Last Supper
The Garden of Gethsemane
• Jesus is betrayed by one of his Apostles
– Judas Iscariot
• 30 pieces of silver for the betrayal
– Showed the priests who Jesus was with a kiss
on the cheek
– Jesus is arrested.
Trial
• First tried in a religious court of the Jews
• Sent to Pilate
– Condemned Jesus to death for saying that he
was the king of the Jews
• Treason
• Jesus is stripped, whipped and mocked
– Placement of a crown of thorns
– Nailed to a cross to be crucified
Crucifixion
• A form of execution in which a person is
nailed or tied to a large cross.
• Used frequently by the Romans
– Used for people that were guilty of awful
crimes
• Agonizing and Slow death (took days)
• People usually died because their lungs
collapsed.
• Jesus died after a few hours
• Some followers took him down and buried
him in a tomb
• 3 days after his burial his body vanished
• Romans announced that the body had
been stolen by the followers of Jesus
• The followers of Jesus said that he had
risen from the dead and was exalted to
heaven
Resurrection
• Resurrection-to be miraculously brought
back to life
• Believed to have happened to Jesus
– Proves that he was not an ordinary man
– Son of God
• Followers insisted that he was the
Messiah
• Jesus Christ- the anointed one- messiah
• A new covenant had begun.
The Rise of Christianity
• One of the most important teachings of
Jesus was that God wanted everyone to
be with him in his kingdom
– Not a new idea according to Jewish scripture
– The time that Isaiah had propecied about was
now
– Jesus had begun the work and would return
soon
– The kingdom is for all of the world
• Not just the Jews
• Immediately after the death of Christ
– His followers thought that the end was coming
very soon
– Second coming to happen any moment
• Missionary work begins
– Work begins with the Jews
• Not to accepting of the idea of Jesus Christ as the
Messiah
– Caused many arguments and fights
– This is the seperation into two religions
– Still causes problems today
• Hatred, oppression, and slaughter
The Spread of Christianity
• Christianity began in Palestine
– Followers began to travel and spread the
word as they moved
• Alexandria-Egypt
• Damascus-Syria
• Antioch-Southern Turkey
• Paul
– One of the most important early Christians
• Story Time
Paul
• Saul
– Going to damascus to find and arrest
Christians
– Flash of Light
– Voice
• “Why persecutest thou me”
– “Who art thou”
• “I am Jesus whom thou persecutest”
– The voice tells him to continue to Damascus
• The men with Saul didn’t see anything but
heard the voice
• Saul was blind afterward
• Ananias
– Told by the Lord to go to Saul
– Ananias was afraid
– Ananias laid his hands on Saul and he was
healed
• Saul becomes a Christian ---Paul
Paul the Missionary
• Paul began to preach the Gospel of Christ
– Preach means to try and persuade people
• Turkey, Syria, Greece
• Successful at convincing the non-jews to
believe
– Once a community was established he would
move on
• Epistles
Epistles
• Epistles
– The letters of early Christian leaders that form
part of the New Testament and explain
important Christian teachings
– General Epistles
• James; 1st, 2nd Peter; 1-3 John; Jude
– Pauline Epistles
• 14 of them
What the Epistles Contain
• Advice on how to live good christian lives
• Reflections on the life of Jesus Christ
• What it means to believe in Jesus Christ
– Sacrifice of Jesus was for all
– When you have faith in Christ you are born again
– Through baptism you acknowledge faith and become
part of the Christian community
– True freedom
– Cannot be obtained on our own
– Faith is necessary
The end of Paul
•
•
•
•
Paul was arrested for disturbing the peace
Taken back to Rome
Executed
Paul is responsible for the spread of
Christianity in the Roman Empire by
setting up Christian communities where
ever he went
Christianity Becomes a Major
Religion
• Early Christians were not well liked by
their contemporaries
• Ideas and practices were thought to be
strange
• Christians were called atheists
– They did not worship the pagan gods
– Someone who does not believe in any divine
being
• Views of Christians
– Antisocial
– Poor Citizens
– Others blamed the christians for everything
•
•
•
•
Misfortunes
Droughts
Famines
Military Defeats
– Accused of terrible crimes
• Christians were persecuted for years by
the Roman Government
– They did not worship the Roman gods
– Did not see the Emperor as divine
• Many of the Christians were killed or
martyred because of their faith
Perpetua
•
•
•
•
•
Woman
Noble birth
Born in Carthage, North Africa
200 years after Christ
Perpetua, Felicity and Saturus
– Arrested and condemned to death
– Perpetua and Felicity both had infants
– No mercy
• They were whipped and killed by wild
beasts in the amphitheater
– Entertainment
• Despite persecution the number of
Christians continued to increase.
• Major religion by 3rd and 4th Centuries
• 313 Constantine
– Edict of Milan
• The Christian Church can now legally exist in the
Roman Empire
– Christian Bishops in Rome Alexandrian and
Atioch
• Early Church leaders continued to write
– Church Fathers
• Saint Jerome
• Saint Augustine
• How does God reveal truth unto us?
• How can we understand the teaching of
Jesus better
• Who is Jesus
Who is Jesus?
•
•
•
•
•
God
Man
Combination
Both
If he is a God, then are there three Gods?
– The Father
– Jesus
– The Holy Spirit
• Are all three united in one?
Answers
• Christians relied on their bishops for
answers to those questions
• Differences Arose
• Council of Nicea
– 325 AD
– Constantine and the Bishops
– Idea of the Trinity Emerges
The Trinity
• The decision was that Christians should
believe in one God
• Trinity
– Father
– Son (Jesus Christ)
– Holy Spirit (the power of God in the world)
• Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
• God is a Trinity
• Created everything that exists
• Jesus Christ died and was resurrected to
save those who believe in him
• Some day He will return to judge all
• Establish and eternal kingdom
• Christians belong to one universal church
Christianity Flourishes
•
•
•
•
600 AD
Christians had stong leaders
Carefully reasoned beliefs
Faith expressed through music and
prayers
• Churches arose
• It became illegal to be a Pagan
• Christianity shapes western civilization for
all of its later history.