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Transcript
Program and abstracts
AGS Mission Statement
The mission of the American Glaucoma Society is to promote excellence
in the care of patients with glaucoma and preserve or enhance vision
by supporting glaucoma specialists and scientists through the
advancement of education and research.
The American Glaucoma Society thanks
Aerie Pharmaceuticals
Alcon
Bausch + Lomb
For supporting the educational portions of the 25th Annual Meeting.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Letter of Welcome
Welcome to lovely Coronado, California, where we gather for the 25th Annual Meeting of the
American Glaucoma Society!
Your Program Committee members, Christopher Girkin, Steve Gedde, David Friedman,
Michele Lim, Joseph Caprioli, Brian Francis, Felipe Medeiros, Janey Wiggs, and Neeru Gupta,
have worked diligently to bring you an outstanding conference covering many different facets
of our field. We were fortunate to receive a large number of abstract submissions this year,
and our programming emphasizes both quality and quantity in a balance of papers, posters,
and symposia. Based on AGS member responses to online surveys about the meeting, we have
maintained a successful mix of symposia, free papers, and discussion time. The total number of
platform papers has remained steady, and the number of poster presentations has been expanded.
We will continue to use the Audience Response System that was successfully introduced at the
2012 Annual Meeting.
The honoree for the 2015 AGS Annual Meeting is David Epstein, of Durham, North Carolina.
David’s spouse, Susan, and son Michael will be present to accept this honor on his behalf. The
AGS Lecture (Friday afternoon) will be presented by Paul Lee, formerly of Duke University and
now located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, at the University of Michigan, Kellogg Eye Center. The 16th
AGS Clinician-Scientist Lecture, on Saturday morning, will be presented by Claude Burgoyne, of
Portland, Oregon. The recipient of the 2015 AGS President’s Award is M. Roy Wilson, of Detroit,
Michigan. The Sixth Annual AGS Glaucoma Surgery Day Lecturer is Ike Ahmed, of Ontario,
Canada. The recipient of the AGS Innovator Award is Tony Molteno, of Dunedin, New Zealand,
and the International Recognition awardee is Anders Heijl, of Sweden. Don Budenz, of Chapel
Hill, North Carolina, is the recipient of the AGS Humanitarian Award.
This year, the meeting will hit the ground running with a special joint symposium with the North
American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS) scheduled on Thursday morning, followed
by AGS-featured symposia and paper presentations in the afternoon. On Thursday evening, just
prior to the opening reception, please join us for a special guest lecturer. Following the guest
lecture, we will gather to network and mingle with our friends and colleagues and to meet new
AGS members and guests during the Welcome Reception, which will be held at the Sundeck of
the Hotel del Coronado.
Friday morning will begin with a sunrise yoga session, followed by the Sixth annual AGS
Glaucoma Surgery Day, organized by Brian Francis and Michele Lim. Surgery Day is devoted to
novel and traditional approaches to glaucoma surgery. We will kick off Surgery Day by honoring
our Surgery Day Lecturer, Ike Ahmed, who will be presenting his lecture first thing in the
morning. The day will follow suit with an exciting program that will include surgery symposia,
surgery paper presentations, and the surgical video presentation.
On Saturday morning, plan to join us for the AGS Fun Run/Walk, where you can move at your
own pace and enjoy the backdrop of the Pacific Ocean. Poster sessions and oral presentations
will follow, beginning with free paper sessions, symposium, and the Clinician-Scientist Lecture,
presented by Claude Burgoyne.
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American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
As in past years, we start early on Sunday morning, beginning at 7 AM, with eight concurrent
Breakfast Roundtable Discussions that will allow small group interaction in a casual setting:
MIGS 1, Maximizing Use of an Electronic Health Record in a Glaucoma Practice, MIGS 2, My
Top Two Disasters, New Developments in OCT Imaging for Glaucoma: Update on the Macula,
Management of Tube Complications, The Prevention of Complications from Trabeculectomy,
and Would My Patient Benefit from Genetic Testing? We will end this year’s meeting with two
concurrent workshops that have been very well received for many years: (1) Super Bowl of Grand
Rounds and (2) Conquering Coding and ICD-10, Avoiding PQRS, and VBM Penalties.
The 25th AGS Annual Meeting promises to be educationally, socially, and personally rewarding
for all attendees. We look forward to seeing you at the Hotel del Coronado!
David S. Greenfield, MD
President
Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH
Program Chair
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
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Contents
Leadership and Program Committee������������������������������������������ 6
Program Schedule ������������������������������������������������������������������� 49
AGS Foundation������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
Symposia��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 61
AGS Policies������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8
Breakfast Roundtables������������������������������������������������������������� 70
CME Financial Disclosures ���������������������������������������������������� 11
Workshops ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 72
Meeting Information���������������������������������������������������������������� 17
Paper Abstracts����������������������������������������������������������������������� 75
Registration Information �������������������������������������������������������� 19
Neurology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Schedule at a Glance���������������������������������������������������������������� 23
Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Hotel Map������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26
Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
History of the AGS ����������������������������������������������������������������� 27
Science & Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
AGS Meetings������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
Hot Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Clinician-Scientist Lecturers &
President’s Award Recipients�������������������������������������������������� 30
Poster Schedule ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 107
Poster Abstracts �������������������������������������������������������������������� 113
Research Fellowship Awards and Programs���������������������������� 31
Thursday – Optic Nerve����������������������������������������������� 113
Lecturers and Honorees ���������������������������������������������������������� 37
Friday – Surgery����������������������������������������������������������� 153
Honoree������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37
Saturday – Epidemiology and Clinical Studies ������������ 203
President’s Award���������������������������������������������������������� 38
New Members����������������������������������������������������������������������� 243
Surgery Day Lecturer ���������������������������������������������������� 39
Index�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 255
Special Guest Lecturer���������������������������������������������������� 40
AGS Lecturer ���������������������������������������������������������������� 41
Clinician-Scientist Lecturer ������������������������������������������� 42
International Recognition Award���������������������������������� 43
Innovator Award ���������������������������������������������������������� 44
Humanitarian Award���������������������������������������������������� 45
6
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Leadership and Program Committee
Board of Directors
Past Presidents
David S. Greenfield, MD – President
Cynthia Mattox, MD – Vice President / Secretary
L. Jay Katz, MD – Treasurer
Thomas W. Samuelson, MD – Councilor to AAO
Dale K. Heuer, MD – Member-at-Large
Marlene R. Moster, MD – Member-at-Large
Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS – Member-at-Large
Louis R. Pasquale, MD – Research Chair
Shan C. Lin, MD – Patient Care Chair /
Nominating Committee Chair
James D. Brandt, MD – Education and Communication Chair
Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH – Bylaws & Strategic
Planning Chair
Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH – Program Chair
Jeffrey M. Liebmann, MD – Past President 2011-2012
Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH – Past President 2013-2014
George L. Spaeth, MD: 1986-1988
Richard J. Simmons, MD: 1989-1990
Douglas R. Anderson, MD: 1991-1992
Allan E. Kolker, MD: 1993-1994
M. Bruce Shields, MD: 1995-1996
E. Michael Van Buskirk, MD: 1997-1998
Robert L. Stamper, MD: 1999-2000
Richard A. Lewis, MD: 2001-2002
Richard P. Wilson, MD: 2003-2004
Gregory L. Skuta, MD: 2005-2006
Robert N. Weinreb, MD: 2007-2008
Theodore Krupin, MD: 2009-2010
Jeffrey M. Liebmann, MD: 2011-2012
Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH: 2013-2014
Program Committee
Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH – Chair
Steven J. Gedde, MD – Vice Chair
Brian A. Francis, MD – Surgery Day Co-chair
Michele C. Lim, MD – Surgery Day Co-chair
Joseph A. Caprioli, MD
David S. Friedman, MD, MPH, PhD
Neeru Gupta, MD, PhD, MBA – ex-Officio
Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD
Janey L. Wiggs, MD, PhD
Goal of the AGS Annual Meeting
The goal of this meeting is to provide members and guests of the American Glaucoma Society a professionally stimulating forum in
which they can exchange information and ideas regarding the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma and present new developments in
glaucoma research.
Administrative Offices
American Glaucoma Society
655 Beach Street
San Francisco, CA 94109
415.561.8587 FAX 415.561.8531
[email protected]
www.americanglaucomasociety.net
Accreditation Statement
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for
Continuing Medical Education through the joint providership of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and American Glaucoma
Society. The American Academy of Ophthalmology is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for
physicians.
Credit Designation Statement
The American Academy of Ophthalmology designates this live activity for a maximum of 23.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™.
Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
AGS Foundation
F O U N D AT I O N
Mission of the Foundation
Board of Directors
The mission of the American Glaucoma Society Foundation is to support glaucoma
research and education and to promote excellence in the care of patients with glaucoma.
David S. Greenfield, MD – President
Cynthia Mattox, MD – Vice President /
Secretary
L. Jay Katz, MD – Treasurer
James D. Brandt, MD
Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH
Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH
Dale K. Heuer, MD
Jeffrey M. Liebmann, MD
Shan C. Lin, MD
Marlene R. Moster, MD
Mildred M.G. Olivier, MD
Louis R. Pasquale, MD
Thomas W. Samuelson, MD
Arthur L. Schwartz, MD
Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH
George L. Spaeth, MD
Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS
Robert N. Weinreb, MD
The Board of Directors is charged with overseeing these efforts by identifying unmet
needs, devising strategies to address them, and advancing the field through support of
research, education, and training.
Each of the stakeholders in our field (patients, clinicians, scientists, industry, government
and non-governmental organizations) plays a vital role; collaboration is critical for
success. We strive to support and create programs that will make the difference in our
field and for our patients.
Help us make a difference!
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American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
American Glaucoma Society (AGS) Policies
AGS 25th Annual Meeting Conflict of Interest
Issues
The AGS Program Committee takes conflicts of interest very seriously and expects
all AGS Members to do the same. All participants in the program have submitted a
financial disclosure form which has been reviewed by the Program Chairs and Program
Committee. A Conflict of Interest form is used when deemed appropriate. An example
of the Conflict of Interest Resolution Form is shown below. If you have any concerns
about the content or perceived conflicts of interest in the Annual Program, please bring
them to the attention of the Program Committee Chair, Dr. Christopher Girkin, or
Vice Chair, Dr. Steve Gedde, or the Chair of the AGS Ethics Task Force, Dr. Cynthia
Mattox, as soon as possible.
Example of Financial Conflict Resolution Form
All financial conflicts of interest must be resolved. CME providers require that everyone
who is in a position to control the content of an educational activity disclose all financial
relationships with any commercial interest within the past 12 months. Those whose
conflicts are not resolved must be disqualified.
Please select one or more that apply to resolve your conflict.
There is a conflict of interest related to the content material, and you must:
• limit the conflict to report information that is related to the conflicted without
recommendations
• reference the “best available evidence in literature,” the grade or level of that
evidence and identify the conclusions that the evidence supports
• step aside and allow someone else to present
• discontinue your relationship with the commercial entity
Disclosure and Resolution of Conflict of Interest
Policy
AGS ensures that all leaders, volunteers, staff, or any individuals involved in planning
and production of AGS activities will disclose any and all potential conflicts of interest
and resolve them prior to the activity.
Procedure
The process for ensuring compliance with this policy applies a multi-step approach
including prevention and monitoring/evaluation.
Identification
All individuals who are involved with planning activities must sign and submit a
financial disclosure form prior to planning the activity. All financial relationships with
any commercial interest must be disclosed. Individuals subject to this requirement
include, but are not limited to, activity course directors and program chairs, planning
committee members, faculty/speakers/presenters, authors, editors, expert reviewers,
moderators, panel members, and AGS staff in position to control content. All financial
disclosures must be provided through the AGS online disclosure form or in another preapproved format.
Financial relationships must be disclosed to learners prior to the continuing education
activity. Information provided in this manner includes the name of the individual, the
name of the commercial interest(s), and the nature of the relationship the person has
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
with the commercial interest(s). If an individual has no relevant relationship, then this
must also be disclosed in advance to the learning audience.
Resolution
All faculty and non-faculty involved with the planning or implementation of an activity
who disclose a conflict of interest must resolve that conflict prior to the activity.
Appropriate mechanisms for resolution will be identified by the Program Committee
and can include the following:
Non-faculty Resolution
A non-faculty member (e.g., staff) who has an identified conflict of interest will be asked
to excuse themselves from any discussion/decision-making process where the conflict of
interest would come into play.
Faculty Member Resolution
Peer Review: A faculty member with a conflict of interest must submit his/her work to
a panel for peer review. Recommendations of the panel, as it relates to conflict, must be
taken. If the faculty member refuses the recommendations they will be asked to resign
and a new faculty member will be appointed.
Or
Evidence Based: Material to be presented must be the best available evidence in the
literature, supported by the grade or level of that evidence and by identifying the
conclusions that the evidence supports.
Or
Other methods deemed appropriate by AGS.
Refusal to Disclose
Non-faculty
If a non-faculty member refuses to disclose conflicts of interest then that person will be
asked to step down from the position requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest.
Faculty Member
If a faculty member refuses to disclose they will be replaced and not considered to
present until such disclosures are made.
Additional Information
Additional information may be requested of faculty/non-faculty to assist in the
resolution of conflict of interest. Resolution of the conflict of interest must also be
disclosed to the audience in advance.
Off-Label Disclosure
In addition, all faculty members are required to disclose to learners off-label and/
or investigational use of a product and any limitations on the information presented,
including preliminary data, anecdotal evidence, or unsupported opinion.
Evaluation/Monitoring for Bias
CME activity participants are surveyed about perceived commercial bias as part of the
post-activity evaluation.
Diversity Policy
The Board of Directors of the AGS recognizes that this organization is best served by
representation from the broadest possible diversity of member background, experience,
and professional activities setting. As a policy, the Board of Directors is committed to
diverse representation on the Board and its committees and staff without regard to race,
religion, national origin, sexual orientation, age, gender, or physical disability.
AGS BOD Approved – March 2010
AGS Policies
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AGS Policies
CME Violations
When a potential violation of Accrediting Council for Continuing Medical Education
(ACCME) rules occurs during a CME-generating activity at an annual AGS meeting or
other AGS event, the Program Committee Chair, if he/she has not personally witnessed
the violation, will initiate an investigation into the occurrence by speaking with selected
members of the audience, as well as the speaker(s) charged with the violation. The
Program Committee Chair may request copies of the presentation materials including
slides and outlines. The program committee will review the results of the investigation.
The Program Committee may require consultation with the CME-accrediting body
to determine if a violation has occurred. If it is determined that a violation exists, the
Program Committee Chair will communicate directly with the offender to educate
him/her on the nature of the violation, review ACCME rules, and issue a warning
that potential penalties for future violations may include inability to present at future
meetings. Copies of all communication in this regard will be filed with the CME
accrediting body.
If an individual commits a second violation, the Program Committee Chair will
convene the Program Committee to review the details of both violations and to issue
a recommendation to the AGS Board of Directors (BOD) regarding an appropriate
penalty for the individual. The AGS BOD may accept, deny, or modify the Program
Committee recommendations. The Program Committee Chair (alone or together with
the AGS president) will then communicate this final decision to the offending individual.
AGS Board Approved – October 2014
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
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CME Financial Disclosures of Board of Directors,
Program Committee, and Participants
Category
CodeDescription
Consultant/Advisor
C
Consultant fee, paid advisory boards or fees for attending a meeting (for the past 1 year)
Employee
E
Employed by a commercial entity
Lecture Fees
LLecture fees (honoraria), travel fees or reimbursements when speaking at the invitation of a
commercial entity (for the past 1 year)
Equity Owner
OEquity ownership/stock options of publicly or privately traded firms (excluding mutual
funds) with manufacturers of commercial ophthalmic products or commercial ophthalmic
services
Patents/Royalty
P
Grant Support
SGrant support for the past 1 year (all sources) and all sources used for this project if this
form is an update for a specific talk or manuscript with no time limitation
Patents and/or royalties that might be viewed as creating a potential conflict of interest
Ahmed, MD, Iqbal Ike K.
