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INTRODUCTION TO
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
COURSE CODE
COURSE NAME
LECTURER
HP NO
EMAIL
:
:
:
:
:
IAS 2123
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
MDM ROZIYANI HAJI SETIK
019-6181835/019-3170659
roziyani@unisel.edu.my
TYPICAL COMPUTER AD
Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs?
Is the computer cost-effective?
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Will it be obsolete in 6 months?
WHY STUDY COMPUTER ORGANIZATION?
User
• Understand system capabilities and limitations
• Make informed decisions
• Improve communications with information technology professionals
Systems Analyst
• Conduct surveys, determine feasibility and define and document
user requirements
• Specify computer systems to meet application requirements
Programmer
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• Create efficient application software for specific processing needs
WHY STUDY COMPUTER ORGANIZATION?
System Administrator / Manager
• Install, configure, maintain, and upgrade computer
systems
• Maximize system availability
• Optimize system performance
• Ensure system security
Web Designer
Optimize customer accessibility to Web services
System administration of Web servers
Select appropriate data formats
Design efficient Web pages
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INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT MODEL (IPO)
•Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards
•Processing: CPU executes the computer program
•Output: monitor, printer, fax machine
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•Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPUTER
ORGANIZATION AND COMPUTER
ARCHITECTURE
Computer Architecture
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• Attributes of a system visible to a programmer or those
attributes that have direct impact on the logical execution of
program
• Eg. Instruction set, no. of bit used to represent various data
types (no., characters), I/O mechanism, techniques for
addressing memory
• Eg. of Issue: Whether a computer will have multiply instruction
• Many computer manufacturer offers a family of computer
model with same architecture but with differences
organization, with different price and different performance.
• Eg. IBM System/370 Architecture
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
• Study on
• internal computer systems such as the hardware
resources available,
• the function and the objective of the resources and
their relationship.
• Focusing on
• the organization and relationship between computer
physical resources,
• the integration of the system function, and the
communication and data flow controlling between the
physical component.
• Operational units and their interconnections that realize the
architectural specification and hardware detail transparent
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to the programmers (William Stalling,1996)
EXAMPLE
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• control signals, interfaces between the computer
and peripheral, and the memory technology
used
• Issue:
• Whether that instruction will be implemented
by a special multiply unit.
• Organizational decision may be based on
the anticipated frequency of use of the
multiply instruction, the speed between two
approaches, the cost and physical size of a
special multiply unit.
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
helps optimize performance-based products.
For example, software engineers need to know the
processing ability of processors. They may need to optimize
software in order to gain the most performance at the least
expense. This can require quite detailed analysis of the
computer organization.
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For example, in a multimedia decoder, the designers might
need to arrange for most data to be processed in the fastest
data path.
CONT..
Computer organization also helps plan the selection
of a processor for a particular project.
Multimedia projects may need very rapid data access,
while supervisory software may need fast interrupts.
Sometimes certain tasks need additional components
as well. For example, a computer capable of
virtualization needs virtual memory hardware so that
the memory of different simulated computers can be
kept separated.
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The computer organization and features also affect
the power consumption and the cost of the processor
ARCHITECTURE COMPONENTS
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Hardware
• Processes data by executing instructions
• Provides input and output
Software
• Instructions executed by the system
Data
• Fundamental representation of facts and
observations
Communications
• Sharing data and processing among different
systems
HARDWARE COMPONENT
Input/Output devices
Storage Devices
CPU
• ALU: arithmetic/logic unit
• CU: control unit
• Interface unit
Memory
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• Short-term storage for CPU calculations
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TYPICAL PERSONAL COMPUTER
SYSTEM
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1. Scanner
2. CPU (Microprocessor)
3. Primary storage (RAM)
4. Expansion cards (graphics cards, etc.)
5. Power supply
6. Optical disc drive
7. Secondary storage (Hard disk)
8. Motherboard
9. Speakers
10. Monitor
11. System software
12. Application software
13. Keyboard
14. Mouse
15. External hard disk
16. Printer
CPU: CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
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ALU: arithmetic/logic unit
• Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical
calculations
CU: control unit
• Controls processing of instructions
• Controls movement of data within the CPU
Interface unit
• Moves instructions and data between the CPU
and other hardware components
• Bus: bundle of wires that carry signals and
power between different components
MEMORY
Also known as primary storage, working
storage, and RAM (random access memory)
Consists of bits, each of which hold a value of
either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte)
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Holds both instructions and data of a computer
program (stored program concept)
SOFTWARE COMPONENT
Applications
Operating System
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•
•
•
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API: application program interface
File management
I/O
Kernel
• Memory management
• Resource scheduling
• Program communication
• Security
• Network Module
COMMUNICATIONS COMPONENT
Hardware
• Communication channels
• Physical connections between computer systems
• Examples: wire cable, phone lines, fiber optic cable,
infrared light, radio waves
• Interface hardware
• Handles communication between the computer and
the communication channel
• Modem or network interface card (NIC)
Software
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• Network protocols: HTTP, TCP/IP, ATAPI
COMPUTER SYSTEMS
All computer systems, no matter how complex,
consists of the following:
At least one CPU
Memory to hold programs and data
I/O devices
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Long-term storage
PROTOCOLS
Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O
devices, and many software programs
Examples
• HTTP: between Web servers and Web browsers
• TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet and local area
networks
• ATAPI: between a CPU and CD-ROMs
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AT Attachment with Packet Interface
ATAPI
standard interface used to connect storage
devices drives inside personal computers
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ATA connector on the left, with two motherboard
ATA connectors on the right.
