AcP Final Exam 2013 Outline Bilash – Burns – Field – Kibala – Koenig Design of the Exam The final exam will consist of two parts: Part 1] 6 FR multi-part problems (10 points each=60 points) Part 2] 40 MC questions (1 point each=40 points) What to Study The exam is designed to verify your mastery of the learning objectives listed below (Chapter 2, 3, 4 & 6). Only those objectives addressed in your class will be included in the exam. Use these objectives to guide your studying. You also review your old tests and identify any areas that need bolstering. Two sets of practice questions have been created to further your review. What to bring to the exam Textbook (if one was assigned to you) Calculator with fresh batteries, or extra batteries Pencils (2-3) & eraser Learning Objectives Chapter 2 - Physics in Action 2.1 investigate Galileo’s law of inertia and Newton’s ﬁrst law of motion, and relate how the laws apply to sporting events. 2.2 explore the terms positive acceleration, negative, acceleration, and average speed. 2.3 describe the concept of weight and inertia, and apply Newton’s second law of motion. 2.4 recognize that a projectile’s vertical motion is independent of its horizontal velocity. 2.5 construct models of trajectories launched at various angles. 2.6 explore Newton’s third law of motion and learn the concept of center of mass. 2.7 investigate how the coefficient of sliding friction affects motion. 2.8 describe the law of conservation of energy and deﬁne work. 2.9 calculate energy at three different positions of an athlete's jump Chapter 3 - Safety 3.1 identify, describe, and compare features of crash safety designs. 3.2 describe, explain, and apply Newton’s laws of motion. 3.3 describe and apply the relationship between force, pressure, and area. 3.4 describe and apply the work-energy theorem to determine force, energy, initial speeds, and stopping distances during collisions. 3.5 describe the collisions that occur during a car crash and how they can affect the human body. 3.6 deﬁne momentum, elastic collisions, and impulse. 3.7 analyze collisions in one dimension using the law of conservation of momentum. 3.8 apply Newton’s laws, the work-energy theorem, the relationship between impulse and momentum, and conservation of momentum to design and build a “crumple zone” that absorbs some of the energy of a vehicle during a collision. 3.9 apply Newton’s laws, the work-energy theorem Chapter 4 - Thrills & Chills 4.1 define, measure, and calculate displacement, acceleration, and velocity. 4.2 describe vectors and scalars, calculate kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy, and apply the conservation of energy to solve problems. 4.3 apply kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and conservation of energy to roller-coaster rides and calculate spring potential energy. 4.4 map out Earth’s gravitational field, explore Newton’s law of universal gravitation and apply it to solve problems and describe inverse square relationships. 4.5 describe the difference between mass and weight, calculate spring constants, describe Hooke’s law and apply it to solve problems. 4.6 explore the difference between rest weight and apparent weight using Newton’s laws, calculate apparent weight on a roller coaster, and analyze forces on a mass at rest and under acceleration. 4.7 recall Newton’s second law and explore how the centripetal acceleration depends on the radius of the curve and the velocity of the roller coaster and recognize the safety limit of acceleration for a roller coaster. 4.8 define work in terms of force and displacement, calculate the work done by a force acting in the direction of the displacement, and define power. 4.9 apply conservation of energy to solve problems and use the force and energy approach to understand different aspects of a roller-coaster ride. 4.10 apply concepts of centripetal force and energy to determine the forces acting on roller-coaster riders constrained by the safety criteria, and how to add thrills in a roller-coaster design. Chapter 6 - Electricity for Everyone 6.1 identify energy transformations involved with the production and use of electrical energy. 6.2 describe how light bulbs work. 6.3 use a physical model to describe the flow of electric charges in series and parallel circuits. 6.4 compare series and parallel circuits and learn the language of electricity. 6.5 explore, describe, and apply Ohm’s law, describe the relationship between voltage and current in a circuit, and calculate the resistance of an unknown resistor. 6.6 investigate and distinguish between energy and power usage in an electric circuit, construct a fuse, learn how it works, and its purpose. Distinguish between a fuse and a circuit breaker, as well as conductors and insulators. 