C – Aquesys, Transcend Medical,
Abbott Medical Optics, Carl Zeiss
Meditec, InnFocus, Stroma, Ivantis,
Alcon Laboratories, Clarity Medical
Systems, Iridex, Science Based Health,
Allergan, Aerie Pharmaceuticals,
Croma Pharma, Envisia Therapeutics,
ForSight Labs, Ade Therapuetics,
Omega Ophthalmics, Ono Pharma,
Glaukos, ACE Vision Group, Oculus
Caron, PhD, Marc G.
C – Lundbeck
Aref, MD, Ahmad A.
C – New World Medical, Inc.
L – Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Carl Zeiss
Meditec, Inc.
Chen, MD, Teresa
S – National Institutes of Health UL1
RR 025758, Massachusetts Lions
Eye Research Fund, Inc., Fidelity
Charitable Fund, The American
Glaucoma Society Mid-Career Award
Ayyala, MD, FRCS, FRCOphth, Ramesh
O – MediTred, ElutiMed
S – Allergan, New World Medical, Alcon
Laboratories
P – ElitiMed
Blondeau, Pierre
S – Allergan
Brown, MD, Reay
C – Ivantis, Transcend Medical
P – Rhein, Glaukos
Budenz, MD, MPH, Donald L.
C – Alcon, Ivantis, Envisia
Challa, MD, Pratap
S – NEI
O – Aeri Pharmaceuticals
Chang, MD, Robert T.
C – Carl Zeiss Meditec, Allergan,
Transcend Medical
P – EyeGo
Chiu, OD, Gloria B.
C – Allergan
Chopra, MD, Vikas
C – Allergan
Coleman, MD, PhD, Anne
C – Allergan
Costarides, MD, PhD, Anastasios P.
C – Glaukos, Inc.
S – Allergan, Inc.
Burgoyne, MD, Claude
C – Heidelberg Engineering
S – Reichert
Crichton, MD, Andrew C.
C – Allergan, Inc., Alcon Canada
S – Canadian Institute for Health
Research
Buys, MD, Yvonne M.
L – Allergan
De Moraes, MD, MPH, C. Gustavo
S – Sensimed
Demetriades, MD, PhD, Anna-Maria
S – Research to Prevent Blindness Career
Development Award, BrightFocus
Foundation National Glaucoma
Research Grant
Downs, PhD, J. Crawford
C – Sensimed, AG
S – National Institutes of Health,
Research to Prevent Blindness,
EyeSight Foundation of Alabama
Fechtner, MD, Robert D.
C – Alcon Laboratories
S – Bausch + Lomb, Alcon Laboratories
Feldman, MD, Robert M.
C – Alcon Laboratories
S – Tomey Corporation
L – Alcon Laboratories
Fellman, MD, Ronald
C – EndoOptiks
Flanagan, PhD, John G.
C – Carl Zeiss Meditec
L – Heidelberg Engineering
S – Optovue, Inc.
S – Photon
Fortune, OD, PhD, Brad
S – Heidelberg Engineering, GmbH
Francis, MD, Brian
C – Allergan, Neomedix Corp.,
Endooptiks
S – Aquesys, Lumenis
12
CME Financial Disclosures
Freedman, MD, PhD, Jeffrey
S – IOP, Inc.
Gedde, MD, Steven J.
C – Alcon, Allergan
Giaconi, MD, JoAnn A.
L – Allergan
Gibson, PhD, Daniel J.
S – Sentinal Diagnostics, Inc.
Girkin, MD, PhD, Christopher A.
S – National Eye Institute, EyeSight
Foundation of Alabama, SOLX, Carl
Zeiss
Godfrey, MD, David G.
L – Alcon Laboratories
Gong, MD, PhD, Haiyan
S – NIH/NEI, The Massachusetts Lions
Eye Research Fund
Gould, Lisa F.
C – Novartis
Greenfield, MD, David S.
C – Allergan, Alcon Laboratories, Bausch
+ Lomb, Senju
S – Heidelberg Engineering, National Eye
Institute, Optovue, Carl Zeiss Meditec
Gross, MD, Ronald L.
C – Allergan, Alcon, Intelligent Retonal
Imaging Systems, Reichert
L – Allergan
S – Allergan, Alcon
Grover, MD, MPH, Davinder S.
L – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan, Tissue
Bank International
Gupta, MD, PhD, MBA, Neeru
C – Bausch + Lomb
S – Canadian Institutes of Health
Research, Glaucoma Research Society
of Canada
Gupta, MD, Sunil
C – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan
O – IRIS
Harris, MS, PhD, Alon A.
C – Biolight, Nano Retina, Science Based
Health, ONO, Isarna Therapeutics
L – Alcon, Biolight
O – AdOM. Oxymap, Nano Retina
He, PhD, Lin
E – Alcon Laboratories
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Herndon, Jr., MD, Leon W.
C – Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Sight Sciences
L – Alcon, Glaukos
Hood, PhD, Donald
S – Topcon, Inc.
Huang, MD, PhD, David
P – Optovue, Inc., Carl Zeiss Meditec,
Inc.
Hubatsch, MSc, Douglas
E – Alcon Laboratories
Hughes, MD, Bret A.
C – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan
S – Glaukos
Jia, PhD, Yali
P – Optovue
Johnstone, MD, Murray A.
C – Sensimed, Ivantis, Alcon Laboratories
O – Healionics, Cascade Ophthalmics
P – Allergan
Kagemann, PhD, FARVO, Larry F.
E – Zeiss, Inc
Kahook, MD, Malik
C – Allergan, Alcon Laboratories
P – Oasis, AMO, Glaukos, ClarVista
Medical
Kardon, MD, PhD, Randy H.
C – Novartis OCTiMS Study Steering
Committee
S – NEI R009040554, R01 EY018853,
Department of Defense, TATRC,
VA Rehabilitation Research and
Development
Katz, MD, Gregory
L – Alcon Laboratories
Katz, MD, L. Jay
C – Glaukos, Mati Therapeutics, Aerie
Pharmaceuticals, Bausch + Lomb,
Inotek Corp., Allergan, ForSight
Visions Inc., Sensimed AG, Alcon
Laboratories
O – Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Mati
Therapeutics
S – Allergan, Bausch + Lomb, Aerie
Pharmaceuticals, Mati Therapeutics
L – Lumenis, Alcon Laboratories,
Allergan
Kaufman, Paul L.
C – Alcon, Allergan, Bausch + Lomb,
Johnson & Johnson, Santen, Merck,
Amakem, AGTC, Refocus, Sucampo,
Zlens
P – WARF
Khatana, MD, Anup K.
C – Iridex, Glaukos, Transcend Medical
Kinast, MD, Robert M.
S – Mobius Therapeutics, Allergan
Kopczynski, PhD, Casey
E – Aerie Pharmaceuticals
Kuchtey, MD, PhD, Rachel
S – American Glaucoma Society,
National Eye Institute
Lee, MD, David A.
L – Alcon Laboratories, Merck
Lee, MD, Olivia L.
C – Allergan
S – Allergan
Levy, OD, MSc, Brian
E – Aerie
Lewis, MD, Richard A.
C – Aerie, Alcon, Allergan, Aquesys,
AVS, Envisia, Glaukos, Ivantis,
Oculeve, PolyActiva, ViSci, Zeiss
Liang, MD, Susan
S – Allergan, Alcon Laboratories,
Transcend Medical
Liebmann, MD, Jeffrey M.
C – Sensimed, Inc., SOLX, Inc., Valeant
Pharmaceuticals, Allergan, Bausch
+ Lomb, Reichert, Inc., Alcon
Laboratories, Diopysis, Inc., Merz
Pharmaceuticals
O – Sustained Nano Systems, LLC
S – National Eye Institute, New York
Glaucoma Research Institute,
Heidelberg Engineering, Sensimed,
Inc., Optovue, Inc., Topcon, Inc.,
Diopysis, Inc., Bausch + Lomb,
Allergan
Liu, PhD, John
C – Bausch + Lomb
Mansberger, MD, MPH, Steve L.
C – Vision5, New World Medical,
Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Santen,
Envisia, Alcon Laboratories, Glaukos
S – MOBIUS, Merck, Allergan
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Mansouri, MD MPH, Kaweh
C – Sensimed AG, Switzerland
Piltz-Seymour, MD, Jody R.
L – Alcon
Mattox, MD, Cynthia
S – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan,
Transcend Medical
Radcliffe, MD, Nathan
C – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan,
Glaukos, Transcend Medical, Iridex
Corporation, Reichert, Endo Optiks
Meadows, PhD, David
O – Sentinel Diagnostic Imaging, Inc.
Medeiros, MD, PhD, Felipe A.
S – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan, Bausch
+ Lomb
Moroi, MD, PhD, Sayoko E.
S – NIH
P – Other, Ellex, Wolters Kluwer Co.
Moster, MD, Marlene R.
S – New World Medical, Glaukos,
Bausch + Lomb, Aerie
L – Mobius, Allergan, TBI, New
World Medical, Merck, Solx, Alcon
Laboratories
Musch, PhD, MPH, David C.
C – Glaukos, InnFocus, Ivantis
Myers, MD, Jonathan
C – Inotek, Allergan, Alcon Laboratories
S – Glaukos, Alcon Laboratories,
Allergan
L – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan
Navas, MD, MSc, Alejandro
C – Carl Zeiss Meditec
L – Alcon Laboratories
Nouri-Mahdavi, MD, MSc, Kouros
C – New World Medical, Allergan
S – Heidelberg
Novack, PhD, Gary D.
C – Aerie, Mati, Teva
Nuyen, MD, Brenda
C – Sensimed AG
Palmberg, MD, PhD, Paul
C – InnFocus, AqueSys, Pfizer, Aurolab
Parekh, MD, MPA, Parag D.
C – Allergan, Alcon Laboratories
L – Allergan, Bausch + Lomb, Alcon
Laboratories
CME Financial Disclosures
Serle, MD, Janet B.
C – Aerie, Ono, Forest,
S – Fovea, Boston Children’s Hospital,
Alcon
Sforzolini, MD, PhD, MBA, Baldo
E – Valeant Pharmaceuticals
Radhakrishnan, MD, Sunita
C – Netra Systems
Sheybani, MD, Arsham
C – AqueSys
Ramulu, MD, MHS, PhD, Pradeep
S – Research to Prevent Blindness,
National Eye Institute
L – Tissue Banks International, Carl Zeiss
Meditec
Shindler, MD, PhD, Kenneth S.
S- NIH, RPB, F M Kirby Foundation
Realini, MD, MPH, Tony D.
C – Alcon Laboratories
S – Lumenis, Alcon Laboratories
Singh, MD, MPH, Kuldev
C – Alcon Laboratories, Transcend
Medical, Ivantis, Aerie, InnFocus,
Allergan, Bausch + Lomb, Santen,
ForSight Vision 5
Rhee, MD, Douglas J.
C – Santen, Transcend Medical, Aerie
S – Ivantis, Merck, Allergan, Alcon
Laboratories
Ritch, MD, Robert
C – iSonic Medical, Sensimed, Aeon
Astron
L – Santen, Inc.
P – Ocular Instruments
Rosdahl, MD, PhD, Jullia
C – Protimage Diagnostics LLC
Saheb, MD, MPH, Hady
C – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan
S – Ivantis
Samuelson, MD, Thomas W.
C – Slack, Inc., QLT, Ono Pharma
USA, Ocular Surgery News, Endo
Optiks, Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,
Transcend, Alcon Laboratories,
AcuMems, Allergan, Abbott Medical
Optics, AqueSys, Glaukos, Santen,
Ivantis, Inotek, Merck
O – Glaukos, AqueSys
L – Alcon Laboratories
Sankar, MD, Prithvi
S – National Eye Institute
Schuman, MD, Joel S.
P – Zeiss
Park, MD, Sung Chul
L – Heidelberg Engineering, GmbH
Sehi, PhD, Mitra
E – Allergon
Petrie, MD, Renée
S – Other
Seibold, MD, Leonard K.
S – Alcon Laboratories, Glaukos, Bausch
+ Lomb
13
Simon-Zoula, PhD, Sonja
E – Sensimed
Sit, SM, MD, Arthur J.
C – Sensimed AG, AcuMEMS, Inc.,
Allergan
S – Glaukos Corp.
Smith, MD, Oluwatosin U.
C – Transcend Medical, Allergan,
Glaukos, Santen
SooHoo, MD, Jeffrey R.
S – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan,
Glaukos, Bausch + Lomb, Regeneron
Spaeth, MD, George L.
S – Merck
L – Allergan, Alcon Laboratories
Stamper, MD, Robert L.
C – SightScience, Inc, Transcent Medical
S – Aerie Pharmaceuticals
Stiles, MD, Michael
S – Glaukos
L – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan,
Neomedix
Sun, MD, PhD, Yang
S – NIH
Tanaka, MD, George H.
L – Alcon Laboratories, Allergan
Tatham, FRCOphth, Andrew J.
S – Heidelberg Engineering
Toris, PhD, Carol B.
S – Bausch + Lomb, Allergan, GSK,
Nicox
14
CME Financial Disclosures
Tsai, MD, MBA, James C.
C – Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Amakem
Turati Acosta, MD, Mauricio
C – New Light, Alcon Laboratories
L – Alcon Laboratories, Sophia
Vittitow, PhD, Jason
E – Bausch + Lomb
Vold, MD, Steven
C – Wavetec Vision, TrueVision Systems,
Iridex
O – Ocunetics
S – Alcon Laboratories, Glaukos,
Carl Zeiss Meditec, SOLX, Ocular
Therapeutix, Forsight Labs, AqueSys,
Allergan, Ivantis, InnFocus, Aeon,
Calhoun Vision, Transcend Medical
L – NeoMedix
Walsh, MD, MPH, Molly M.
C – Synteract
E – Retroject, Inc.
P – Retroject, Inc.
Weinreb, MD, Robert N.
C – Topcon, Alcon Laboratories,
Reichert, Zeiss-Meditec, Allergan,
Aries, Valeant Pharmaceuticals,
Aquesys, Bausch + Lomb
S – Optovue, Heidelberg Engineering,
Konan
Wen, MD, Joanne
S – Research to Prevent Blindness
Wiggs, MD, PhD, Janey L.
C – Genentech
S – NIH, March of Dimes
Williams, MD, Ruth D.
C – Allergan
WuDunn, MD, PhD, Darrell
S – Mati Therapeutics, Aerie
Pharmaceuticals, InnFocus
Yucel, MD, PhD, Yeni H.
C – Bausch + Lomb
S – Glaucoma Research Society of
Canada, Canadian Institute of Health
Research
Zangwill, PhD, Linda
S – Heidelberg Engineering
P – Carl Zeiss Meditec
No Financial Relationships to
Disclose
Abe, MD, Ricardo Y.
Abumasmah, MD, Ramiz K.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Addis, MD, Victoria
Afifi, PhD, Abdelmonem A.
Akula, PhD, Kiran K.
Al Jadan, MD, Ibrahim
Al Shahwan, MD, Sami
Al-Hashimi, MD, Saba
Alexander, MD, David
Alghamdi, MD, Yousef A.
Alhadeff, MD, Paula A.
Ali Aljasim, MD, FRCS, Leyla
Allan, MD, Evan
Allingham, MD, R. Rand
Alomairi, MD, Ahmed
Amin, BE (IT), Samreen
Andrews, PhD, Chris A.
Armour, MD, Rebecca
Arora, MD, Sourabh
Auinger, MS, Peggy
Baker, BS, Laura A.
