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Age of Imperialism
Europe’s Rush to Africa
The domination by one country of
the political, economic, or cultural
life of another country or region.
Nationalism led to
Imperialism which led to
More Nationalism
Effects of Nationalism and demand
for reform
Unification of Italy
 Unification of Germany
Reasons for imperialism
Economic interests
 Resources,Markets,Investment,cheap
 Paternalism
 Racism
 Social Darwinism
 Religious
 Competition between countries for power/prestige
 Rise of military
 Nationalism
 Progress in science, medicine, technology
Effects of Imperialism on
Specific Regions
European colonialism and rivalries in
Africa, Asia, the Middle East
“Opening” of Japan to the West
Meiji era moves from feudalism to industrialism
New Japanese political and social system based on Western
Russo-Japanese War; first non-European victory over a
European power
Japanese emperor as the nation’s integrating figure
French in West Africa battle a 20-year
Defeat and humiliation of
China in the Opium War
Taiping Rebellion: anti-Manchu, antiforeign
Defeat and discredit in SinoJapanese War, 1894-95
Boxer Rebellion: anti-Christian, antiforeign
Nationalist revolution ends the
Manchu dynasty in 1911; Sun Yatsen fails to unify China
India and Africa
Sepoy Rebellion results in direct
British control of India
British-educated Indian leaders form
nationalist movement
French in W Africa battle 20yr resistance
Zulu wars against the British in South
Ethiopians defeat Italian, remain
Causes of Imperialism
The industrial revolution
Natural resources- coal, iron, rubber, oil
Markets-places to sell manufactured
More causes
Colonies were an outlet for growing
National security
Harbors for bases to supply ships
Duty to spread Western Civ
(Christianity, democracy)
Industrial Rev.’s influence
The nations of western
Europe, aided by the
superior technology,
sought in the late
nineteenth century to
gain large empires
The Industrial Revolution was a
strong influence in the European
countries’ decision to expand
The raw materials from nonindustrial he countries needed
countries to keep their
businesses, machines, and
factories running
They wanted to sell the goods
they were producing to new
people in new markets
By 1900, these nations
controlled all of Africa, South
and Southeast Asia.
Only Japan avoided European
domination due to their
Nations Competing for
Overseas Empires
Western European conquest of lands
overseas led to colonization and settlement
People of European descent made up the
population of most areas in U.S., Canada,
Australia, and Latin America
After 1850 a new type of expansion began.
The objective was to control territories for
economic reasons and prestige.
This is called imperialism
Berlin Conference
King Leopold II of Belgium hired Stanley
to arrange trade treaties with leaders in
Berlin Conference- European leaders
met to decide on rules for setting up
colonies and trade in Africa (no Africans
Age of Imperialism
The late 19th century is called the
“Age of Imperialism” because
nations such as Britain, U.S.,
France, Germany, and Japan
competed for empires.
Britain was the leading world
power at this time.
Until the late 1800’s, Britain
dominated the worlds trade.
However, as other nations
became industrialized, the
situation changed.
Age of Imperialism
New Industrial powers such as Germany and
the U.S. sought out new colonies for trade
and other economic reasons.
Other countries such as France and Italy
were more concerned with national prestige
Countries justified the takeover of other
countries by saying that they were bringing
new technology to aid them.
They believed that advances in technology
showed the superiority in European
Social Darwinism
The belief that some types or groups of
people are superior to others.
Example- White race is superior to other
races, western culture is better than other
cultures, rich people are better than poor
Belief that justified (made it ok) to take over
someone else’s land, resources etc. and
replace their culture with their own.
Europe’s reasons for
imperialism were the
Nationalism (National
Economic Competition
Attempt to Christianize the
European Advantages
Strong economies
Well organized governments
Powerful armies and navies
Technology – riverboats, telegraph,
machine guns.
There was nowhere else
in the world where the
competition was more
fierce than in Africa.
Since the late 1400’s,
Europe had maintained
trading posts at the
harbors along the coast
of Africa.
However, the vast
interior of the continent
of Africa remained
A German mission in
Explorers and
Trade had been going on for many
years along the coasts. In the 1800’s
Europeans began to push into the
interior of Africa
Dr. David Livingstone-missionary
Henry Stanley- journalist sent to find
Missionaries built schools, clinics,
Early Africa
Between 1800 and 1875,
Europeans would explore
This exploration led to
information about
population, and raw
materials that could be
used by Europeans.
In 1880, Europe only
controlled 10% of Africa
Africans had no way to
foresee their conquest by
outside forces
Africa Becomes a Target
Between 1875 and 1900,
European nations scrambled for
control of of areas of Africa.
