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War 1812
of communication
Main problem that led to
–ended before it began
battle of the war
–began after peace declared
War Hawks
– Henry clay leading voice
Madison sends list of
grievances against
 Close vote, but war
declared against Britain
 declared war to defend:
– Sovereignty
– Western territory
– Maritime rights of
United States
 Attack Canada
 Burn York
– Capital
Holding pattern
 Napoleon
 British victories
Ross attacks at
will on coast
 Bladenburg
– Aug 24
DC burnt
 Dolly Madison
 Land and Sea
 Land attack repulsed
– Ross killed
Fort McHenry
 Massive bombardment
 Francis Scott Key
The Hartford Convention
 New
England congressmen had
voted against going to war
–British continue to trade with New
 Federalists
called Hartford
Convention, 1814
–Federalist New England secession
 Hartford
Convention demands
drowned out by end of war and New
Orleans victory
New Orleans
Jefferson New Orleans America “Achilles heel”
– 40% American trade
Andrew Jackson
– Peace declared Dec 24 1814
– Battle new Orleans Jan 8
Independence began July 4th 1776 completed
Jan 8th 1815
yeoman farmer
dream shattered
Republican congress - headed
towards a market society and
capitalist democracy
From one boat to many
 Post
revolutionary war immigration
had slowed to a trickle
 But
as the new century began the
immigration rocketed
U.S. population and territory, 1790-1840
 1790:
pop. 3.9 million, in 13 states
 1800: pop. 5.3 m.
16 states
 1810:
7.2 m.
 1820:
9.6 m.
 1830:
12.9 m.
 1840:
17.1 m.
 land area (sq. mi.): 1790 0.86; 1840
The Irish
 Just
one of many groups, but the
example we will look at
 Predominantly protestant
 small farmers/landowners
 Coming with some money looking to
 Mid 1820s to mid 1840s
 A gradual shift to poorer Nonlandowners
1815 – 1840 approx 800,000 immigrants
Disaster in Ireland
Potato Famine
Basic food staple
destroyed and many
more forced to leave
1845-1855 1.8 million Irish
 Poor
 Not much choice or opportunity
 Gathered together in urban areas
 Low paying manual labor
Construction work was the usual line of work
 Long, hard, dangerous
 Example: in 1818
 3000 Irish laborers working on Erie Canal
 Main
work was as either
 House
maids in the city or
 Factory
workers – particularly textile
 Example:
Lowell Mills in
Irish Women in Lowell workforce. 1845 – 8% : 1860 – 50%
Irish settlement was primarily in
urban areas
At the time the census described an urban
area as more than 8000 people
1790 America was 3.3% urban
1860 America was 16.1% urban
By 1850 Irish were over 50% of
population in New York and Boston
 This
high concentration in the cities
allowed for a high degree of
continuation of home identity
 Examples
 Newspapers
 Food
 Language
 Customs
The Transportation Revolution
1815: dramatic
improvements in transportation:
communities together
Made a market society physically
Improvements: Canals and
 Erie
–Hudson River – Lake Erie
–Model for canal boom across
 Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad
 New York Central
 1820 – 40, 3000 miles
 1840 – 60, 57,000 miles
Robert Fulton’s
Clermont plies the
Hudson River
The Brooklyn ferry,
Erie Canal at
Lockport, New York
The Mohawk and
Hudson Railroad’s
DeWitt Clinton began
service in 1831
Railroads in the United States, 1840 and 1860
Time and Money
costs went down
–1815 -60 95% drop
Market revolution
Foreign trade continued to
Growing internal domestic
Time required to travel from New York City, 1800 and
The Transformation of
Rural Outwork
of outworkers declines
Manufacture began to
concentrate in factories
Outworkers were reduced to
dependence on merchants, who
began to control the labor of
The Industrial Revolution
 1820-1870:
American cities grew
faster than ever before or since
 Seaport cities gain more from
commerce with interior than
 Beginnings of industry and the
greatest period of urban growth
in U.S. history
Manifest Destiny
A general
notion rather
than a
John L.
United States
Magazine and Democratic
Review 17, no.1 (July-August
“the fulfillment of our manifest
destiny to overspread the
continent allotted by Providence
for the free development of our
yearly multiplying millions”
Discussing annexation of Texas
 December
27, 1845 in New York
Morning News
 Americans claim "the whole of
 “And that claim is by the right of our
manifest destiny to overspread and
to possess the whole of the continent
which Providence has given us for
the development of the great
experiment of liberty and federated
self-government entrusted to us.”
Three Key Themes
 1)
The virtue of the American
people and their institutions
 2) The mission to spread these
institutions, thereby redeeming and
remaking the world in the image of
the U.S.
 3) The destiny under God to
accomplish this work
Indian removal west
and relocations of
American Indians occurred
throughout the 17th and 18th
Developed to massive
proportions during the 19th
Indian Renewal Act of 1830
Provided for the exchange of
American Indian land in any
state or territory of US
Indian Removal Act 1830
in relocating
Southeastern Indians
Shifted to lands in the transMississippi west
Exceptionally tragic was the
removal of the Cherokee
Occurred during the late
nunna dual Tsunyi,
Cherokee means
literally, “the trail where
we cried.”
Become known in
English as the “Trail of
Brief History of Cherokee
 Estimated
that there were over
22,000 Cherokee during the 1600s.
 In the 18th century they suffered
from smallpox epidemics
 Epidemic in 1738-1739 severe,
reduced tribe by half
 Another smallpox epidemic
depopulated them in 1760
the 1760s to the early
1780s the Cherokee were also in
almost constant warfare with
the colonists on their lands
They sided with the British in
the Revolutionary War, and by
1782 they were “reduced to the
lowest depth of misery”
Then in the following year
another small pox epidemic
devastated the tribe
 By
end 18th century the Cherokee
numbered slightly more than
 With natural increase by 1835
about 22,000
 What the population is estimated
to have been some 200 years
 Cherokee tribal lands had once
been immense comprising much
of the southeastern region of the
 By
1830s, Cherokee Country, as it
was called, encompassed area
where the states of NC, TN, GA, and
AL, more or less come together
 Subjected to continued harassment
by Georgia and pressures from the
US government
–particularly President Andrew Jackson
 to
cede remaining lands and move
west of the Mississippi
 Cherokee resisted
three years and much
Treaty was signed between the
Cherokee and the US
But not by the principal officers
of the Cherokee nation
Signers ceded to the US the
Cherokee lands in the Southeast
in exchange for lands in Indian
Territory and 15 million
of the Cherokee
nation protested violently
during the next years that
the treaty should not be
Protests were to no avail
The Cherokee were
disarmed and removal
did not end on arrival in
Indian Territory
Many survived the journey only
to be stricken with disease in
the new lands
Or to die there of starvation
As many as one-half of the early
immigrants died before the year
was out
Estimated that over 8000
Cherokee may have died as