Banik, MD, Rudrani
Barbosa, Diego T.
Barker, BA, MS, Gordon T.
Barr, MD, MPH, Yael R.
Beck, MD, Allen D.
Bell, MD, Nicholas P.
Bello Lopez-Portillo, MD, Hector H.
Beltran-Agullo, MD, Laura
Bhorade, MD, Anjali
Biggerstaff, MD, Kristin
Blachley, MS, Taylor S.
Blalock, PhD, MPH, Susan J.
Blieden, MD, Lauren S.
Blumberg, MD, Dana
Boland, MD, PhD, Michael V.
Bollinger, MD, PhD, Kathryn
Bora, PhD, Nalini
Brady, MSc, Rachel
Breazzano, MD, Mark P.
Brown, MD, PhD, Ninita
Burnett, MS, Diana K.
Burton, MD, Ryan
Bussel, MD, MHA, Igor
Butler, MD, Michelle R.
Cai, BA, Sophie
Camp, MD, Andrew
Caprioli, MD, Joseph
Carpenter, PhD, MSPH, Delesha
Chadha, MD, Nisha
Chak, MD, Garrick
Chambers, MD, Megan
Chauhan, PhD, Balwantray C.
Chen, MD, Lian
Chen, MD, Philip
Chen, BA, Rebecca I.
Cheng, MBBS, FRCOphth, FEBO, Jason
Chibana, MD, Milena N.
Chien, BS, Jason
Chuang, PhD, Alice Z.
Clemetson, MD, Nashay
Cortes-Alcocer, MD, Claudia
Cowan, MD, PhD, Lisa
Crandall, MD, Alan S.
Cui, MD, PhD, Qi
Cull, B Ag Sci, Grant
Damji, MD, FRCSC, MBA, Karim F.
Dastiridou, MD, PhD, Anna
Dave, BA, Pujan
De Carlo, Talisa
DeBarber, PhD, Andrea
Demirel, BScOptom, PhD, Shaban
Desai, MD, Manishi
Devaprasad, Sam
Ding, PhD, Kai
Dixon, DDS, PhD, S. Jeffrey
Duan, MD, PhD, Xuanchu
Dvorak, BA, Justin D.
Edmunds, MD, PhD, Beth
Edward, MD, Deepak P.
Elam, MD, Angela
Elze, PhD, Tobias
Emanuel, MD, Matthew E.
Eng, BS, David
Escalante-Castañón, MD, Mariana
Evangelista, MD, Charisma
Fechter, MD, Herbert P.
Fingert, MD, PhD, John H.
Frazier, MD, Travis C.
Freedman, MD, Sharon F.
Friedman, MD, MPH, Davis S.
Fukuoka, MD, PhD, Hideki
Funk, MD, PhD, Jens
Galor, MD, Anat
Gamett, MD, Kevin
Garcia, BS, Kathleen
Garcia-Huerta, MD, Magdalena
Gardiner, PhD, Stuart K.
Garris, MD, Winston
Gentile, MD, Ronald C.
Germano, MD, Renato
Gessesse, MD, Girum W.
Ghassibi, BS, Mark
Ghate, MD, Deepta
Giangiacomo, MD, Annette
Gibson, OD, Charles R.
Gil-Carrasco, Director, Félix
Gogte, MD, Priyanka
Gonzalez-Rodriguez, MD, Johanna M.
Gordon, PhD, Mae O.
Gracitelli, MD, Carolina P.
Graue-Hernandez, MD, MSc, Enrique O.
Grillo, BA, Lola M.
Grippo, MD, Tomas M.
Gulati, MD, Vikas
Gupta, MD, Divakar
Gurubaran, MsC, Iswariyaraja S.
Hamid, MD, Mohammad
Han, MD, PhD, Ying
Hansen, MD, Bradley A.
Hariri, PhD, Sepideh
Hark, PhD, Lisa
Hartnett, MD, Mary Elizabeth
He, BS, Xu
Hennein, Lauren
Hernandez-Garciadiego, PhD, Carlos
Hernandez-Oteyza, MD, Alejandra
Hillier, Sian
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Holmes, MD, Jonathan M.
Houghtaling, MD, Paul M.
Hsia, MD, Yen-Cheng
Hsu, MD, Chi-Hsin
Huang, MD, PhD, Alex A.
Hutnik, MD, PhD, Cindy
Idrizovic, DO, Azra
Ing, MD, Eliesa
Isida Llerandi MD, Christina Guadalupe
Ivers, PhD, Kevin
Jarukasetphon, MD, Ravivarn
Jasien, MD, Jessica
Jiang, PhD, Yi Y.
Jiménez-Arroyo, MD, Jesus
Jiménez-Roman, MD, Jesus
Johnson, PhD, Chris A.
Johnson, MPH, Deiana M.
Joos, MD, PhD, Karen M.
Junk, MD, Anna
Kakigi, BA, Caitlin
Kalarn, BS, Sachin
Kamel, MBCHB, Mohammed
Kamour, Abdulbaset
Kang, ScD, Jae H.
Kang, PhD, Min
Kaplowitz, MD, Kevin
Kass, MD, Michael A.
Kassam, MD, Faazil
Kedar, MD, Sachin
Khan, MD, Arif O.
Khanna, MD, Sunil S.
Khodadadeh, MD, Sarah
Kiely, MD, Amanda
Kim, MD, Eun Ah
Kolko, MD, PhD, Miriam
Kooner, MD, Karanjit S.
Kornmann, MD, PhD, Helen
Kramer, PhD, MPH, Jennifer
Kuchar, MD, Sarah
Kuchtey, PhD, John
Kumar, MD, Jaya
Kurji, MD, BScH, Ayaz K.
Lai, Julia
Lasnier, MD, Olivier
Lavieri, PhD, Mariel
Law, AS, Samuel M.
Law, MD, Simon K.
Lazcano-Gómez, MD, Gabriel S.
Ledesma Gil, MD, Jasbeth
Lee, MD, Brian L.
Lee, MD, Daniel
Lee, MD, Ji Woong
Lee, MD, JD, Paul P.
Lee, BS, Roland Y.
Lekakh, BS, Olga
Leske, MS, David A.
Lewis, MD, Andrew
Li, MSc, Cody
Li, BSE, Manqi
Li, PhD, Xilong
Lim, MD, Michele C.
Lin, MD, Shan
Lin, MD, Shuai-Chun
Liu, BSc, Hong
Liu, MD, Ji
Liu, MD, Liang
Liu, BA, Yingna
Loewen, MD, PhD, Nils A
Lombardi, MD, Lorinna
Lowe, MTOM, LAc, Dipl Ac, Dipl CH,
Starrie
Luo, PhD, Na
Lynch, MD, Mary G.
Lyzogubov, MD, PhD, Valeriy V.
Ma, MD, MPH, Kelly
Mai, MD, Derek
Margeta, MD, PhD, Milica
Martinez-Castellanos, MD, Maria Ana
Maslin, MD, Jessica S.
Maurer, MA, Rie
McConnell, BA, Kate H.
Mehta, BS, Nitisha
Melka, MD, Fikru
Menda, MD, Shivali
Miller-Ellis, MD, Eydie
Mills, MD, MPH, Richard P.
Minnal, MD, Vandana
Modak, PhD, Cristina
Molineaux, COA, Jeanne
Morales, MS, Esteban J.
Morrison, MD, John C.
Morshedi, MD, Richard G.
Moss, MD, FRCSC, Edward
Motwani, BS, Anita
Muir, MD, Kelly W.
Mulegeta, MD, Abiye
Naseri, MD, Ayman
Nguyen, MD, Anhtuan
Nguyen, MD, Donna
Nguyen, BS, Thuan
Nicholls, MD, P. J.
Niles, MD, MBA, Philip
Nysather, Deborah M.
Obukhov, PhD, Alexander G.
Otsuka, PhD, Rei
Otto, MD, MMSc, Christian
Owsley, MSPH, PhD, Cynthia
Padilla, BS, Steve M.
Pantcheva, MD, Mina B.
Park, MD, Abraham
Pasquale, MD, Louis R.
Patel, OD, PhD, Nimesh
Patel, BS, Sachi R.
Patel, MD, Shamil S.
Patel, MD, Shuchi
Patthanathamrongkasem, MD, Thipnapa
Perez-Gudiño, MD, Itzel I.
Peterson, MD, Jeffrey
Pickering, MD, Terri-Diann
Ploutz-Snyder, PhD, Robert J.
Plummer, BS, Andrew
Pruzan, MD, Noelle L.
Qiu, MD, Mary
Queen, MD, Joanna
Ramachandran, BA, Rithambara
Ramirez, MS, Nancy
CME Financial Disclosures
15
Ramos-Cadena, MD, Angeles
Rana, MD, Sonia W.
Rao, MD, Veena
Rebong, MD, Rachelle
Reed, PhD, David M.
Reif, PhD, Roberto
Reiss, MD, George R.
Renner, MD, MPH, Morgan
Reynaud, MScE, Juan
Rhodes, MD, Lindsay
Rigi, MD, Mohammed
Rizkalla, PEng, PhD, Amin
Rizzo, MD, Jennifer
Robin, MD, Alan L.
Rockwood, MD, Edward J
Rosen, MD, Peter N.
Rosenberg, MD, Elana
Rosman, BA, Michael
Saboori, MD, Mazeyar
Saeedi, MD, Osamah
Samuels, MD, PhD, Brian C.
Sargsyan, MD, Ashot E.
Sarkisian, Jr., MD, Steven R.
Sayner, PharmD, Robyn
Schehlein, BS, Emily
Schell, MSE, Greggory J.
Schuman, MD, Stefanie G.
Scichilone, BS, John
Seamont, BS, David
Sembhi, MPH, Harjeet K.
Shah, MD, Manjool
Shareef, MD, Shakeel
Sharpe, Elizabeth
Shekhawat, MD, MPH, Nakul
Shen, MD, Lucy Q.
Shukairy, Kareem
Silverman, BA, Anna
Simavli, MD, Huseyin
Skaat, MD, Alon
Skytt, MSc, PhD, Dorte M.
Sleath, PhD, Betsy L.
Slota, BS, Catherine
Smith, PhD, Sylvia B.
Sodhi, MD, Avneet
Sponsel, MD, William
Stein, MD, MS, Joshua D.
Stinnett, DrPH, Sandra
Suhr, MD, Abraham
Sun, MS, Philip
Swain, David
Swamy, MD, MPH, Ramya
Swenor, MPH, PhD, Bonnielin K.
Sy, MD, Aileen
Talwar, MA, Nidhi
Tan, MD, PhD, James C.
Tange, PhD, Chikako
Taniguchi, MD, Elise
Tehrani, MD, PhD, Shandiz
Theventhiran, MD, Alex
Toeteberg-Harms, MD, FEBO, Marc
Trese, MA, Matthew
Trope, PhD, FRCSC, MBBCh, Graham
E.
16
CME Financial Disclosures
Tsikata, PhD, Edem
Tudor, PhD, Gail E.
Turalba, MD, Angela V.
Van Oyen, PhD, Mark
Van Tassel, MD, Sarah
Varma, MD, Rohit
Vazquez, MD, PhD, Luis
Vicchrilli, Sue
Villarreal, MD, Guadalupe
Villarreal Berain, BS, Analaura
Vinod, MD, Kateki
Vithana, PhD, Eranga
Waisbourd, MD, Michael
Wall, MD, Michael
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Wang, BS, Diane
Wang, MD, PhD, Lin
Wang, BS, Linda
Wang, PhD, Ruikang
Wang, BA, Samantha
Wang, BMSc, Wendy (Wan)
Watson, BSc, Kelsey A.
Weizer, MD, Jennifer S.
Welch, DO, Mark
Weldeyes, MD, MSc, Alemayehu
Wellik, MD, Sarah
Werner, MD, Mark A.
White, PhD, MPH, Donna
Whitson, BS, Emily R.
Wier, BS, Garrison P.
Williams, MD, Alice
Winkler, MD, Kathryn
Winkler, BS, Nelson
Winter, MD, Aaron
Wong, MD, PhD, Tien Yin
Woolson, MPH, Sandra
Xu, BS, Chaoying
Yang, PhD, Hongli
Yarovoy, MD, Dmitry
Yu, PhD, Fei
Zhang, PhD, Xinbo
Zhao, MS, Jing
Zhou, PhD, Zhehai
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Meeting Information
Notification
A written, printed, or electronic notice of any annual or special meeting of the Members,
stating the time, place, and purposes thereof, shall be sent to each Member by the
Secretary, or, in the case of his/her death, absence, incapacity or refusal, by a person
designated by the Board of Directors, at least sixty (60) days before the date of the
meeting by leaving such notice with the Members or at his/her residence or usual place
of business, by mailing the same, postage prepaid, directed to him/her at his/her address
at last recorded on the books of the Society, or by electronic communication (e-mail)
directed to an electronic address provided by the Member. Notice of a meeting need not
be given to a Member if such Member, or his/her attorney thereunto duly authorized,
waives such notice by a writing filed with the records of the meeting.
Meeting Objectives
After attending this program, participants should be able to:
• Describe recent medical advances in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of
glaucoma in the United States and the world.
• Discuss different diagnostic and prognostic tools and new clinical research and
advances in glaucoma in order to provide the best possible treatment options and
care to patients.
• Critically evaluate/explain new and traditional types of glaucoma surgery.
• Examine and discuss advances in glaucoma science and implications for glaucoma
therapy.
CME Credit
Accreditation Statement
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas
and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through
the joint providership of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and American
Glaucoma Society. The American Academy of Ophthalmology is accredited by the
ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Credit Designation Statement
The American Academy of Ophthalmology designates this live activity for a maximum
of 23.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit
commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Claim your CME credits using the online form on the AGS website,
www.americanglaucomasociety.net.
Display or Distribution of Materials
The AGS has retained use of the Hotel del Coronado to enable registered members
and guests to participate in Society-sponsored educational and informational activities.
Display or distribution of non-sponsored information or advertising in or on the
property of the meeting facilities, except at exhibit tables and on the notice board,
is prohibited. Violation of this policy will result in confiscation and disposal of the
material. Individuals who violate this policy may be evicted from the premises.
FDA Status Disclaimer
Some material on recent developments may include information on drug or device
applications that are not considered community standard, that reflect indications not
included in approved FDA labeling, or that are approved for use only in restricted
research settings. This information is provided as education only so physicians may be
aware of alternative methods of the practice of medicine, and should not be considered
17
18
Meeting Information
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
endorsement, promotion, or in any way encouragement to use such applications. The
FDA has stated that it is the responsibility of the physician to determine the FDA status
of each drug or device he or she wishes to use in clinical practice, and to use these
products with appropriate patient consent and in compliance with applicable law.
The AGS provides the opportunity for material to be presented for educational purposes
only. The material represents the approach, ideas, statement, or opinion of the presenter
and/or author, not necessarily the only or best method or procedure in every case, nor
the position of the AGS. The material is not intended to replace a physician’s own
judgment or give specific advice for case management. The AGS specifically disclaims
any and all liability for injury or other damages of any kind for any and all claims that
may arise out of the use of any technique demonstrated or described in any material
by any presenter and/or author, whether such claims are asserted by a physician or any
other person.
Photographing and Taping of Exhibits and Program
Attendees wishing to photograph or videotape an exhibit must secure permission from
the exhibiting company before doing so. No portion of the scientific program or posters
may be photographed, audio taped, or videotaped without the express written consent
of the AGS and presenter.
Target Audience
The target audience for the American Glaucoma Society’s 25th Annual Meeting
is glaucoma specialists, ophthalmologists, and researchers, practicing physicians,
ophthalmology residents, and fellows.