6.7 describe how currents, voltages and power are distributed in series and parallel circuits. 6.8 describe how energy is transferred through a circuit, the role of the battery, and resistance. Formula Sheet This formula sheet will be provided on the exam Kinematics ∆d = vit + ½ at2 aav= v/t vf2= vi2 + 2a∆d ∆d = ½ (vf + vi)t g = 9.8 m/s2 Forces & Newton’s Laws a = FNET/m μ = Ff/FN Circular Motion Fc = mac ac = v2/r Work & Energy W=Fd KE= ½mv2 ENET(i) = ENET(f) w = mg P=W/t T=1/f W= ∆KE C=2πr GPE=mgh SPE = ½kx2 J=Ft m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f VT (series) = V1 + V2 +…. Vn RT (series) = R1 + R2 +… Rn IT (parallel) = I1 + I2 +…. In 1 1 1 1 = + +... Rtotal R1 R2 Rn P=IV R=V/I Fs = -kx 1 hp = 746 W Momentum, Impulse & Collisions p=mv Ft = mv Electrical Circuits IT(series) = I1 = I2 =…. In P = F/A VT (parallel) = V1 = V2 =…. Vn Part 1 – MC Review Questions Chapter 2: Newton’s Laws and projectiles 1. What is an essential characteristic of an object in equilibrium? A] zero acceleration B] zero velocity C] zero kinetic energy D] zero potential energy 2. An object rolling across a level floor without a horizontal net force acting on it will: A] speed up B] slow down C] have unbalanced forces D] keep moving forever 3. A runner starts from rest and accelerates uniformly to a speed of 8 m/s in 4 sec. What is the magnitude of the runner’s acceleration? A] 0.5 m/s2 B] 2.0 m/s2 C] 9.8 m/s2 D] 32 m/s2 4. A skier starting from rest skis straight down a slope of 50 meters long in 5 seconds. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the skier? A] 4 m/s2 B] 5 m/s2 C] 9.8 m/s2 D] 20 m/s2 5. A 70 kilogram astronaut has a weight of 560 Newtons on the surface of planet X. What is the acceleration due to gravity on planet X? A] 0.0 m/s2 B] 8.0 m/s2 C] 9.8 m/s2 D] 80 m/s2 6. Which term represents a vector and its respective unit? A] mass – kilogram B] momentum – newton C] weight – kilogram D] force – newton 7. A ball is thrown up at an angle of 38° to the horzontal. What happens to the magnitude of the ball’s vertical acceleration during the total time interval that the ball is in the air? A] It increases then decreases B] It remains the same C] It decreases then remains the same D] It decreases then increases 8. A ball is thrown straight up with a speed of 12 meters per second near the surface of the Earth. If air friction is neglected, what is the maximum height reached by the ball? A] 0.37 m B] 1.2 m C] 7.3 m D] 15 m 9. A basketball player jumped straight up to grab a rebound. If she was in the air for a total of 0.80 seconds, how high did she jump? A] 0.50 m B] 0.78 m C] 1.2 m D] 3.1 m 10. For a constant launch speed, which angle produces the same range as a launch angle of 30 degrees? A] 15 degrees B] 20 degrees C] 60 degrees D] 75 degrees 11. What launch angle produces the greatest range if the launch and landing heights are the same? A] 25° B] 40° C] 45° D] 60° 12. A bullet is loaded into a rifle and the trigger is pulled. The force experienced by the bullet is ______________ the force experienced by the rifle. The acceleration of the bullet is _____________ the acceleration experienced by the rifle. A] less than, less than. B] less than, greater than. C] equal to, equal to. D] equal to, greater than. 13. Why do sprinters prefer to use longer spikes on their shoes than long distance runners, even though both run on the same track surface? A] Sprinters require the longer spikes to create smaller forces that produce a constant acceleration B] Sprinters require the longer spikes to produce less resistance between the track and their shoes C] Sprinters require the longer spikes to create greater forces that produce the greatest acceleration D] Sprinters require the longer spikes to create smaller forces that produce the greatest acceleration 14. A wooden block is at rest on a horizontal surface with friction. A 10 Newton force acts parallel to the surface in order to set the block in motion. How much force is required to keep the block moving at constant velocity? A] greater than 10 N B] exactly 10 N C] no force D] less than 10 N 15. A 0.50-kilogram ball is thrown vertically upward with an initial kinetic energy of 25 joules. If air friction is ignored, approximately how high will the ball rise? A] 2.6 m B] 5.1 m C] 13 m D] 25 m Chapter 3: Car safety 1. Which of the following safety devices is not designed to increase the time of impact during a collision. A] Front crumple zone B] Air bag C] Seat belt D] Shatter-proof glass 2. During a car accident it is possible that the brain can have a severe collision with the front of the skull. When this happens this is an example of: A] The brain being forced forward by the stopping motion of the car B] The brain