Belgium, France, Germany,
Italy, Spain, and Portugal were
involved in the conquest of
African Resistance was varied,
but even when they did resist,
they could not overcome
European weapons
Because of their advanced
technology, many Europeans
held the racist belief that they
were superior to the natives and
thus justified to take the land
Some people tried to fight off invaders
Some tried to strengthen their society
by reforming their traditions
Organized nationalist movements to
expel the imperialists.
Africans were able to keep Europeans
out of the interior of Africa
Europeans could not navigate African
Rivers until the introduction of the steam
African had powerful armies that were
able to keep the Europeans out.
Before imperialism cont.
Large networks of Africans controlled
trade, these trade networks kept
Europeans from controlling the sources
of trade items such as gold and ivory.
“Dr. Livingstone, I
In the 1860’s David Livingstone a
minister from Scotland traveled with a
group of Africans deep into the interior
of Africa, searching for the source of the
Nile River. Several years past with no
word from him or his party.
Control of Colonies
Direct rule- officials and soldiers came to
run the colony (France)
Indirect rule- governed through local
Protectorate- local rulers were expected
to follow the advice of European
Sphere of Influence-outside power claims
investment or trading privileges, does
not rule area.
Resistance and European Reasoning
One exception to this was
the Mandingo empire
whose ruler got guns
through trade and his
own weapons factory.
However, this country
could only hold them off
for six years.
By 1900, the only two
countries that remained
that remained
independent were
Ethiopia and Liberia
Africans fight back
West AfricaSamori Toure led the fight against the
Yaa Asantewaa- Asante queen who led
the fight against the British
Female leader Nehanda
In most colonies, the European's made
up less that 1% of the total population.
European’s set up the government and
therefore controlled how it was run.
European rule led to the use of raw
materials for trade, therefore the
Europeans needed workers and had the
native Africans forced to work.
Explorers and
Trade had been going on for many
years along the coasts. In the 1800’s
Europeans began to push into the
interior of Africa
Dr. David Livingstone-missionary
Henry Stanley- journalist sent to find
Missionaries built schools, clinics,
The Partition of Africa
Before 1800’s
North Africa-Ottoman empire
West Africa-Islamic revival Usman dan
East Africa-trade center (including
South Africa-Zulu chief Shaka
conquering territory and driving people
South Africa & Boer War
The main focus was on the area
of South Africa.
The discovery of gold and
diamonds caused the British
and the Dutch to engage in the
Boer War for control of the
Britain won the war, but they
had to give ruling power to the
Self-Government in Africa did
not include native Africans.
The native Africans lived in
conditions that were little better
than slavery
Reasons Why Africans Lost
External Forces
Europeans had superior
weapons (Maxim Gun)
Railroads and Steamships
allowed Europeans to keep
close eye on colonies
Europeans found a cure for
the mosquito causing malaria
that was a danger on the
Internal Causes
Africa is made up of a
variety of culture and
Thus, they really didn’t
unite to fight against enemy
Wars were fought between
ethnic groups over land,
water, and trade rights
The Africans didn’t have
the technology to fight back
South Asia
While many countries of Europe
competed for Africa, only Britain went
after the land in South Asia
This area includes India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Burma.
By 1900, more than 300 million people
lived under British rule.
South Asia
The defeat of France in the Seven-Years war
gave the British the East India Company.
This allowed Britain to trade with that region.
Along with trade Britain could rule because
of weak countries and accomplished this after
the Seopy rebellion.
South Asia
After the conquest of India, Britain
thought that India was the crown in the
British Empire.
Most of the profits from India did not
stay there, they ended up going back to
Just like Africa, Indians did not have a
voice in their own government.
Southeast Asia
In Southeast Asia, a number of European
Nations became involved.
The Dutch continued to rule the West Indies
France took over Vietnam, Laos, and
Britain acquired Malay Peninsula and
In 1898, the U.S.acquired the Philippines
Gaining a good foothold in China was a
slow process for European Nations
China was very closed to conquest.
China was very self-sufficient and had
very little interest in trade.
European nations tried a variety of
strategies to open trade with China
Britain tried to smuggle opium into
China illegally.
Protests by the Chinese leaders led to
the Opium War in which China was
In time, China was forced to accept
European influence.
Through a series of treaties, nations set
up Spheres of Influence.
Each country gained a region in which it
would develop its own business
Europeans living in China were subject
only to the laws of their country.
China slowly sank into turmoil.
The Taiping Rebellion (Civil War) killed over
20 million people
With Britain's help, the emperor retained his
The Boxer Rebellion was crushed in 1908.
Opposition to European control continued
China began to hope for new leaders and a
strong government
Japan strongly resisted European
Japan became more industrialized after the
Now, to feed their industry, Japan began to
set up spheres of influence in Asia.
Quarrels with Russia led to the RussoJapanese was in which Japan took over
Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt added to the Monroe
Doctrine by stating that the U.S. has the
authority to intervene in in Latin America
to preserve order.
This allowed the U.S. to take over the
Panama Canal