Exhibits
Plan to visit the exhibits located in the Crown Room of the Hotel del Coronado.
Exhibiting companies will showcase the newest and most innovative ophthalmic
products and services.
Spouse and Guest Hospitality
The AGS Spouse and Guest Hospitality Room at the Hotel del Coronado will be open
and available for registered spouses and guests as follows:
Thursday, February 26
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Garden Room
Friday, February 27
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Garden Room
Saturday, February 28
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Garden Room
2016 Annual Meeting Program Submissions
For those interested in submitting an abstract for the 2016 Annual Meeting, the
online electronic submission program will be available in August 2015. Please visit the
American Glaucoma Society’s website, www.americanglaucomasociety.net, to submit
an online abstract by the deadline.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Registration Information
Attendance Verification
Attendees must verify their attendance to claim CME credit for attending the 25th
Annual Meeting. Please refer to the CME Credit section in Meeting Information for
more details.
Attendence verification letters will be available at the AGS Registration Desk, located in
the Crystal Continental Foyer of the Hotel del Coronado, from Wednesday, February
25, to Sunday, March 1.
Registration Locations, Speaker Ready Station, and Hours
Registration will be located in the Crystal Continental Foyer from Wednesday, February
25, to Sunday, March 1. Any questions about the meeting, posters, and/or social
functions may be answered at this location. The Speaker Ready Station, located in the
Crystal Room, will be available February 25. Registered participants will receive their
badge and meeting materials at the registration desk. The AGS Registration Desk and
Speaker Ready Station will be open as follows:
Wednesday, February 25
5:00 PM – 8:00 PM
Thursday, February 26
6:00 AM – 6:30 PM
Friday, February 27
7:00 AM – 6:00 PM
Saturday, February 28
7:00 AM – 4:00 PM
Sunday, March 1
7:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Payment of Fees
The AGS accepts cash, checks payable to the AGS, MasterCard, and Visa. We do not
accept American Express.
Social Events
Day/Date/EventTime
Location/Room
Thursday, February 26
Continental Breakfast
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Crown Room
Special Guest Speaker
6:30 PM – 7:00 PM
Ballroom
Welcome Reception**
7:00 PM – 8:30 PM
Sundeck
Morning Yoga*
6:00 AM – 6:50 AM
Executive Room
Continental Breakfast
6:30 AM – 8:00 AM
Crown Room
Gala Reception**
7:00 PM – 8:00 PM
Garden Patio
Gala**
8:00 PM – 10:00 PM
Ballroom
Friday, February 27
Saturday, February 28
Fun Run/Walk*
6:00 AM – 6:50 AMAGS Registration Desk,
Crystal Continental Foyer
Continental Breakfast
7:00 AM – 8:15 AM
Crown Room
7:00AM – 8:15AM Crown Room
Sunday, March 1
Continental Breakfast * Indicates a separate fee for participation
** Not included in free registration for Non-Members, but a ticket may be purchased
19
20
Registration Information
Messages
There will be a message board at the AGS Registration Desk, located in the Crystal
Continental Foyer. Please check for messages.
Posters
Posters will be displayed in the Coronet Room throughout the entire meeting. Please
check the Poster Schedule (p. 107) for listings.
Exhibitors
Exhibitors must check in at the AGS Registration Desk to pick up their packet and
badge(s). One registration packet is provided per exhibiting company.
Registration Amenities
AGS Member/Non-member registration includes printed materials, giveaway item/s,
daily continental breakfasts and breaks, Welcome Reception, and the Gala Reception &
Dinner.
Spouse/Personal Guest registration includes all social events: use of the Spouse/Guest
Hospitality Room, daily continental breakfasts, Welcome Reception, Gala Reception &
Dinner, and the special guest lecture.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Schedule at a Glance
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Schedule at a Glance
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 25TH
TIME
EVENT
LOCATION
5:00 PM – 8:00 PM
Registration & Exhibitor Check-In
AGS Registration Desk
Thursday, February 26th – AGS & NANOS Joint Symposium
6:00 AM – 6:30 AM
Registration AGS Registration Desk
6:00 AM – 7:00 AM
Poster Set-up (1-37)
Coronet
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Breakfast – Exhibit Hall
Crown
7:00 AM – 3:50 PM
Exhibit Hall Viewing
Crown
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM
Poster Viewing (1- 37)
Coronet
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Spouse Guest Hospitality Room
Garden Room
9:30 AM – 10:15 AM
Concierge Visit to Hospitality Room
Garden Rooom
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Poster Session with Authors: Optic Nerve (1-37)
8:00 AM – 8:05 AM
Welcome and Introduction
8:05 AM – 9:42 AM
Section 1 – Glaucoma: The Other Optic Neuropathy
9:42 AM – 10:12 AM
Morning Tea – Exhibit HallCrown
10:12 AM – 11:17 AM
Section 2 – Clinical Differences Between Glaucoma and Other Optic Neuropathies CME *
11:17 AM – 12:32 PM
Section 3 – The Neurology of Glaucoma
12:32 PM – 2:00 PM
Lunch – on your own
2:00 PM – 3:00 PM
Symposium 1 – The Pathogenesis of Optic Neuropathy: Glaucoma vs. the Rest CME
Ballroom
3:00 PM – 3:30 PM
Break – Exhibit Hall
Crown
3:30 PM – 4:30 PM
Paper Presentations 1-5
4:30 PM – 5:30 PM
Symposium 2 – Optic Nerve Imaging: New Parameters and Techniques CME
Ballroom
5:00 PM – 5:45 PM
Poster Tear Down (1-37)
Coronet
5:45 PM – 6:30 PM
Poster Set-up (38-84)
Coronet
6:30 PM – 7:00 PM
Special Guest Speaker Ballroom
7:00 PM – 8:30 PM
Welcome Reception
Sundeck
CME
CME
Coronet
Ballroom
CME
CME
*Ballroom
Ballroom
*Ballroom
Ballroom
Friday, February 27th – Surgery Day
6:00 AM – 6:50 AM
Morning Yoga
6:30 AM -8:00 AM
Continental Breakfast – Exhibit HallCrown
7:00 AM – 6:00 PM
Registration
AGS Registration Desk
7:00 AM – 4:30 PM
Exhibitor Viewing
Crown
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM
Poster Viewing (38-84)
Coronet
* CME credits for Thursday morning sessions 1 through 3 will be provided by NANOS.
Executive Room
23
24
Schedule at a Glance
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Spouse/Guest Hospitality Room
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Poster Session with Authors: Surgery (38-84)
8:00 AM – 8:02 AM
Announcements and Housekeeping
8:02 AM – 8:35 AM
Glaucoma Surgery Day Lecturer – MIGS 2.0
8:35 AM – 9:30 AM
Surgery Day Section 1 – MIGS
9:30 AM – 10:27 AM
Surgery Day Section 2 / Symposium 2 – ASCRS/AGS: Spotlight on Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma CME
Ballroom
10:27 AM – 10:47 AM
Break – Exhibit Hall
Crown
10:47 AM – 11:42 AM
Surgery Day Section 3 – Paper Presentations 6-10
11:42 AM – 11:44 AM
Announcements – Transition to Business Meeting
11:44 AM – 12:04 PM
AGS Annual Business Meeting
12:04 PM – 12:14 PM
Group Photo
12:14 PM – 1:35 PM
Lunch – on your own
1:35 PM – 2:35 PM
Surgery Day Section 4 – Glaucoma Training: At Home and Abroad
2:35 PM – 3:30 PM
Surgery Day Section 5 – Congenital and Secondary Glaucomas: The Science and the Surgeries CME
Ballroom
3:30 PM – 3:50 PM
Break – Exhibit Hall
Crown
3:50 PM – 3:53 PM
Eye Care America Video Presentation
Ballroom
3:53 PM – 4:23 PM
AGS Lecturer – Paying it Forward: New Opportunities for Translational Research and Personalized Care CME
Ballroom
4:23 PM – 4:28 PM Introduction of Innovator Award Ballroom
4:28 PM – 5:33 PM
Surgery Day Section 6 – Tweaks of the Trade: Trab and Tube
5:33 PM – 6:05 PM
Surgery Day Section 7: Surgical Videos
Ballroom
5:30 PM – 6:00PM
Poster Tear-Down (38-84)
Coronet
6:00 PM – 6:30 PM
Poster Set-up (85-124)
Coronet
7:00 PM – 8:00 PM
Gala Reception
Garden Patio
8:00 PM – 10:00 PM
Gala Banquet and Dinner
Ballroom
10:00 PM – 11:00 PM Music by the FlipSide and Dancing
Ballroom
CME
Garden Room
CME
Crown
Ballroom
CME
Ballroom
Ballroom
CME
Ballroom
TBD
CME
CME
Ballroom
Ballroom
Saturday, February 28th
6:00 AM – 6:50 AM
Fun Run/Walk
Beach
7:00 AM – 8:15 AM
Breakfast – Exhibit Hall
Crown
7:00 AM – 4:00 PM
Registration
AGS Registration Desk
7:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Exhibit Viewing
Crown
7:00 AM – 3:30 PM
Poster Viewing (85-124)
Coronet
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Spouse Guest Hospitality Room
Garden Room
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Poster Session with Authors: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies (85-124) CME
Coronet
8:00 AM – 8:05 AM
Announcements
Ballroom
8:05 AM – 9:05 AM
Paper Presentations 11-15
9:05 AM – 10:10 AM
Symposium 3 – Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma – New Insights
10:10 AM – 10:30 AM
Break – Exhibit Hall
10:30 AM – 11:30 AM
Paper Presentations 16-20
CME
CME
CME
Ballroom
Crown
Ballroom
Schedule at a Glance
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
11:30 AM – 12:00 PM
Clinician-Scientist Lecture – Predicting Optic Nerve Head Susceptibility to Glaucoma
12:00 PM – 1:30 PM
Lunch – on your own
1:30 PM – 2:00 PM
Symposium 4 – Innovating the Glaucoma Practice of the Future
2:00 PM – 3:10 PM
Symposium 5 – Functional Impairment in Glaucoma
3:10 PM – 4:10 PM
Paper Presentations 21-25
1:30 PM – 4:30 PM Exhibitor Tear-Down Crown
3:30 PM – 4:15 PM
Poster Tear-Down (85-124)
Coronet
CME
CME
Ballroom
CME
Ballroom
Ballroom
Ballroom
Sunday, March 1st
7:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Registration
AGS Registration Desk
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Breakfast Roundtable Discussions
8:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Conquering Coding and ICD-10, Avoiding PQRS, and VBM Penalties
8:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Super Bowl of Glaucoma Grand Rounds
CME
Crown
CME
CME
Coronet
Tropics
25
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
26
Hotel Map
MEETINGS & EVENTS MAP
Crown Room
Coronet Room
Ballroom
Carousel
Windsor Complex
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American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
History of the AGS
The American Glaucoma Society was founded in 1985 with the stated purpose of
maintaining and improving “the quality of patient care primarily through improvement,
exchange and dissemination of information and scientific knowledge pertinent to
glaucoma and related diseases.”
Although Drs. Douglas Anderson and Jonathan Herschler had organized the very
successful Annual North American Glaucomatologists’ Learning Ensemble (ANGLE)
in the 1970s to provide in-depth focus on glaucoma research topics of mutual interest,
insightful members of the glaucoma community felt that an additional forum for both
clinical and scientific interchange among glaucoma specialists was needed.
In May 1984, Drs. Max Forbes and Bruce Shields began to discuss the concept of an
American glaucoma society. Drs. George Spaeth and Richard Simmons subsequently
were persuaded to join in formalizing this concept and to help organize the AGS. Nine
other leading members of the glaucoma community also were recruited to participate in
this endeavor. An initial meeting of the group took place in Atlanta on November 11,
1984, at which everyone’s full agreement and cooperation was established.
Dr. Simmons prepared a Constitution and Bylaws for the AGS, which was incorporated
in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on August 30, 1985. The 13 founding
members subsequently approved the Constitution and Bylaws in San Francisco,
California, on September 29, 1985. The first elected officers included George L. Spaeth,
President; Richard J. Simmons, Vice-President; Harry A. Quigley, Secretary; and John
Hetherington Jr., Treasurer. The new executive committee met in the spring of 1986,
at which time a list of invitations to 69 charter members was compiled. In 1986, 82
individuals became charter members of the newly formed Society.
In honor and memory of Dr. Charles D. Phelps, one of the founding members and
former chair of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Iowa, who died
in September 1985, the first meeting of the AGS was held in Iowa City, Iowa, in June
1987. Dr. M. Bruce Shields served as chair of the Program Committee for the Society’s
inaugural meeting as well as the next four, and Dr. Stephen Drance delivered the first
AGS Lecture. A Washington Hawthorne tree was planted in Dr. Phelps’ memory and
still stands on the University of Iowa Medical Center campus, just outside of the office
of the Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science.
In Iowa City, Dr. Spaeth quoted Sir Winston Churchill, stating, “We are at the
beginning of the beginning.” Twenty-seven years and 25 meetings later, the AGS has
grown to include over 1200 members and has become one of American ophthalmology’s
premier and most influential subspecialty societies.