staying in motion at a constant velocity until it is stopped by the skull C] The brain still having the force from the acceleration of the car, so it cannot stop easily D] The brain moving forward quickly because of the sudden slowing down of the car. 3. If you push a knife with a constant force, a sharp knife works better than a dull knife because: A] the sharp knife has low surface area, so the pressure becomes lower B] the sharp knife has low surface area, so the force becomes higher C] the sharp knife has low surface area, so the force becomes lower D] the sharp knife has low surface area, so the pressure becomes higher 4. In the same car, Person 1 has a thin seatbelt, and person 2 has a seatbelt with double the surface area. If they have a car accident, then person 2 will have _________ pressure on his body as compared to person 1. A] double the B] half the C] a quarter the D] the same 5. An airbag is used help prevent injury by decreasing the force. The most accurate physics statement for why having the airbag is safer than not having an air bag is that… A] The energy needed to stop is constant, but the distance to stop is increased. B] The energy needed to stop is constant, but the distance to stop is decreased. C] The energy needed to stop is decreased, but the distance to stop is constant. D] The energy needed to stop is increased, while the distance to stop is increased. 6. Three students each need to drag a 40-kg box from the ground, and up a ramp onto the same table. Student 1 uses a steep ramp, student 2 uses a ramp of medium steepness, and student 3 uses a very nonsteep ramp. Ignoring all friction, which student does the most work? Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 A] Student 1 B] Student 2 C] Student 3 D] All three students do the same amount of work 7. You take an egg and drop it from a distance of 3-m into a tub of flour. Which of the following changes should reduce the distance the egg will sink into the flour? A] Dropping the egg from a larger height B] Using an egg with a bigger mass. C] Dropping the egg on the moon, where the acceleration due to gravity is lower D] Throwing the egg down from 3 meters instead of dropping it 8. The relationship between force and acceleration is: A] Direct linear B] Inverse linear C] Direct exponential D] Inverse exponential 9. Which graph best describes the movement of an object on which no net force is exerted? 10. The free-body diagrams below show four ways that two different forces could be exerted on an object. In which diagram is the object in equilibrium? A] Diagram 1 B] Diagram 2 C] Diagram 3 D] Diagram 4 11. Two hockey players, Z and Q, are standing face-to-face and stationary on the ice. Skater Z has a mass of 72.5 kg. Skater Q has a mass of 65.3 kg. Skater Z shoves Skater Q. Which statement below best represents momentum of each of the skaters after the shove? A] The momenta of the skaters after the shove are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. B] The momenta of the skaters after the shove are equal in magnitude and direction. C] The momentum of Skater Z is bigger than that of Skater Q, but opposite in direction. D] The momentum of Skater Q is bigger than that of Skater Z, but opposite in direction. 12. Suppose a projectile’s speed and mass are both doubled. Its momentum will then be: A] Doubled B] Quadrupled C] Halved D] Unchanged 13. An object in motion must have: A] An acceleration B] Momentum C] Potential energy D] Charge 14. A garbage truck crashes head on into a Volkswagen. Which experiences the greater impact force? A] The truck B] The Volkswagen C] Both experience the same force D] Not enough information given to determine Use the follow scenario to answer questions 15-17: Two identical riders on two identical bicycles are both initially moving at exactly the same speed. Rider 1 skids to a stop in 2 seconds, while Rider 2 skids to a stop in 5 seconds. 15. Which statement is true about the force applied to each rider? A] The Force applied to rider 1 is greater B] The Force applied to rider 2 is greater C] The Force applied to each rider is equal D] No Force is needed to cause a deceleration. 16. Which statement is true about the change in momentum of each rider? A] The change in momentum of rider 1 is greater B] The change in momentum of rider 2 is greater C] The riders have equal changes in momentum. D] No change in momentum occurs in either situation. 17. Which statement is true about the impulse applied to each rider? A] The impulse applied to rider 1 is greater B] The impulse applied to rider 2 is greater C] The impulse applied to each rider is equal D] No impulse is needed to cause a deceleration. Chapter 4 – Thrills & Chills 1. Velocity is... A] the same as speed B] the rate of change of position C] how fast speed changes. D] the rate of change of velocity. 