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Transcript
Spinal Nerves
脊神经
Spinal nerves 脊神经
Formation:
each spinal nerve is formed by union of
anterior and posterior roots at intervertebral
The anterior root 前根-contains motor
foramen
fibers for skeletal muscles.
The posterior root后根
-contains sensory
fibers whose cell bodies
are in the spinal
ganglion脊神经节.
Spinal nerves 脊神经
Spinal ganglia脊神经节
is an enlargement of the
posterior root near the
intervertebral foramen
which consist of the
bodies of pseudounipolar
neurons 假单极神经元。
Divisions of spinal nerves
脊神经的分部
:
31对脊神经分为5 部分
cervical nerves 颈神经 8对
thoracic nerves 胸神经: 12对
lumbar nerves 腰神经: 5对
sacral nerves 骶神经 :5对
coccygeal nerve 尾神经: 1对
The fiber components of spinal cors
脊神经的纤维成分
There are four types of fibers contained in the spinal n.
Somatic afferent (sensory) nerve fibers 躯体感觉纤维:
由脊神经节中的假单极神经元的中枢突形成,周围突分布于皮肤、骨
骼肌、肌腱和关节。
Visceral afferent (sensory) nerve fibers 内脏感觉纤维:
也由脊神经节中的假单极神经元的中枢突形成, 周围突分布于内脏、
心血管和腺体。
Somatic efferent (motor) nerve fibers 躯体运动纤维:
发自脊髓前角,分布于骨骼肌。
Visceral efferent (motor) nerve fibers 内脏运动纤维:
分布于心肌、平滑肌和 腺体。
branches of spinal nerves 脊神经的分支
Each
spinal n. is divided into 4 branches after leaving the
intervertebral foramen immediately
anterior branche
前 支
posterior branche
后 支
meningeal branch
脊膜支
communicating branc
交通支: 连于交感干。
posterior branche 脊神经后支:
为混合性,较细小, 分布于
项、背、 腰、骶部深层肌肉及皮肤。
anterior branche 脊神经前支:
粗大,为混合性,除胸部外,前
支先交织成丛,然后再分支分布于躯
干前外侧 和四肢, 脊神经前支形
成的丛有:
cervical plexus 颈丛、
branchial plexus 臂丛
lumbar plexus 腰丛
sacral plexus 骶丛。
二、cervical plexus
颈丛

Formation 构成:
it consists of the
anterior rami of C1-C4
nerves.

Branches分支:
Cutaneous branches皮
支--分布到颈前部皮肤,
Muscular brnches肌支-支配颈部深层的肌肉。
 Cutaneous branches:
Lesser occipital 枕小神经
Great auricular 耳大神经
Transverse nerve of neck 颈横神经
Supraclavicular nerves 锁骨上神经
They emerge around middle of
posterior border of sternocleidomastoid,
to supply skin of neck and scalp
between auricle and external occipital
protuberance


Muscular branches:
supply the deep
muscles of neck
Phrenic nerve 膈神
经arises from the
of C3-C5,
innervation to
diaphragm;
Phrenic nerve 膈神经
 Sensory
fibers
supply to pleurae,
pericardium and
peritoneum of
diaphragm; usually
right phrenic nerve
may be distributed
on live, gallbladder
and biliary system.
二、 brachial plexus臂丛
Formation :
Formed by anterior rami of
C5-C8 and T1 nerves
Position :
Passes through the scalene
fissure (斜角肌间隙) to
posterosuperior of
subclavian artery, then
enters the axilla to form
three cords(束) which
around the axillary atery.
Medial cord 内侧束、
Lateral cord 外侧束
Posterior cord 后束
二、 brachial plexus臂丛
Branches
分支
Median nerve 正中神经
Musculocutaineous nerve
肌皮神经
Ulnar nerve 尺神经
Axillary nerve 腋神经
Radial nerve 桡神经
Anterior branche of thoracic nerve
胸神经前支
胸神经前支