27
28
History of the AGS
In Memoriam
David L. Epstein, MD
1944 -2014
(3/4/14)
John Lynn, MD
1930 -2014
(3/25/14)
Jonathan E. Pederson, MD
1947-2014
(6/27/14)
Thirteen Founding Members of
the American Glaucoma Society
George L. Spaeth, MD
Richard J. Simmons, MD
M. Bruce Shields, MD
Max Forbes, MD
Douglas R. Anderson, MD
David G. Campbell, MD
John Hetherington Jr., MD
H. Dunbar Hoskins Jr., MD
Allan E. Kolker, MD
William E. Layden, MD
Charles D. Phelps, MD*
Irvin P. Pollack, MD
Harry A. Quigley, MD
Additional 69 Charter Members
of the American Glaucoma
Society
Robert C. Allen, MD*
Jorge A. Alvarado, MD
Mansour F. Armaly, MD*
Frank S. Ashburn Jr., MD
George S. Baerveldt, MD
Bernard Becker, MD*
Hugh Beckman, MD
C. Davis Belcher III, MD*
A. Robert Bellows, MD
Richard F. Brubaker, MD
Paul A. Chandler, MD*
John S. Cohen, MD
Marshall N. Cyrlin, MD
Gordon R. Douglas, MD, FRCSC
Stephen M. Drance, MD
David K. Dueker, MD
David L. Epstein, MD*
Douglas E. Gaasterland, MD
Joseph S. Haas, MD
*Deceased
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Thomas S. Harbin Jr., MD
Sohan S. Hayreh, MD, DSc
Jonathan Herschler, MD
Elizabeth A. Hodapp, MD
B. Thomas Hutchinson, MD
Murray A. Johnstone, MD
Frederick M. Kapetansky, MD
Michael A. Kass, MD
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
Edwin U. Keates, MD
Theodore Krupin, MD
Carl Kupfer, MD*
Raymond P. LeBlanc, MD
Pei-Fei Lee, MD*
Ralph Z. Levene, MD*
Paul R. Lichter, MD
Alan I. Mandell, MD*
Wayne F. March, MD*
A. Edward Maumenee, MD*
Samuel D. McPherson Jr., MD*
David W. Meltzer, MD, PhD
Donald S. Minckler, MD
Donald J. Morin, MD*
Robert A. Moses, MD*
Paul F. Palmberg, MD, PhD
Richard K. Parrish II, MD
Jonathan E. Pederson, MD*
Edward S. Perkins, MD
Steven M. Podos, MD*
Ronald L. Radius, MD
Kenneth T. Richardson Jr., MD
Thomas M. Richardson, MD
Robert Ritch, MD
Alan L. Robin, MD
Harold G. Scheie, MD*
Arthur L. Schwartz, MD
Bernard Schwartz, MD, PhD*
Marvin L. Sears, MD
Robert N. Shaffer, MD*
Jess A. Smith, MD*
Robert L. Stamper, MD
H. Saul Sugar, MD*
John V. Thomas, MD
E. Michael Van Buskirk, MD
Paul A.Weber, MD
Robert N.Weinreb, MD
Elliot B.Werner, MD
Jacob T.Wilensky, MD
Michael E. Yablonksi, MD, PhD*
Thom J. Zimmerman, MD, PhD*
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
29
AGS Meetings
Date and Location
Honoree
AGS Lecturer
June 11-13, 1987, Iowa City, Iowa
Charles D. Phelps, MD
Stephen M. Drance, MD
December 2-4, 1988, Miami Lakes, Florida
Paul A. Chandler, MD
Richard J. Simmons, MD
July 6-7, 1990, Mackinac Island, Michigan
David Worthen, MD
Richard F. Brubaker, MD
December 12-14, 1991, Coronado, California
H. Saul Sugar, MD
David G. Campbell, MD
July 7-9, 1993, Reykjavik, Iceland
Hans Goldmann, MD
Franz Fankhauser, MD
Bernard Becker, MD
Allan E. Kolker, MD
(Joint meeting with the European Glaucoma Society)
February 2-4, 1995, Key West, Florida
July 30 – August 2, 1996, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Stephen M. Drance, MD
Gordon R. Douglas, MD
(Joint meeting with the Japanese Glaucoma Society)
December 4-6, 1997, Scottsdale, Arizona
Robert N. Shaffer, MD
H. Dunbar Hoskins Jr., MD
February 18-20, 1999, Amelia Island, Florida
W. Morton Grant, MD
Douglas R. Anderson, MD
March 2-4, 2000, San Antonio, Texas
Marvin L. Sears, MD
M. Bruce Shields, MD
March 1-4, 2001, Newport Beach, California
George L. Spaeth, MD
Roger Hitchings, MD
February 28 – March 3, 2002, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Allan E. Kolker, MD
Theodore Krupin, MD
March 6-9, 2003, San Francisco, California
Richard J. Simmons, MD
E. Michael Van Buskirk, MD
March 4-7, 2004, Sarasota, Florida
Douglas R. Anderson, MD
Chris A. Johnson, PhD
March 3-6, 2005, Snowbird, Utah
Richard F. Brubaker, MD
David L. Epstein, MD
March 2-5, 2006, Charleston, South Carolina
E. Michael Van Buskirk, MD
Murray A. Johnstone, MD
March 1-4, 2007, San Francisco, California
Steven M. Podos, MD
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
March 6-9, 2008, Washington, District of Columbia
M. Bruce Shields, MD
Robert Ritch, MD
March 5-8, 2009, San Diego, California
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
Robert N. Weinreb, MD
March 4-7, 2010, Naples, Florida
Robert L. Stamper, MD
Michael A. Kass, MD
March 3-6, 2011, Dana Point, California
Richard P. Wilson, MD
Harry A. Quigley, MD
March 1-4, 2012, New York, New York
Theodore Krupin, MD
Alfred Sommer, MD, MHS
February 28 – March 3, 2013, San Francisco, California
Robert Ritch, MD
Richard K. Parrish II, MD
February 27 – March 2, 2014, Washington, District of Columbia Donald S. Minckler, MD
George Baerveldt, MD
February 26 – March 1, 2015, Coronado, California Paul P. Lee, MD, JD
David L. Epstein, MD 30
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Clinician-Scientist Lecturers &
President’s Award Recipients
AGS Clinician-Scientist Lecturers
The American Glaucoma Society Clinician-Scientist Lecture is given annually by an individual who exemplifies
qualities of excellence in patient care and basic research. This individual is selected by a special committee
of the AGS comprised of past, present, and future AGS Presidents and the AGS Program Chair. The AGS
Clinician-Scientist Lecturer is invited to present a special scientific lecture at the AGS Annual Meeting.
Year
Clinician-Scientist Lecturer
Lecture
2000
Robert N. Weinreb, MD
The Other Outflow Pathway
2001
Paul L. Kaufman, MDGene Therapy for Glaucoma: Anterior and Posterior Segment Targets and Constraints
2002
Harry A. Quigley, MDDo We Really Understand Angle-Closure Glaucoma?
2003
Martin B. Wax, MDRoles of the Immune System in Glaucoma
2004
Wallace L. M. Alward, MDComputer Geeks in the Genome: Bioinformatics
2005
Douglas H. Johnson, MDGlaucoma: Clues from Ultrastructure, Lessons from Epidemiology
2006
George A. Cioffi, MDQuotes, Questions & Quandaries Regarding Optic Nerve Ischemia & Glaucoma
2007
Carl B. Camras, MDSerendipity versus Directed Hypothesis Driven Research in Medical Discovery
2008
Anne L. Coleman, MD, PhD
A Public Health Perspective on Glaucoma
2009
Joseph Caprioli, MD
The Importance of Rates in Glaucoma
2010 David S. Greenfield, MD Unlocking Mysteries in Measurements of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer
2011
Joel S. Schuman, MDAdvances in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
2012 James D. Brandt, MDIs It Real or Is It Artifact? What the Cornea Can Tell Us About Glaucoma
2013
Jeffrey M. Liebmann, MD
The Central Ten Degrees
2014
Janey Wiggs, MD, PhD
Glaucoma Genetics: Families and NEIGHBORs
2015
Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
Predicting Optic Nerve Head Susceptibility to Glaucoma
AGS President’s Award
The recipient of the AGS President’s Award is chosen by the President and approved by a special committee of
the AGS comprised of past, present, and future AGS Presidents and the AGS Program Chair for “significant
contributions to the glaucoma community through his or her scientific achievements, service to the Society,
and/or service to the profession as a whole.”
Year
President’s Award Recipient
Year
President’s Award Recipient
Year
President’s Award Recipient
2003
Ronald L. Fellman, MD
2010
AGS Founding Members:
Douglas R. Anderson, MD
David G. Campbell, MD
Max Forbes, MD
John Hetherington Jr., MD
H. Dunbar Hoskins Jr., MD
Allan E. Kolker, MD
William E. Layden, MD
Charles D. Phelps, MD*
Irvin P. Pollack, MD
Harry A. Quigley, MD
M. Bruce Shields, MD
Richard J. Simmons, MD
George L. Spaeth, MD
2011
Richard P. Mills, MD, MPH
James F. Jorkasky
2012
Joanne Angle*
2013
Cynthia Mattox, MD
2004 Theodore Krupin, MD
2005 B. Thomas Hutchinson, MD
2006 Max Forbes, MD
2007 Bernard Schwartz, MD, PhD*
2008 Glaucoma Foundation
Glaucoma Research Foundation
2009 H. Dunbar Hoskins Jr., MD
William L. Rich III, MD
*Deceased
2014U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (Malvina B.
Eydelman, MD, and Wiley A.
Chambers, MD)
2015 M. Roy Wilson, MD, MS
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
31
Research Fellowship Awards and Programs
The American Glaucoma Society Research Fellowship supports developing new investigators in the field of
glaucoma research. The program is administered by the AGS Research Committee.
The 1997-2014 recipients are listed below. The recipients of the 2015 grants will be announced during the 2015
Annual Business Meeting.
Recipients will be selected each year, although applications for renewals will be considered. To be eligible,
a candidate must have completed, within the past five years, at least one full year of fellowship training in
glaucoma. He or she does not necessarily need to have a faculty appointment, but must be an active or provisional
member of the American Glaucoma Society. For more information, interested individuals may contact the AGS
Administrative Office in San Francisco or visit the AGS website, www.americanglaucomasociety.net.
The American Glaucoma Society congratulates the past recipients of the AGS Research Fellowships in
Glaucoma.
Recipients of the AGS Young Physician Scientist Grants
1997 Deepak P. Edward, MD
1998 Young H. Kwon, MD, PhD
1999 Darrell WuDunn, MD, PhD
2000 Stuart J. McKinnon, MD, PhD
2001 Margaret P. Good, MD
2002 Edward M. Barnett, MD, PhD
2003 Steven L. Mansberger, MD,
MPH
Christopher A. Girkin, MD
Pratap Challa, MD
2004 Christopher A. Girkin, MD
Steven L. Mansberger, MD,
MPH
Douglas J. Rhee, MD
Richard K. Lee, MD, PhD
Shan C. Lin, MD
2005 Camille Hylton, MD
Douglas J. Rhee, MD
Shan C. Lin, MD
Leslie S. Jones, MD
Jeffrey A. Kammer, MD
2006
JoAnn A. Giaconi, MD
Anjali M. Bhorade, MD, MPH
Sameer Imtiaz Ahmad, MD
Molly M. Walsh, MD, MPH
2007
Dana M. Blumberg, MD
John H. Fingert, MD, PhD
Malik Y. Kahook, MD
Rachel W. Kuchtey, MD, PhD
Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD
Arthur J. Sit, MD
2008
Arthur J. Sit, MD
John H. Fingert, MD
Henry Tseng, MD, PhD
Pradeep Y. Ramulu, MD, PhD
Thasarat S. Vajaranant, MD
Rachel W. Kuchtey, MD, PhD
2009 Michael V. Boland, MD, PhD
Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS
2010Brian Christopher Samuels, MD,
PhD
Vikas Gulati, MD
Christopher C. Teng, MD
Molly M. Walsh, MD, MPH
2011
Kathryn E. Bollinger, MD, PhD
Nils A. Loewen, MD, PhD
Kelly W. Muir, MD
Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, MD
Yang Sun, MD, PhD
2012 Yvonne Ou, MD
Lucy Q. Shen, MD
2013 Scott D. Lawrence, MD
James C. H. Tan, MD,
FRCOphth, PhD
Benjamin J. Frankfort, MD, PhD
2014 Shandiz Tehrani, MD, PhD
Derek S. Welsbie, MD
Sung C. Park, MD
32
Research Fellowship Awards and Programs
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Mid-Career Physician-Scientist Awards
These awards are designed to provide an additional source of research funding for investigators between 5 and
20 years out of fellowship. These grants can be competitively renewed for a second year if substantial progress
has been made during the first year. These grants are meant to allow mid-career investigators to conduct initial
new research or continue ongoing research.
As with the AGS research fellowship, the winners of the 2015 Mid-Career Physician-Scientist Awards will be
announced at the Business Meeting.
Recipients of the Mid-Career Physician-Scientist Award
2008 Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH
Douglas J. Rhee, MD
Sanjay G. Asrani, MD
2010 Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD
Anthony D. Realini, MD
2013 Teresa C. Chen, MD
Thasarat S. Vajaranant, MD
Rachel W. Kuchtey, MD, PhD
2009 Edward M. Barnett, MD, PhD
Cynthia L. Grosskreutz, MD,
PhD
Darrell WuDunn, MD, PhD
2011 Anjali Bhorade, MD
Richard K. Lee, MD, PhD
2014 Karen M. Joos, MD, PhD
Shan C. Lin, MD
2012 John H. Fingert, MD
John Danias, MD, PhD
Thank you Alcon, Allergan, and Merck for support of the Research Fellowship Grants in one or both
categories.
Mentoring for Advancement of Physician-Scientists (MAPS) Program
The MAPS Program is a multi-faceted mentoring program of the AGS and predominant in fulfilling the mission
of the organization by supporting glaucoma specialists and scientists to further their careers in science and
research of glaucoma. The funding of this award provides AGS a vehicle to expand its reach to young physicianscientists and focus on providing tools and resources to further their careers as potential leaders in the specialty
of glaucoma care.
Thank you, Allergan, for your continued support of the AGS MAPS Program.
MAPS Award Recipients
2008
Constance O. Okeke MD, MSCE
Pradeep Y. Ramulu, MD, PhD
Zaher H. Sbeity, MD, FEBO
Misha F. Syed, MD
Thasarat S. Vajaranant, MD
Husam Ansari, MD, PhD
Vandana K. Badlani, MD
Annette L. Giangiacomo, MD
Lesya M. Shuba, MD, PhD
Arthur J. Sit, MS, MD
Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS
2009
Kelly W. Muir, MD
Scott J. Fudemberg, MD
Nathan M. Radcliffe, MD
Lucy Q. Shen, MD
Misha F. Syed, MD
Molly M. Walsh, MD
Michael V. Boland, MD, PhD
Nils A. Loewen, MD, PhD
2010 Kathryn E. Bollinger, MD, PhD
Robert T. Chang, MD
JoAnn A. Giaconi, MD
Vikas Gulati, MD
Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, MD,
MSc
Mina B. Pantcheva, MD
Yang Sun, MD, PhD
Derek S. Welsbie, MD
Ta C. Chang, MD
Albert S. Khouri, MD
Mark A. Slabaugh, MD
Ahmad A. Aref, MD
Anand V. Mantravadi, MD
Daniel J. Good, MD
Anna-Maria Demetriades, MD
Benjamin J. Frankfort, MD, PhD
2013
Ta C. Chang, MD
Jullia A. Rosdahl, MD
Alex A. Huang, MD, PhD
Ian P. Conner, MD, PhD
Paula A. Newman-Casey, MD
Marcos Reyes, MD
Brian J. Song, MD
Osamah J. Saeedi, MD
Shuchi B. Patel, MD
2012 Osamah J. Saeedi, MD
Lauren S. Blieden, MD
Yang Sun, MD, PhD
Stella N. Arthur, MD
James C.H. Tan, MD,
FRCOphth, PhD
Benjamin J. Frankfort, MD, PhD
Joseph F. Panarelli, MD
Tomas M. Grippo, MD
Sung Chul Park, MD
2014
Deepta A. Ghate, MD
Ying Han, MD
Alex A. Huang, MD, PhD
Mona A. Kaleem, MD
O’Rese J. Knight, MD
Ian F. Pitha, MD, PhD
Arsham Sheybani, MD
Luis E. Vazquez, MD
Joanne C. H. Wen, MD
Amy D. Zhang, MD
2011
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Research Fellowship Awards and Programs
Recipients of the Bernard Schwartz, MD, Memorial Award
The Bernard Schwartz, MD, Memorial Award was established in 2009 by a generous donation from Dr. Ralph
Levene and Elsevier Publications.
The award is given annually to the top scored paper or poster abstract being presented at the Annual Meeting
by a resident.
2009 Christopher Rodarte, MD
2010 Denise S. Kim, MD
2011 Jennifer S. Huang, MD
2012 Jennifer Hu, MD
2013 Tracy M. Wright, MD
2014 Richard Kaplan, BA
2015 Mary Qiu, MD
33
lecturerS and honoreeS
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Lecturers and Honorees
Honoree
David L. Epstein, MD, MMM, grew up in Chicago, Illinois, and attended Johns
Hopkins University for both undergraduate and medical school, graduating in 1968.
Following an internship at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, he was
a pre-resident fellow in the Howe Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye
& Ear Infirmary (MEEI), Harvard Medical School, from 1969 to 1970. He served as a
flight surgeon at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine in San Antonio, Texas, from
1970 to 1972. From 1973 to 1976, Dr. Epstein completed his residency and a clinical
and research glaucoma fellowship at MEEI. In 1978, Dr. Epstein joined the faculty at
MEEI and Harvard Medical School, and from 1982 to 1991, he served as the Director
of the Glaucoma Consultation Service. After a year as Professor of Ophthalmology at
the University of California at San Francisco, he became Professor and Chairman of the
Department of Ophthalmology at the Duke University School of Medicine in 1992. In
1996, he was named Joseph A. C. Wadsworth Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology. He
received his Masters of Medical Management degree in 2001 from Tulane University
School of Public Health.