2. Acceleration is... A] proportional to net force B] the rate of change of position C] how fast speed changes. D] the rate of change of speed. 3. Which statements are true for a rollercoaster? A] The first incline determines the speed for the rest of the ride. B] The first incline determines the maximum heights for the rest of the ride. C] The first incline determines the minimum speed at the top of the loop. D] Only A & B are true. E] All of the above are true. 4. Why does the initial incline of a roller coaster determine the maximum speed for the rest of the ride? A] GPE should remain constant and equal to the GPE at the top of the initial hill. B] KE should remain constant and equal to the KE at the top of the initial hill. C] Total energy should remain constant and equal to the GPE at the top of the initial hill. D] None of the above are true. 5. What determines the minimum speed requirement at the top of the loop-the-loop? A] The height of the initial hill. B] Radius of the loop. C] The combined mass of the roller coaster cars and riders. D] Only A & B are true. E] All of the above are true. 6. At the top of the loop of a roller coaster, an inverted rider’s apparent weight A] is greater than m*g B] is equal to m*g C] is less than m*g D] it will differ, depending on their original m*g. 7. At the top of the circular hill (camelback), an upright rider’s apparent weight A] is greater than m*g B] is equal to m*g C] is less than m*g D] it can be any of these, depending on the speed of the coaster. 8. If the radius of a curve halves, the centripetal acceleration acting on a roller coaster rider will A] decrease by a factor of 4 B] decrease by a factor of 2 C] remain constant D] increase by a factor of 2 E] increase by a factor of 4 9. If the speed of the Carousel doubles, the centripetal acceleration acting on a rider will A] decrease by a factor of 4 B] decrease by a factor of 2 C] remain constant D] increase by a factor of 2 E] increase by a factor of 4 10. In order to decrease the centripetal acceleration acting on a rider at the bottom of a loop, the designers could: A] increase the speed B] increase the height of the initial hill C] increase the radius of the loop D] increase the mass of the rider and car 11. In order to increase the centripetal acceleration acting on a rider at the top of a loop, the designers could: A] decrease the speed B] decrease the height of the initial hill C] decrease the radius of the loop D] decrease the mass of the rider and car 12. If you double the distance that brings a roller coaster to a stop, the work done on the coaster will A] decrease by a factor of 4 B] decrease by a factor of 2 C] remain constant D] increase by a factor of 2 E] increase by a factor of 4 13. If you double the braking force that brings a roller coaster to a stop, the stopping distance of the coaster must A] decrease by a factor of 4 B] decrease by a factor of 2 C] remain constant D] increase by a factor of 2 E] increase by a factor of 4 14. If the designers desired to use a minimum amount of power to bring the coaster up the first hill (without changing the height of the hill itself), what should they do? A] Decrease the time. B] Increase the time. C] Decrease the work. D] Increase the work. 15. According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, A] You feel pressed into your seat more at the bottom of a steep incline since you continue to move downward while the roller coaster moves upwards. B] When your mass is bigger, you require more force to create an acceleration. C] You require more force acting on your body when there is a bigger change in speed or direction. D] The force you exert on the seat is equal and opposite to the force the seat exerts on you. 16. According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, A] You feel pressed into your seat more at the bottom of a steep incline since you continue to move downward while the roller coaster moves upwards. B] You require more force acting on your body when there is a bigger change in speed or direction. C] The force you exert on the seat is equal and opposite to the force the seat exerts on you. D] When your mass is bigger, you require more force to create an acceleration. 17. According to Newton’s Third Law of Motion, A] When your mass is bigger, you require more force to create an acceleration. B] The force you exert on the seat is equal and opposite to the force the seat exerts on you. C] You feel pressed into your seat more at the bottom of a steep incline since you continue to move downward while the roller coaster moves upwards. D] You require more force acting on your body when there is a bigger change in speed or direction. 