STANDARDS
Created to ensure universal compatibility of
data formats and protocols
May be created by committee or may become a
de facto standard through popular use
Examples:
Computer languages: Java, SQL, C, JavaScript
Display standards: Postscript, MPEG-2, JPEG, GIF
Character set standards: ASCII, Unicode, EBCDIC
Video standards: VGA, XGA, RGB
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•
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•
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EARLY HISTORY
1642: Blaise Pascal invents a calculating
machine
1801: Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom
that uses punch cards
1800’s:
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• Charles Babbage attempts to build an analytical engine
(mechanical computer)
• Augusta Ada Byron develops many of the fundamental
concepts of programming
• George Boole invents Boolean logic.
EARLY COMPUTERS
ENIAC
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Babbage’s
Analytical Engine
PROGRAMMABLE: PUNCH CARDS
JOSEPH JACQUARD (1752-1834): PUNCH
CARD LOOM
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punch card tabulator
MODERN COMPUTER
DEVELOPMENT
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1937: Mark I is built (Aiken, Harvard University, IBM).
• First electronic computer using relays.
1939: ABC is built
• First fully electronic digital computer. Used vacuum tubes.
1943-46: ENIAC (Mauchly, Eckert, University of
Pennsylvania).
• First general purpose digital computer.
1945: Von Neumann architecture proposed.
• Still the standard for present day computers.
1947: Creation of transistor
• (Bardeen, Shockley, Brattain, Bell Labs).
1951: UNIVAC.
• First commercially available computer.
VON NEUMANN
ARCHITECTURE
Three key concepts:
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• Data and instruction are stored in a single read-write
memory
• The content of this memory are addressable by
location, without regard to the type of data contained
there
• Execution occurs in a sequential fashion (unless
explicitly modified) from one instruction to the next
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CPU is the central processor unit (Arithmetic unit), ROM is
a read only memory, RAM is a random access memory and
the I/O-units are the input- and output devices
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THE VON NEUMANN COMPUTER
ARCHITECTURE MODEL
VIRTUAL MACHINE
CONCEPT
Virtual Machines
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Specific Machine Levels
VIRTUAL MACHINES
 Tanenbaum: Virtual machine concept
 a virtual machine (VM) is a software
implementation of a machine
(computer) that executes programs like
a real machine.
 [Popek and Goldberg] an efficient,
isolated duplicate of a real machine.
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Current use includes virtual machines which
have no direct correspondence to any real
hardware
 An essential characteristic of a virtual machine is
that the software running inside is limited to the
resources and abstractions provided by the
virtual machine—it cannot break out of its virtual
world.
VIRTUAL MACHINES
 Programming Language analogy:
◦ Each computer has a native machine language
(language L0) that runs directly on its hardware
◦ A more human-friendly language is usually constructed
above machine language, called Language L1
 Programs written in L1 can run two different
ways:
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◦ Interpretation – L0 program interprets and executes L1
instructions one by one
◦ Translation – L1 program is completely translated into an L0
program, which then runs on the computer hardware
TRANSLATING LANGUAGES
English: Display the sum of A times B plus C.
C++: cout << (A * B + C);
Intel Machine Language:
A1 00000000
F7 25 00000004
03 05 00000008
E8 00500000
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Assembly Language:
mov eax,A
mul B
add eax,C
call WriteInt
VIRTUAL MACHINE LEVELS
High-Level Language
Level 5
Assembly Language
Level 4
Level 3
Instruction Set
Architecture
Level 2
Microarchitecture
Level 1
Digital Logic
Level 0
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Operating System
HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE
Level 5
Application-oriented languages
• C++, Java, Pascal, Visual Basic . . .
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Programs compile into assembly language (Level 4)
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
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 Level 4
 Instruction mnemonics that have a one-to-one
correspondence to machine language
 Calls functions written at the operating system level
(Level 3)
 Programs are translated into machine language (Level 2)
OPERATING SYSTEM
Level 3
Provides services to Level 4 programs
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Translated and run at the instruction set architecture
level (Level 2)
INSTRUCTION SET
ARCHITECTURE
Level 2
Also known as conventional machine language
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Executed by Level 1 (microarchitecture) program
MICROARCHITECTURE
Level 1
Interprets conventional machine instructions (Level 2)
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Executed by digital hardware (Level 0)
DIGITAL LOGIC
Level 0
CPU, constructed from digital logic gates
System bus
Memory
Implemented using bipolar transistors
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