Dr. Epstein was a glaucoma clinician and scientist with both clinical and laboratory
research interests. He was also a founder of a Duke “spinoff” glaucoma drug
development company, Aerie Pharmaceuticals (2005). He has over 230 refereed
scientific publications and has received numerous awards. He received the Alcon
Research Institute Award in 1982 and most recently he received Duke University School
of Medicine Medical Alumni Association’s Distinguished Faculty Award (2012) and the
Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Mildred Weisenfeld
Award for Excellence in Ophthalmology (2013). He was President of the Association
for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) from 1992 to 1993, President of
the Chandler-Grant Glaucoma Society from 2004 to 2005, and he was President of the
Association of University Professors of Ophthalmology (AUPO) in 2011.
Dr. Epstein gave many named lectures, some of which are the W. Morton Grant Lecture
(1993), the Jules Stein Lecture (1995), the Robert N. Shaffer Glaucoma Lecture (1995),
the Chandler-Grant Lecture (1997), the Saul Sugar Lecture (2000), the Irving Leopold
Lecture (2002), the American Glaucoma Society Lecture (2005), the Mansour F. Armaly
Lecture (2005), the Florence Teicher Lecture (2005), the F. Bruce Fralick Lecture
(2006), the Hoover Lecture (2008), the John R. Lynn Lecture (2009), the Jose S. Pulido
Endowed Lecture (2009), the Thorpe Lecture (2010), the Kerrison Lecture (2010),
the Irvine Lecture (2011), the ARVO – Weisenfeld Award Lecture (2013), and the
Bettman Lecture (2013). He served on many national Scientific Advisory Boards, often
as Chairman. He had a special interest in fostering M.D. clinician scientists’ careers in
ophthalmology and translating the best in science to the understanding and treatment of
human ocular disease.
David L. Epstein, MD, MMM
37
38
Lecturers and Honorees
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
President’s Award
M. Roy Wilson, MD, MS, was unanimously elected President of Wayne State University
by the Board of Governors on June 5, 2013. He assumed the presidency on August 1,
2013.
Prior to joining Wayne State, Dr. Wilson served as deputy director for strategic scientific
planning and program coordination at the National Institute on Minority Health and
Health Disparities (NIMHD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
As deputy director, Dr. Wilson led the development and implementation of an integrated
system for planning, coordinating, and evaluating the NIH health disparities research
portfolio, in collaboration with the NIH institutes and centers. He also co-chaired
the NIH Common Fund programs: the Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity
Initiative and the National Research Mentoring Network.
M. Roy Wilson, MD, MS
Previously, Dr. Wilson was dean of the School of Medicine and vice president for health
sciences at Creighton University, president of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences
Center, and, concurrently, chancellor of the University of Colorado Denver and chair
of the Board of Directors of University of Colorado Hospital. Immediately prior to
joining NIH, Dr. Wilson chaired the Board of Directors of Charles R. Drew University
of Medicine and Science and was acting president during part of that time. Under Dr.
Wilson’s leadership, the university regained full institutional accreditation and stabilized
its finances.
Dr. Wilson’s research has focused on glaucoma and blindness in populations from the
Caribbean to West Africa. He holds elected memberships in the Institute of Medicine of
the National Academy of Sciences, the International Glaucoma Research Society, and
the American Ophthalmological Society. He has served on the executive committee of
the NIH-funded Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study and currently chairs the Data
Monitoring and Oversight Committee of the NIH-funded Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.
Dr. Wilson was a member of the advisory councils of both NIMHD and the former
National Center for Research Resources, as well as the NIH Director’s Working Group
on Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce.
Dr. Wilson received his undergraduate degree from Allegheny College, an M.S. in
epidemiology from the University of California, Los Angeles, and an M.D. from
Harvard Medical School. He was selected for the list of Best Doctors in America for a
consecutive 14 years by Best Doctors, Inc. and was a finalist for the Los Angeles Business
Journal’s Healthcare CEO of the Year in 2011. His additional honors include the
American Academy of Ophthalmology’s Senior Achievement Award, the Distinguished
Physician Award from the Minority Health Institute, the Herbert W. Nickens Award
from the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the NIH Director’s Award.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Lecturers and Honorees
Surgery Day Lecturer
Ike K. Ahmed, MD, is a fellowship-trained glaucoma, cataract, and anterior segment
surgeon with a practice focus on the surgical management of glaucoma, complex
cataract and intraocular lens complications. He is board certified in ophthalmology
in Canada and the USA, and is an active member of the Canadian Ophthalmological
Society (COS), the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), the American Society
of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS), the Association for Vision and Research
in Ophthalmology (ARVO), the International Society of Glaucoma Surgery (ISGS), the
Canadian Glaucoma Society (CGS), and the American Glaucoma Society (AGS).
Dr. Ahmed has become world renowned for his skills and groundbreaking work in the
diagnosis and surgical treatment of highly complex eye diseases including glaucoma and
surgical complications. He is recognized as being one of the most experienced complex
eye surgeons in the world and has trained numerous surgeons in innovative surgical
techniques. Furthermore, he has been at the leading edge of novel treatments for cataract
surgery and the latest designs in intraocular lens implants. Patients are referred to him
locally, nationally, and from around the world. In 2010, Dr. Ahmed was selected as one
of Canada’s “Top 40 Under 40” – a prestigious national award recognizing significant
achievements at a young age.
Dr. Ahmed has a keen interest in the development of advanced microsurgical techniques
in glaucoma surgery and complicated cataract extraction, and he is actively involved in
research and medical education at a national and international level. He has received
research grants to study glaucoma medications, glaucoma laser and surgical devices/
techniques, angle closure glaucoma, anterior segment and retinal/optic nerve imaging
in glaucoma, cataract surgical techniques and devices, and intraocular lens designs. Dr.
Ahmed has designed innovative glaucoma diamond scalpels for surgery, microsurgical
instrumentation, and devices, implants, and techniques for the management of the
dislocated cataract, iris reconstruction, and glaucoma implant devices. As a result of his
innovative expertise, Dr. Ahmed has been asked to consult for a variety of companies
and manufacturers, especially pertaining to the development of new devices and
technologies.
Course directorships include the Toronto Cataract Course, COS Surgical Teaching
Series, University of Toronto Resident Phaco Course, and AAO and ASCRS NonPenetrating Glaucoma Surgery and Cataract/IOL Courses. He directed the third
International Congress on Glaucoma Surgery in May 2006 in Toronto. He sits on
the editorial boards of Ophthalmology (Associated Editor, Multimedia), Journal of
Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Clinical and Surgical Ophthalmology, Ocular Surgery
News, Cataract and Refractive Surgery Today, and Glaucoma Today, and he is a
reviewer for numerous journals.
Dr. Ahmed has published numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and
has won five film festival awards, three best papers of session, and a poster award at
ASCRS, as well as an ESCRS first place video award and AAO “Best of Show” award.
He has given over 550 scientific presentations thus far in his career, including 19 visiting
professor’s lectures around the world.
He is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto and a Clinical
Assistant Professor at the University of Utah. He is the Research Fellowship Director,
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, and is the Director of the
Glaucoma and Advanced Anterior Segment Surgery (GAASS) fellowship at the
University of Toronto. He has trained glaucoma specialists who are now practicing in
Canada and around the world, as well as residents and medical students. Dr. Ahmed
has a large tertiary glaucoma/cataract practice at Credit Valley EyeCare and Osler
EyeCare in the Greater Toronto Area, and primarily performs surgery at the Credit
Valley Hospital, Mississauga, Ontario, and the Kensington Eye Institute, University of
Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Iqbal Ike K. Ahmed, MD
39
40
Lecturers and Honorees
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Special Guest Lecturer
Christian Otto, MD, MMSc
Dr. Christian Otto, MD, MMSc, is an emergency physician, and an operational space
medicine researcher. He completed his undergraduate degree in exercise physiology
and his medical degree at the University of Ottawa. He completed his residency in
Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario,
and graduate studies in Medical Science (Remote Medicine) at UTMB, Galveston,
TX. Dr. Otto is experienced in remote medicine, high altitude medicine, and polar
medicine having worked in the Canadian High Arctic, and as a medical researcher on
Mount Everest, Mount McKinley and Mount Logan. In addition, Dr. Otto completed
two one-year tours with the United States Antarctic Program, most recently as the
2004–05 Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Physician. Dr. Otto has spent two field
seasons on Devon Island in 2007 and 2008 at the Mars Institute’s analogue research site
conducting space medicine research.
Dr. Otto is also a member of the International Scientific Committee on Antarctic
Research, Expert Group on Human Biology and Medicine, and an advisory board
member of the National Center for Human Performance at the Texas Medical Center.
Dr. Otto is the recipient of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Presidential Citation, and the U.S. Congressional Polar Medal. On May 23, 2008 Dr.
Otto summited Mt. Everest, the world’s highest mountain, via the South Col route.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Lecturers and Honorees
AGS Lecturer
Paul P. Lee, MD, JD, is the F. Bruce Fralick Professor and Chair of the Department
of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the University of Michigan; and Director
of the W.K. Kellogg Eye Center. He has published over 200 papers on glaucoma
and eye care delivery, particularly on understanding and improving eye care. His
research interests include improving access to and the quality of health care, patientcentered care, and exploring the impact of health policy and financing on patients and
populations. Dr. Lee also serves as consultant to the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, on the Board of Directors of the American Board of Ophthalmology, on
the Advisory Committee of the Hoskins Center for Patient Safety and Quality of the
American Academy of Ophthalmology Foundation, and he is a member of the Board
of Governors and Chair of the Foundation of the Association of Research in Vision and
Ophthalmology.
Paul P. Lee, MD, JD
41
42
Lecturers and Honorees
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Clinician-Scientist Lecturer
Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
Claude F. Burgoyne, MD, is a Glaucoma clinician and surgeon, Van Buskirk Chair for
Ophthalmic Research, and Director of the Optic Nerve Head Research Laboratory at
the Devers Eye Institute in Portland, Oregon. After an undergraduate Bachelor of Arts
degree in Architecture and Medical School at the University of Minnesota, he pursued
Ophthalmology residency training at the University of Pittsburgh and Glaucoma
Fellowship training at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospitals in
Baltimore, MD. For twelve years he was Director of Glaucoma Services at the LSU
Eye Center in New Orleans before moving with his collaborative research group to
Devers in 2005. For the past 17 years his laboratory has been NIH funded to study the
effects of aging and experimental glaucoma on the neural and connective tissues of the
monkey optic nerve head within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions. This work now
extends to studying the cell biology of connective tissue remodeling and axonal insult
early in the disease. Building upon its 3D capabilities, his laboratory is also funded to
use spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to visualize and quantify
the deep tissues of the monkey optic nerve head and peripapillary sclera. NIH-funded
collaborations are allowing his laboratory and those of his collaborators to apply these
techniques to human glaucoma patient eyes. The long-term goal of his work is to build
both a clinical science to predict how an individual human optic nerve head will respond
to a given level of intraocular pressure, and the clinical tools to detect and treat that
response.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Lecturers and Honorees
International Recognition Award
Anders Heijl, MD, PhD, is Professor and earlier Chairman at the Department of
Ophthalmology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden.
Professor Heijl is a graduate of the Lund University Medical School, where he also
completed his residency in ophthalmology. He received a PhD from the University
of Lund in 1977 for his early work on computerized perimetry, and later completed
a post-doctoral fellowship under the mentorship of Professor Stephen Drance at the
University of British Columbia. Dr Heijl has served as Chairman at the Department of
Ophthalmology, Malmö University Hospital, since 1990.
Professor Heijl and his research group have invented and developed the Statpac
programs for the Humphrey perimeter, including the now widely used concepts of
Probability Maps, Pattern Deviation, Change Probability Maps, and the Glaucoma
Hemifield Test. The Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm (SITA) was also
developed by his research group, as were the Glaucoma Progression Analysis (GPA )
programs and the VFI index.
Professor Heijl initiated and still serves as Study Director of the Early Manifest
Glaucoma Trial.
Between 1980 and 1996 Anders Heijl served the International Perimetric Society, first as
Scientific Secretary and later as President. Between 2003 and 2008 he served as President
of the Glaucoma Research Society.
He was the chief ophthalmological advisor to the Swedish National Board of Health
and Welfare for 9 years, headed the group of glaucoma experts producing a systematic
literature review on the diagnosis and treatment of open-angle glaucoma for the Swedish
Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, and serves on the board of the
European Glaucoma Society, now as Chairman of EGS National Glaucoma Society
Liaison Committee.
Professor Heijl has published 200 scientific papers, chapters, and books. He has served
as Editor-in-Chief of Acta Ophthalmologica, and on the editorial boards of several
ophthalmic journals.
Dr. Heijl has received scientific awards or delivered invited named lectures in about
twenty instances, and he is an honorary member of the Glaucoma Research Society, the
Finnish Ophthalmological Society, and the South African Glaucoma Society.
Anders H. Heijl MD, PhD
43
44
Lecturers and Honorees
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Innovator Award
Anthony Molteno, FRANZCO, FRCS, MB, graduated in medicine from Cape Town
University in 1962 and specialized in ophthalmology, receiving his Edinburgh Fellowship
in 1968. He took up an ophthalmologist position at Baragwanath Hospital before
moving on to Stellenbosch, where he became Acting Head of Department. In 1977 his
family emigrated to Dunedin, New Zealand, where he was appointed Senior Lecturer in
ophthalmology at the University of Otago. He became Professor in 2002 and Emeritus
Professor in 2012; he retired from clinical and teaching work at the end of 2014 but
continues his research.
Dr. Molteno has earned an international reputation for his research, most notably into
the effects of the Molteno implant, which was the first successful glaucoma drainage
device and remains the “gold standard.”
Anthony C.B. Molteno, FRANZCO, FRCS,
MB
He established and directs the Otago Glaucoma Surgery Outcome Study, which is the
world’s longest ongoing follow-up study into glaucoma surgery. Over 1040 cases with a
Molteno implant and 1070 that had a trabeculectomy at Dunedin Hospital since 1977
are being followed to determine their long-term outcomes. In recent years research has
particularly focused on the immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination
of Molteno implant and trabeculectomy blebs to investigate the relationship between
the clinical behavior and the pathophysiology of the tissue response to draining aqueous
around implants.
Dr. Molteno also developed the M-Sphere orbital implant used following enucleation,
and a method of photoscreening for infants to detect early strabismus and anomalies in
focusing.
He has wide ranging research interests which in recent years include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The clinical use and effect of Avastin
Stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of uveal melanomas
Ultraviolet photography of the living human cornea
Star testing of intraocular lens optical quality
Fourier analysis of digital retinal images in estimation of cataract severity
The histology of the tuatara pineal complex
He has published over 95 articles and seven book chapters.
His work has been acknowledged by numerous international and national honors and
awards including the following:
• the International Society of Glaucoma Surgery medal for outstanding achievement
in 2014
• Emeritus Membership in the Glaucoma Research Society in 2011
• a Distinguished Service Award by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College
of Ophthalmologists in 2009
• the Lion Clubs International Foundation’s Melvin Jones Fellow in 2008
• an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the New Years Honors 2006
• the Goldmann Medal by the International Glaucoma Association for his
significant contribution to the understanding and treatment of glaucoma in 1998
Tony and his wife, Tess, have three children. Life around Tony is never dull—his
registrars get to view the ice caps on Mars through a telescope on his lawn and his
grandchildren do all sorts of exciting things with him, such as viewing amoebae from the
sheep trough through a microscope and being taught how to safely shoot opossums.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Lecturers and Honorees
Humanitarian Award
Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH, graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa
from the University of Pennsylvania, and he received his medical degree from Harvard
Medical School. He completed an ophthalmology residency at the University of
Pennsylvania, Scheie Eye Institute. Dr. Budenz then completed a Heed Foundation
Fellowship in glaucoma at the University of Miami, School of Medicine, where he
subsequently was a faculty member for 17 years. In 2004, he received a Masters in
Public Health from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is the
Kittner Distinguished Professor and Chair of Ophthalmology at the University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Dr. Budenz is an editorial reviewer for numerous medical journals, is on the Editorial
Board of the Journal of Glaucoma, and is the Editor of the Glaucoma issue of Current
Opinion in Ophthalmology. He has been the principal investigator in a number of
clinical trials, including the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Concurrent with
his research, Dr. Budenz has been published widely in the field of glaucoma; he has
authored a textbook, Atlas of Visual Fields, contributed chapters to several other books,
and written or coauthored more than 175 peer-reviewed journal articles.