18. You calculate the acceleration for several different roller coaster designs. Which of the following are safe? A] Roller Coaster A has an acceleration of 1.8g at the bottom of the loop. B] Roller Coaster B has an acceleration of 2.3g at the bottom of the loop. C] Roller Coaster C has an acceleration of 4.0g at the bottom of the loop. D] Only A & B are safe. E] All of these are safe. 19. You calculate the acceleration for several different roller coaster designs. Which of the following are NOT safe? A] Roller Coaster A has an acceleration of 8.4 m/s2 when inverted at the top of the loop. B] Roller Coaster B has an acceleration of 21.7 m/s2 when inverted at the top of the loop. C] Roller Coaster C has an acceleration of 36.2 m/s2 when inverted at the top of the loop. D] Only B & C are NOT safe. D] All of these are safe. Chapter 6: Electricity for Everyone (Circuits) 1. In order for current to flow in a circuit, you must have A] a switch that is open B] a continuous conducting path for the current C] two light bulbs in parallel D] two light bulbs in series E] all of the above 2. Compared to the resistance of two resistors connected in series, the same two resistors connected in parallel have A] less resistance B] more resistance C] the same resistance D] unable to determine with out the value of each resistor 3. As more lamps are put into a parallel circuit, the overall current flowing in the circuit A] stays the same B] increases C] decreases 4. When one light bulb in a parallel circuit containing several light bulbs burns out, the other light bulbs A] do not burn at all B] burn brighter C] burn the same as before D] depending on their wattage they may burn brighter or dimmer 5. In a simple parallel circuit A] voltage across each branch is the same B] current through each resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance C] current is divided at each branch D] all of the above E] None of the above 6. Two lamps, one with a thick filament and one with a thin filament, are connected in parallel to a battery. The current is larger in the lamp with the A] thick filament B] thin filament C] current is the same in both 7. Two lamps, one with a thick filament and one with a thin filament, are connected in series to a battery. The voltage is greater across the lamp with the A] thick filament B] thin filament C] Both Voltages are the same 8. A 60-W light bulb and a 100-W light bulb are both connected in parallel to a 120V outlet. Which light bulb has more current in it? A] 100-W B] 60-W C] Both have the same current 9. A 60-W light bulb and a 100-W light bulb are both rated at a 120-V. Which light bulb has the larger resistance A] the 60-W bulb B] the 100-W bulb C] Both have the same resistance 10. In order for there to be a flow of charge from one place to another, there must be a A] conductor, such as a wire, connecting the two places B] potential difference between the two places C] Both A and B 11. Two resistors are arranged in a circuit that carries a total current of 15 A as shown in the figure. What is the current through the 2-Ω resistor? a. b. c. d. 2W 15 A 4W 5A 10 A 15 A 20 A 12. Compared to thin wires, electrical resistance in thick wire is A] less B] the same C] greater 13. A unit for energy is J a. · S S b. J ·S c. W ·S d. V A 14. Two resistors are arranged in a circuit that carries a total current of 15 A as shown in the figure. What is the voltage across 4-Ω resistor? a. b. c. d. 5V 10 V 15 V 20 V 2W 15 A 4W AcP Final Review – Part 2 – Free Response CHAPTER 2: Physics of Sports 1] Michelle Kwan, with a mass of 50 kg, practices ice skating for her Olympic figure skating routine. A] When she glides on ice there is so little friction that it can be ignored. Explain what happens to her velocity and acceleration while gliding. B] She hits a rough patch of ice where friction is no longer zero. If she begins gliding at a velocity of 8 m/s and experiences a coefficient of friction of 0.08, how fast will she be gliding after 12s? Draw a free body diagram for this problem. NOTE: There are multiple steps to solving this problem! C] The answer for (B) should have been less than 8m/s. Use the term “negative acceleration” in your explanation. D] She begins travelling again at 8 m/s while carrying a 0.5kg ball. The skater throws the ball perfectly vertically up in the air. With what vertical velocity must the ball be thrown to reach a maximum height of 5m? E] When the ball is thrown perfectly vertically describe the motion of the ball. Be sure to discuss the ball’s x-axis and y-axis motions. 