共12对,
Intercostal nerves 肋间神经(T1-T11),
行于相应的肋间隙中;
Subcostal
nerve(T2)
肋下神经 ,第12肋下方。
Distribution:
intercostales 肋间肌
anterolateral abdominal
muscles腹前外侧壁肌;
Anterior branches of thoracic N
The distribution of the
anterior branches of the
thoracic n. is segmental.
T2 Sternal angle
T4 Nipple 乳头
T6 Xiphoid process
T8 Costal arch
T10 Umbilicus 脐
T12 Midpoint between
umbilicus and symphysis
pubis
四、lumbar plexus腰 丛
Formation:
anterior rami of L1-L3,
a part of anterior rami
of T12 and L4
position :lies behind the
psoas major and beside
the lumbar vertera 腰椎两
侧,腰大肌的深面,
branches:
Femoral 股神经
Obturator 闭孔神经
Cutaneous 股外侧皮神经
Genitofemoral 生殖股神经
Iliohypogastric 髂腹下神经
Ilioinguinal 髂腹股沟神经
Lateral femoral
Femoral n. 股神经
route:
Runs downward and
laterally between psoas
major and iliacus, passes
deep to inguinal ligament;
disribution
muscular branches--supplies anterior thigh
muscles (quadriceps股四头
肌, sartorius 缝匠肌and
pectineus耻骨肌),
Femoral n. 股神经
sensory branches--hip and knee joint,
and skin on
anteromedial side of
thigh,
saphenous nerve 隐
神经 is distributed to
skin of medial side of
leg and foot
Obturator 闭孔神经


Route:
Enters thigh through
obturator foramen;
Distribution:
muscular branches--supplies medial group
of muscles of thigh股内
侧群肌, obturator
externus闭孔外肌,
sensory branches--skin of medial side of
thigh
Lateral femoral cutaneous
股外侧皮神经

It arises from the
lateral border of the
psoas major and runs
inferolateral to enter
the thigh posterior to
the inguinal lig.,just
medial to the anterior
superior iliac spine. it
distribute to the skin
over the lateral aspect
of the thigh.
Genitofemoral 生殖股神经


It pierces the anterior
surface of the psoas
major and runs
inferiorly ,and divide
into femoral and genital
branches股支和生殖支
The femoral branche
distribute to the skin
over the femoral
triangle; and the genital
branche distribute to
the scrotum(greater lip
of pudendum)
五、
sacral plexus
骶 丛

formation :
formed by anterior rami of L4
and L5 spinal nerves (the
lumbrosacral trunk) and
anterior rami of sacral and
coccygeal nerves

Position:
lies in pelvic cavity,
anterior to sacrum
and piriformis梨状肌
五、
sacral plexus
骶 丛
main branches
Sciatic nerve 坐骨神经、
Pudendal nerve 阴部神经、
Superior gluteal n. 臀上神经
Inferior glureal n.臀下神经 。
Sciatic nerve 坐骨神经



Leaves pelvis through
infrapiriform foramen to
enter gluteal region,
runs inferiorly deep to
gluteus maximus, passing
midway between the greater
trochanter of femur and
ischial tuberosity to back of
thigh, lying deep to long
head of biceps femoris,
normally divided into tibial
and common peroneal
nerves just above popliteal
fossa;
Sciatic nerve 坐骨神经

it innervates
semitendinosus半腱肌,
semimembranosus半膜
肌and biceps femoris股
二头肌

Tibial nerve 胫神经
Decends through
popliteal fossa , then
runs inferiorly with
posterior tibial vessels
and dividing into medial
and lateral plantar
nerves behind the
medial malleolus内踝;
supplies posterior
muscles of leg and knee
joint
Common peroneal nerve

Arises at apex of popliteal fossa
and follows medial border of
biceps femoris and its tendon;
passes over posterior aspect of
head of fibula and then winds
around neck of fibula, deep to
peroneus longus, where it
divides into deep and superficial
peroneal nerves腓浅和腓深神
经,to supply the anterior and
lateral groups m. of the leg.
Superficial peroneal
Deep peroneal