Dr. Budenz is the recipient of a Golden Apple Award for Best Resident Teacher
(University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine) and has received the teaching award
for Best Course in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at the University
of Miami. He has been a guest lecturer at numerous universities, hospitals, and medical
societies worldwide.
Since 1995, Dr. Budenz has been providing eye care, teaching, research, administrative,
and financial support to several eye clinics in Ghana through his affiliation with
Christian Eye Ministry, which he took over in 2009.
Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH
45
ProGram Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
49
Program Schedule
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 25TH
TIME
EVENT / TITLE
LOCATION / SPEAKER
5:00 PM – 8:00PM
Registration & Exhibitor Check-In
Crystal Continental Foyer
5:00 PM – 9:00 PM
Exhibitor Installation
Crown
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 26TH – AGS & NANOS JOINT SYMPOSIUM
6:00 AM – 6:30 PM
Registration & Exhibitor Check-In
AGS Registration Desk
6:00 AM – 7:00 AM
Poster Set-up (1-37)
Coronet
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Breakfast – Exhibit Hall
Crown
7:00 AM – 3:50 PM
Exhibit Hall Viewing
Crown
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM
Poster Viewing (1-37)
Coronet
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Spouse/Guest Hospitality Room
Garden Room
9:30 AM – 10:15 AM
Concierge Visit to Hospitality Room
Garden Room
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Poster Session with Authors: Optic Nerve (1-37) CME Coronet
Moderators: Thasarat S. Vajaranant, MD; Luis E. Vazquez, MD;
Helen L. Kornmann, MD, PhD; Sayoko E. Moroi, MD, PhD
8:00 AM – 8:02 AM
Announcements
Ballroom
8:02 AM – 8:04 AM
Welcome and Introduction
AGS President – David S. Greenfield, MD
Joint Symposium AGS & NANOS
Ballroom
8:04 AM – 8:05 AM
Housekeeping
Program Chairs: Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH;
Steven J. Gedde, MD
Ballroom
8:05 AM – 9:42 AM
Section 1 – Glaucoma: The Other Optic Neuropathy CME *Ballroom
Helen V. Danesh-Meyer, MD, FRANZCO; Mark L. Moster, MD
IOP and Other Issues in Glaucoma
8:05 AM – 8:10 AM
Introduction – Moderators
Helen V. Danesh-Meyer, MD, FRANZCO
Mark L. Moster, MD
8:10 AM – 8:17 AM
Case: Is It Glaucoma
8:17 AM – 8:25 AM
What Is Glaucoma: Clinically, Functionally, Pathologically?
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
8:25 AM – 8:33 AM
The Role of IOP in Glaucoma
M. Roy Wilson, MD, MS
8:33 AM – 8:41 AM
Is Normal Tension Different than High Tension? Jonathan S. Myers, MD
Phenotypic Differences (VF/Discs)
8:41 AM – 8:49 AM
Vascular Autonomic Dysfunction
Louis R. Pasquale, MD
8:49 AM – 8:57 AM
Genetic/Epidemiologic Factors
Janey Wiggs, MD, PhD
8:57 AM – 9:05 AM
Role of Intracranial Pressure in Glaucoma
Timothy J. McCulley, MD
9:05 AM – 9:13 AM
Miscellaneous (Autoimmune, Scleral Factors/Myopia, Sleep Apnea)
Martin B. Wax, MD
* CME credits for Thursday morning sessions 1 through 3 will be provided by NANOS.
Marlene R. Moster, MD
50
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
9:13 AM – 9:42 AM
Debate: We Should Eliminate the Term
“Normal-Tension Glaucoma”
9:13 AM – 9:20 AM
Pro: Robert N. Weinreb, MD
9:20 AM – 9:27 AM
Con: Robert Ritch, MD
9:27 AM – 9:42 AM
Discussion
9:42 AM – 10:12 AM
Morning Tea – Exhibit HallCrown
10:12 AM – 11:17 AM
Section 2 – Clinical Differences Between Glaucoma and
Other Optic Neuropathies CME *
Helen V. Danesh-Meyer, MD, FRANZCO; Mark L. Moster, MD
Ballroom
10:12 AM – 10:20 AM The Morphological Difference Between Glaucoma and Other Optic Neuropathies
Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
10:20 AM – 11:17 AM Case Presentations and Panel Discussion Peter J. Savino, MD
Valerie Biousse, MD
Anne L. Coleman, MD, PhD
Richard K. Lee, MD, PhD
11:17 AM – 12:32 PM
Section 3 – The Neurology of Glaucoma CME *Ballroom
Helen V. Danesh-Meyer, MD, FRANZCO; Mark L. Moster, MD
11:17 AM – 11:25 AM Glaucoma as a Neurological Disease
Helen V. Danesh-Meyer,
MD, FRANZCO
11:25 AM – 11:33 AM The Visual Brain in Glaucoma and Other Optic Neuropathies
David J. Calkins, PhD
11:33 AM – 11:41 AM What are the Common Neurodegenerative Pathways Relevant to Glaucoma?
Stuart J. McKinnon, MD,
PhD
11:41 AM – 11:49 AM Neuro-protection in Glaucoma: Where Are We Going?
Leonard A. Levin, MD, PhD
11:49 AM – 11:57 AM Is Neuroregeneration a Viable Treatment for Glaucoma?
Jeffrey L. Goldberg, MD,
PhD
11:57 AM – 12:05 PM Mitochondrial Disease and Glaucoma
Alfredo A. Sadun, MD, PhD
12:05 PM – 12:32 PM Debate: Non-IOP Lowering Therapies Will Be
the Future of Glaucoma Management
12:05 PM – 12:18 PM Pro: Harry A. Quigley, MD
12:18 PM – 12:31 PM Con: Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH
12:31 PM – 12:32 PM Discussion
12:32 PM – 2:00 PM
Lunch – on your own
2:00 PM – 3:00 PM
Symposium 1 – The Pathogenesis of Optic Neuropathy: Glaucoma Versus the Rest CME
Richard P. Mills, MD, MPH; Leonard A. Levin, MD, PhD (NANOS)
Ballroom
2:00 PM – 2:08 PM
J. Crawford Downs, PhD
2:08 PM – 2:16 PM
What About Cupping? The Role of Glia in Glaucomatous and Nonglaucomatous Optic
Neuropathies
John G. Flanagan, PhD
2:16 PM – 2:24 PM
Timing Matters: Rescuing Neurons in Acute Versus Chronic Optic Neuropathies
Kenneth S. Shindler, MD
PhD
2:24 PM – 2:32 PM
Is Glaucoma Different in the CNS? Geniculate and Cortical Neuronal Loss
Yeni H. Yucel, MD, PhD
2:32 PM – 2:40 PM
Topographic Differences: Central
Versus Peripheral
Randy H. Kardon, MD, PhD
Changes in the Lamina Cribosa: Glaucoma
Versus Compressive Optic Neuropathy
* CME credits for Thursday morning sessions 1 through 3 will be provided by NANOS.
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
51
2:40 PM – 3:00 PM
Discussion
3:00 PM – 3:30 PM
Break – Exhibit Hall
3:30 PM – 4:30 PM
Paper Presentations 1-5 CME Ballroom
Richard P. Mills, MD, MPH; Lawrence E Kagemann, PhD
3:30 PM – 3:37 PM
A Common Variant of the Gene SIX6 (rs33912345) Is Associated with Global and
Regional Reduction in the Retinal Nerve Fiber
Layer in a Non-glaucomatous Asian Population
3:37 PM – 3:42 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
3:42 PM – 3:49 PM
Angiography of Peripapillary Retina in Glaucoma with 70 kHz Spectral OCT
3:49 PM – 3:54 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
3:54 PM – 4:01 PM
Lamina Cribrosa Position in the Monkey Optic Nerve Transection Model of a
Non-glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy
4:01 PM – 4:06 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
4:06 PM – 4:13 PM
The Prospective Observational Study of Ocular
Health in International Space Station (ISS)
Astronauts: The Visual Impairment Intracranial
Pressure Risk
4:13 PM – 4:18 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
4:18 PM – 4:25 PM
Assessing Optic Nerve Head Drusen Prevalence Mark Ghassibi, BS
in Normal-Appearing Eyes Using Enhanced
Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography
4:25 PM – 4:30 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
4:30 PM – 5:30 PM
Symposium 2 – Optic Nerve Imaging:
New Parameters and Techniques CME
Joseph A. Caprioli, MD; Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH
Ballroom
4:30 PM – 4:38 PM
Definition of the Disc Margin: Does It Matter?
Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
4:38 PM – 4:46 PM
Normal Databases for Imaging: Are They Ethnically Appropriate?
Balwantray C. Chauhan, PhD
4:46 PM – 4:54 PM
Macular Imaging for Glaucoma: Will It Replace the Nerve Head? Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi,
MD, MSc
4:54 PM – 5:02 PM
Structural Parameters to Measure Rates of Damage Felipe A. Medeiros, MD,
PhD
5:02 PM – 5:10 PM
Optic Disc Stereo Photographs: Do They Still Play a Role?
George L. Spaeth, MD
5:10 PM – 5:30 PM
Panel Discussion
5:00 PM – 5:45 PM
Poster Tear Down (1-37)
Coronet
5:45 PM – 6:30 PM
Poster Set-up (38-84)
Coronet
6:30 PM – 7:00 PM
Special Guest Speaker: Christian Otto, MD, MMSc Ballroom
7:00 PM – 8:30 PM
Welcome Reception
Sundeck
Crown
R. Rand Allingham, MD
David Huang, MD, PhD
Kevin Ivers, PhD
Christian Otto, MD, MMSc
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 27TH – SURGERY DAY
6:00 AM – 6:50 AM
Morning Yoga
Executive Room
6:30 AM – 8:00 AM
Continental Breakfast – Exhibit HallCrown
7:00 AM – 6:00 PM
Registration
AGS Registration Desk
7:00 AM – 4:30 PM
Exhibitor Viewing
Crown
52
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM
Poster Viewing (38-84)
Coronet
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Spouse/Guest Hospitality Room
Garden Room
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Poster Session with Authors: Surgery (38-84) CME Crown
Moderators: Robert M. Feldman, MD; Kathryn E. Bollinger, MD, PhD;
Lisa F. Gould, MD, FRCS; Matthew E. Emanuel, MD; Molly M. Walsh, MD
8:00 AM – 8:02 AM
Announcements and Housekeeping
Surgery Day Co-chairs: Michele C. Lim, MD, and Brian A. Francis, MD
Ballroom
8:02 AM – 8:35 AM
Glaucoma Surgery Day Lecturer – MIGS 2.0
Ballroom
8:02 AM – 8:05 AM
Introduction of Glaucoma Surgery Day Lecture Cynthia Mattox, MD
8:05 AM – 8:35 AM
Glaucoma Surgery Day Lecture
8:35 AM – 9:30 AM
Surgery Day Section 1 – MIGS
Ballroom
Moderators: Ahmad Aref, MD; Richard A. Lewis, MD
8:35 AM – 8:42 AM
GATT
Davinder S. Grover, MD,
MPH
8:42 AM – 8:49 AM
Suprachoroidal Shunts
Steven D. Vold, MD
8:49 AM – 8:56 AM
Trabectome
Sameh Mosaed, MD
8:56 AM – 9:03 AM
Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation
Vikas Chopra, MD
9:03 AM – 9:10 AM
TM Outflow Stents
Steven R. Sarkisian Jr., MD
9:10 AM – 9:30 AM
Panel Discussion
9:30 AM – 10:27 AM
Surgery Day Section 2 / Symposium 2 – ASCRS/AGS: Spotlight on Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma CME
AGS Moderators: Ron Gross, MD; Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH
9:30 AM – 9:37 AM
Surgical Management of Pigmentary Glaucoma Reay H. Brown, MD
(Similarities to and Differences from POAG)
9:37 AM – 9:42 AM
iStent Thomas W. Samuelson, MD
9:42 AM – 9:47 AM
Trabectome
Ronald Leigh Fellman, MD
9:47 AM – 9:54 AM
Lens-Related Pigment Dispersion Including Subluxed Cataract and Spherophakia Paul Harasymowycz, MD,
FRCSC
9:54 AM – 10:01 AM
UGH Syndrome Douglas J. Rhee, MD
10:01 AM – 10:05 AM Video Case Studies (1 of 3)
Garry P. Condon, MD
10:05 AM – 10:09 AM Video Case Studies (2 of 3)
Brian A. Francis, MD
10:09 AM – 10:13 AM Video Case Studies (3 of 3)
Marlene R. Moster, MD
10:13 AM – 10:27 AM Panel Discussion
10:27 AM – 10:47 AM
Break – Exhibit Hall
10:47 AM – 11:42 AM
Surgery Day Section 3 – Paper Presentations 6 -10 CME Ballroom
Moderators: Kelly W. Muir, MD; Janet B. Serle, MD
10:47 AM – 10:54 AM
10:54 AM – 10:58 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
10:58 AM – 11:05 AM Using a Flow Test to Predict Early Post-
operative Hypertensive Phase Following
Ahmed Valve Implantation
11:05 AM – 11:09 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
CME
Iqbal Ike K. Ahmed, MD
CME
24-Month Results from a Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study of a Schlemm’s
Canal Microstent for IOP Reduction After
Cataract Surgery in Open-Angle Glaucoma
Ballroom
Crown
Thomas W. Samuelson, MD
Edward Moss, MD, FRCSC
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Corneal Decompensation Following Glaucoma Drainage Device Implantation: An Experimental Model to Evaluate
Nutritional Theory
53
11:09 AM – 11:16 AM
Ramesh Ayyala, MD, FRCS,
FRCOphth
11:16 AM – 11:20 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
11:20 AM – 11:27 AM Two-Center Three-Year Follow-up of a Micro-Lumen Aqueous Humor Shunt
11:27 AM – 11:31 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
11:31 AM – 11:38 AM Use of a 45-µm Ab interno Subconjunctival Gel-stent with Adjunctive Mitomycin C for
the Treatment of Uncontrolled Open-Angle
Glaucoma
11:38 AM – 11:42 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
11:42 AM – 11:44 AM
Announcements – Transition to Business Meeting
11:44 AM – 12:04 PM
AGS Annual Business Meeting
12:04 PM – 12:14 PM
Group Photo
12:14 PM – 1:35 PM
Lunch – on your own
1:35 PM – 2:35 PM
Surgery Day Section 4 – Glaucoma Training: At Home and Abroad
Moderators: Beth E. Edmunds, MD, PhD; Robert L. Stamper, MD
1:35 PM – 1:43 PM
Introduction: Resident and Fellow Glaucoma Surgeries – The Numbers and the Future?