2] A 2-kg basketball is shot with a horizontal velocity of 10 m/s and a vertical velocity of 8 m/s. a) How high does the ball travel to reach maximum height? b) What is the hang time? What is the basketball’s range? c) What is the vertical velocity of the basketball at its maximum height? d) What is the horizontal velocity of the basketball at its maximum height? e) What is the ball’s kinetic energy at its maximum height? f) What is the ball’s Gravitational Potential Energy at its maximum height? g) What is the ball’s total energy? h) What is the kinetic energy of the ball right as it is shot? Explain how you know using the total energy from part (g). Chapter 3 – Safety (Momentum, Impulse & Collisions) 1] A 0.06kg egg is dropped from a height of 3.5m above the ground. If the egg lands in a pit of sand and indents the sand by 0.12m, how much force is exerted on the egg during the collision with the ground? 2] A 2000kg car is moving at 35miles/hr (15.6m/s) and has a collision with a solid concrete wall. The average force on the car during the collision is measured to be 300,000N. a. What will be the distance of indentation of the crumple zone of the car? (Assume the wall does not indent at all) b. What is the acceleration of the car during its collision (while coming to a stop)? 3] Raul is standing on the shore while his friend Harry stands on a 25 kg raft at rest in the middle of the lake. Raul has a mass of 76 kg and Harry has a mass of 72 kg. Assume there is no friction between the raft and the surface of the water. a. Raul throws a 2.0 kg ball to Harry at a velocity of 31 m/s. After Harry catches the ball, what is the resulting velocity of Harry and the raft? b. In another situation, Harry throws the ball back to Raul. If he was 21m from shore when he threw the ball. After moving with constant speed for 4.0 s, he is 23.7m from shore. How fast did Harry throw the ball? NOTE: This requires 2 steps. c. Alicia jumps off the edge of a pier at a horizontal velocity of 2.0 m/s and lands next to Harry on the raft, which was previously motionless. After she lands on the raft, the raft moves with a velocity of 0.77m/s. What is Alicia’s mass? Chapter 6: Electricity for Everyone 1] Three resistors are connected as shown in the figure. The voltage (potential difference) between points A and B is 26 V. 2.0 I A 3.0 4.0 A] What is the equivalent resistance between the points A and B? B B] How much current flows through the 3-ohm resistor? C] How much current flows through the 2-ohm resistor? R1 = 25 Ω ∆VR1 = 20V I 1 = _________ Req = _________ ∆Vbattery = 30 V Ibattery = ________ R2 = ________ ∆VR2 = _______ I 2 = 0.5A R3 = ________ ∆VR3 = _______ I 3 = 0.5A 2] Use the diagram above to answer the following questions. NOTE: Assume all wires are connected… any gaps are a computer graphics issue and should be ignored. A] What is the overall resistance of the resistors? B] What is the current through each resistor? C] What is the voltage across each resistor? 3] You have an array of 8 separate 250-W solar panels on your roof in Montvale NJ. Each panel puts out 120 volts. Assume you have sunlight for 12 hours a day right now. A. B. C. D. E. What is the total power supplied by the 8 panels? What is the total current supplied by the 8 panels? What value fuse/circuit breaker would you use for this circuit? Provide reasoning. Estimate how much energy (ie: Joules) the solar panels will produce in 1 day. Watch units!!! Assume that the solar panels are your only source of energy in your house. If you own a 13 A air conditioner, a 750 W microwave, a 6.75 A blender, a 200 W TV, and a 100-W lamp, how much current and power will each use? Complete the first three columns of the table below to help organize your work. Power Current Voltage Approximate Time in use each day Total Energy used each day Air Conditioner Microwave Blender TV Light Bulb Total F. Can all of these appliances be used at once? If not, then list one combination of at least 3 appliances that would be allowed. Explain your reasoning. G. Draw a circuit diagram showing the correct arrangement for the combination you listed in #6. Be sure that you include a fuse or circuit breaker and switches. H. Is there enough energy produced by the solar panels in order to supply your daily household usage of these appliances? Use the last two columns of the chart to calculate this. Chapter 4: Thrills & Chills 1] A roller coaster has an initial hill with a height of 45 m. It descends to 0-m and then goes into a loop with a radius of 15 m. Assume the car & passengers have a mass of 500 kg. A] Calculate the GPE at the top of the initial hill B] Calculate the velocity at the bottom of the loop. C] Sketch the free body diagram of the car at the bottom of the loop. D] Calculate the force of the seat (ie: the normal force) acting on the rider at the bottom of the loop. E] Calculate the force factor acting on the car & passengers at the bottom of the loop.