Dale K. Heuer, MD
1:43 PM – 1:51 PM
Resident Glaucoma Surgery Training in an Organized Fashion
Steven J. Gedde, MD
1:51 PM – 1:59 PM
The Aravind Eye Hospital Training Alan L. Robin, MD
1:59 PM – 2:07 PM
Orbis: Training the Trainers Using Telemedicine James D. Brandt, MD
2:07 PM – 2:15 PM
The Sandwich Fellowship: Training Specialists Abroad
2:15 PM – 2:23 PM
Incorporating New Surgeries into Your Practice Darrell WuDunn, MD, PhD
2:23 PM – 2:35 PM
Panel Discussion
2:35 PM – 3:30 PM
Surgery Day Section 5 – Congenital and Secondary Glaucomas: The Science and the Surgeries CME
Martha M. Wright, MD; Jennifer Somers Weizer, MD
Ballroom
2:35 PM – 2:42 PM
Surgery for Primary Congenital Glaucoma Allen Dale Beck, MD
2:42 PM – 2:49 PM
Glaucoma Surgery in the Nanophthalmic Eye Paul F. Palmberg, MD, PhD
2:49 PM – 2:56 PM
Uveitis
Shan C. Lin, MD
2:56 PM – 3:03 PM
Neovascular Glaucoma Pratap Challa, MD
3:03 PM – 3:10 PM
ICE Syndrome
Paul A. Sidoti, MD
3:10 PM – 3:30 PM
Panel Discussion
3:30 PM – 3:50 PM
Break – Exhibit Hall
Crown
3:50 PM – 3:53 PM
Eye Care America Video Presentation
Ballroom
3:53 PM – 4:23 PM
AGS Lecturer – Paying it Forward: New Opportunities for Translational Research and Personalized Care
Ballroom
3:53 PM – 3:58 PM
Introduction David S. Greenfield, MD
3:58 PM – 4:23 PM
AGS Lecture Paul P. Lee, MD, JD
4:23 PM – 4:28 PM
Introduction of Innovator Award – Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH
Recipient: Anthony C. B. Molteno, FRANZCO, FRCS, MB
Paul F. Palmberg, MD, PhD
Iqbal Ike K. Ahmed, MD
TBD
CME
Ballroom
Karim F. Damji, MD
Ballroom
54
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
4:28 PM – 5:33 PM Surgery Day Section 6 – Tweaks of the Trade: Trab and Tube
Edward J. Rockwood, MD; Mark B. Sherwood, MD
4:28 PM – 4:35 PM
4:35 PM – 4:42 PM
Role of Death Messengers in Bleb Function
Anthony C. B. Molteno,
FRANZCO, FRCS, MB
4:42 PM – 4: 49 PM
Trabeculectomy in the Progressing Low Pressure Patient
Philip Chen, MD
4:49 PM – 4:56 PM
Point-Counterpoint: Trabeculectomy With Ex-Press is the Better Technique
Leon W. Herndon Jr., MD
4:56 PM – 5:03 PM
Point-Counterpoint: Trabeculectomy Without Ex-Press is the Better Technique
Mark B. Sherwood, MD
5:03 PM – 5:10 PM
Has the ABC or the AVB Study Changed My Tube Preference?
JoAnn A. Giaconi, MD
5:10 PM – 5:17 PM
Glaucoma Drainage Device: My Top 5 Complications
5:17 PM – 5:33 PM
5:33 PM – 6:05 PM
Surgery Day Section 7: Surgical Videos CME Ballroom
Nathan M. Radcliffe, MD; Teresa C. Chen, MD
5:30 PM – 6:00 PM
Poster Tear-Down (38-84)
Coronet
6:00 PM – 6:30 PM
Poster Set-up (85-124)
Coronet
7:00 PM – 8:00 PM
Gala Reception
Garden Patio
8:00 PM – 10:00 PM
Gala Banquet and Dinner
Ballroom
10:00PM – 11:00 PM
Music by the FlipSide and Dancing
Ballroom
CME
Ballroom
The Living Bleb: Clinical Applications of Cytokines and Bleb Survival
Jeffrey Freedman, MD, PhD
Herbert P. Fechter, MD, PE
Panel Discussion
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 28TH
6:00 AM – 6:50 AM
Fun Run/Walk
Beach
7:00 AM – 8:15 AM
Breakfast – Exhibit Hall
Crown
7:00 AM – 4:00 PM
Registration
AGS Registration Desk
7:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Exhibit Viewing
Crown
7:00 AM – 3:30 PM
Poster Viewing (85-124)
Coronet
8:30 AM – 10:30 AM
Spouse/Guest Hospitality Room
Garden Room
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Poster Session with Authors: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies (85-124) CME
Moderators: Pratap Challa, MD; Prithvi S. Sankar, MD;
Ruth D. Williams, MD; Alex A. Huang, MD, PhD
Coronet
8:00 AM – 8:05 AM
Announcements
Ballroom
8:05 AM – 9:05 AM
Paper Presentations 11-15
Ballroom
Nathan M. Radcliffe, MD; Don Budenz, MD, MPH
8:05 AM – 8:12 AM
New OCT System Shows Collector Channels Rapidly Open & Close with Pressure Changes:
A Factor in the Persistent Distal Resistance
After MIGS?
8:12 AM – 8:17 AM
Discussion/Practical Applications
8:17 AM – 8:24 AM
Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time Imaging of Physiologic Comprehensive Aqueous Humor
Outflow
8:24 AM – 8:29 AM
CME
Discussion/Practical Applications
Murray A. Johnstone, MD
Alex A. Huang, MD, PhD
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
8:29 AM – 8:36 AM
Association Between Progressive Retinal Nerve
Fiber Layer Loss and Longitudinal Change in
Quality of Life in Glaucoma
8:36 AM – 8:41 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
8:41 AM – 8:48 AM
The Proportion of Individual Eyes Demonstrating Spectral Domain Optical
Coherence Tomography Change in Early
Experimental Glaucoma and Its Eye-Specific
Character
8:48 AM – 8:53 AM
Discussion/Practical Applications
8:53 AM – 9:00 AM
Association Between Dark-to-Light Changes in Anterior Chamber Angle Width and Iris
Configuration in Dark, Light, and Dark-toLight Conditions
9:00 AM – 9:05 AM
Discussion/Practical Applications
9:05 AM – 10:10 AM
Symposium 3 – Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma: New Insights
Neeru Gupta, MD, PhD, MBA; Arthur J. Sit, SM, MD
9:05 AM – 9:13 AM
How Well Does IOP Relate to Glaucoma? Jeffrey M. Liebmann, MD
9:13 AM – 9:21 AM
Tracking IOP – Mean, Peak, Fluctuation? What Matters Most
Anthony D. Realini, MD
9:21 AM – 9:29 AM
How Does Perfusion Pressure Relate to IOP and Glaucoma?
Alon Harris, PhD
9:29 AM – 9:37 AM
How Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Relate to IOP and Glaucoma?
R. Rand Allingham, MD
9:37 AM – 9:45 AM
Rethinking Aqueous Outflow Pathways
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
9:45 AM – 9:53 AM
Do We Need a New Goldmann Equation? Arthur J. Sit, SM, MD
9:53 AM – 10:10 AM
Panel Discussion
10:10 AM – 10:30 AM
Break – Exhibit Hall
10:30 AM – 11:30 AM
Paper Presentations 16-20 CME Ballroom
Steven L. Mansberger, MD, MPH; Mitra Sehi, PhD
10:30 AM – 10:37 AM
10:37 AM – 10:42 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
10:42 AM – 10:49 AM
10:49 AM – 10:54 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
10:54 AM – 11:01 AM Results from the First Teleglaucoma Pilot Study Sourabh Arora, MD
in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
11:01 AM – 11:06 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
11:06 AM – 11:13 AM Association Between Hysterectomy & Oophorectomy and Glaucoma Prevalence
in the United States
11:13 AM – 11:18 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
11:18 AM – 11:25 AM Primary Cilia Signaling Mediates Intraocular Pressure Sensation
11:25 AM – 11:30 AM Discussion/Practical Applications
CME
Carolina P. Gracitelli, MD
Hongli Yang, PhD
Shan C. Lin, MD
Ballroom
Disparities in Utilization of Glaucoma Testing Among Enrollees in Medicaid and Those with
Commercial Health Insurance and How They
Vary by Race
The Impact of Educational Workshops on Individuals at Risk for Glaucoma in the
Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and
Treatment Project
Crown
Angela Elam, MD
Michael Waisbourd, MD
Mary Qiu, MD
Yang Sun, MD, PhD
55
56
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
11:30 AM – 12:00 PM
Clinician-Scientist Lecture – Predicting Optic Nerve Head
Susceptibility to Glaucoma
Ballroom
11:30 AM – 11:35 AM Introduction of Clinician-Scientist Lecture
Christopher A. Girkin, MD,
MSPH
11:35 AM – 12:00 PM Clinician-Scientist Lecture Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
12:00 PM – 1:30 PM
Lunch – on your own
1:30 PM – 2:00 PM
Symposium 4 – Innovating the Glaucoma Practice of the Future
Cynthia Mattox, MD; Ronald L. Fellman, MD
1:30 PM – 1:35 PM
Implications of the Elimination of the Surgical Global Period
Ronald L. Fellman, MD
1:35 PM – 1:39 PM
IRIS Registry to Report and Improve Quality Care
Cynthia Mattox, MD
1:39 PM – 2:00 PM
Panel Discussion: Glaucoma Care Delivery:
Now and in the Future
2:00 PM – 3:10 PM
Symposium 5 – Functional Impairment in Glaucoma CME Ballroom
Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD; Pradeep Y. Ramulu, MD, PhD
2:00 PM – 2:07 PM
Should My Patient Still Be Driving?
Cynthia Owsley, MSPH, PhD
2:07 PM – 2:14 PM
Are Standard Visual Fields and Acuity Enough to Measure Disability from Glaucoma?
Chris A. Johnson, PhD
2:14 PM – 2:21 PM
When Does Glaucoma Start Affecting a
Person’s Function?
Rohit Varma, MD, MPH
2:21 PM – 2:28 PM
Why Is My 20/20 Patient Complaining of Reading Difficulty?
Bonnielin K. Swenor, MPH
2:28 PM – 2:35 PM
How Do We Incorporate Information About Function into Treatment
Anjali Bhorade, MD
2:35 PM – 2:42 PM
Improving the Lives of Our Patients Who Have George L. Spaeth, MD
Already Lost Vision: Can We Do More?
2:42 PM – 2:49 PM
New Strategies for Assessment of Functional Impairment
2:49 PM – 3:10 PM
Panel Discussion
3:10 PM – 4:10 PM
Paper Presentations 21 – 25 CME Ballroom
Rachel W. Kuchtey, MD, PhD; George A. Cioffi, MD
3:10 PM – 3:17 PM
Impact of the Introduction of Generic Latanoprost on Glaucoma Medication
Adherence
3:17 PM – 3:22 PM Discussion/Practical Applications
3:22 PM – 3:29 PM
Characteristics of Patients Who First Present with Severe Stage Glaucoma
3:29 PM – 3:34 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
3:34 PM – 3:41 PM
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Analyses of Age and Intraocular Pressure Effects on
Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell
Complex Thickness
3:41 PM – 3:46 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
3:46 PM – 3:53 PM
Are We Inadvertently Accelerating Glaucoma? Douglas J. Rhee, MD
Benzalkonium Chloride Penetration Studies and
Its Effect on Outflow Facility and Trabecular
Meshwork Cellularity
3:53 PM – 3:58 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
CME
Ballroom
Ruth D. Williams, MD
David G. Godfrey, MD
Brian L. Lee, MD
Michael V. Boland, MD, PhD
Peter Rosen, MD
Joshua D. Stein, MD
Victoria Addis, MD
Xinbo Zhang, PhD
Program Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
3:58 PM – 4:05 PM
Intraretinal Changes Revealed by Two-Photon Microscopy in an Optineurin Normal Pressure
Glaucoma Mouse Model
4:05 PM – 4:10 PM
Discussion/Practical Applications
1:30 PM – 4:30 PM
Exhibitor Tear-Down
Crown
3:30 PM – 4:15 PM
Poster Tear-Down (85-124)
Coronet
57
Garrick Chak, MD
SUNDAY, MARCH 1ST
7:00 AM – 11:00 AM
Registration
AGS Registration Desk
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM
Breakfast Roundtable Discussions
MIGS 1
Andrew C. S. Crichton, MD,
FRCS
Alan S. Crandall, MD
Maximizing Use of an Electronic Health Record in a Glaucoma Practice
Michael V. Boland, MD, PhD
James D. Brandt, MD
MIGS 2
Hady Saheb, MD
Nils A. Loewen, MD, PhD
My Top Two Disasters Anastasios P. Costarides,
MD, PhD
Paul F. Palmberg MD, PhD
New Developments in OCT Imaging for Glaucoma: Update on the Macula Robert T. Chang, MD
C. Gustavo V. De Moraes,
MD
Management of Tube Complications Robert D. Fechtner, MD
Herbert P. Fechter, MD, PE
The Prevention of Complications from Trabeculectomy Simon K. Law, MD
James C. Tsai, MD
Would My Patient Benefit From Genetic Testing? John H. Fingert, MD, PhD
Janey Wiggs, MD, PhD
8:00 AM – 11:00 AM Workshops
Conquering Coding and ICD-10, Avoiding PQRS, and VBM Penalties Sue Vicchrilli, COT, OCS; Ronald L. Fellman, MD;
Cynthia Mattox, MD
Coronet
Super Bowl of Glaucoma Grand Rounds
Dale K. Heuer, MD; Eydie G. Miller-Ellis, MD;
Jody R. Piltz-Seymour, MD
Tropics
CME
Crown
CME
SymPoSia
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
61
Symposia
AGS & NANOS Joint Symposium
Thursday, February 26th
Co-chairs:
Christopher A. Girkin, MD, MSPH
Changes in the Lamina Cribosa:
Glaucoma Versus Compressive
Optic Neuropathy
J. Crawford Downs, PhD
What About Cupping? The Role of Glia
in Glaucomatous and Nonglaucomatous
Optic Neuropathies
John G. Flanagan, PhD
Steven J. Gedde, MD
Timing Matters: Rescuing Neurons in
Acute Versus Chronic Optic
Neuropathies
Kenneth S. Shindler, MD, PhD
Is Glaucoma Different in the CNS?
Geniculate and Cortical Neuronal Loss
Symposium 1
The Pathogenesis of Optic Neuropathy:
Glaucoma Versus the Rest
Moderator
Richard P. Mills, MD, MPH
Moderator
Leonard A. Levin, MD, PhD – (NANOS)
Summary
Glaucoma differs pathophysiologically from other optic
neuropathies in several important ways, while retaining
similarities based on a final common pathway of tissue damage.
Our speakers will cover changes in the lamina cribrosa, the role
of glia in cupping and optic atrophy, the different requirements
for rescue in chronic versus acute neuropathies, the changes in
the CNS downstream from the site of damage, and lessons we
can learn from topographic differences in visual field damage.
Yeni H. Yucel, MD, PhD
Topographic Differences:
Central Versus Peripheral
Randy H. Kardon, MD, PhD
62
Symposia
Paper Presentations 1-5
Moderator
Richard P. Mills, MD, MPH
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Symposium 2
Optic Nerve Imaging:
New Parameters and Techniques
Moderator
Joseph A. Caprioli, MD
Moderator
Lawrence E. Kagemann, PhD
Moderator
Donald L. Budenz, MD, MPH
A Common Variant of the Gene SIX6
(rs33912345) Is Associated with Global
and Regional Reduction in the Retinal
Nerve Fiber Layer in a Non-glaucomatous
Asian Population
R. Rand Allingham, MD
Angiography of Peripapillary Retina in
Glaucoma with 70 kHz Spectral OCT
David Huang, MD, PhD
Summary
This symposium will review and compare the efficacies of
contemporary and emerging imaging techniques used to make
measurements of structural damage from glaucoma.
Definition of the Disc Margin:
Does It Matter?
Claude F. Burgoyne, MD
Lamina Cribrosa Position in the Monkey
Optic Nerve Transection Model of a
Non-glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy
Kevin Ivers, PhD
The Prospective Observational Study of
Ocular Health in International Space
Station (ISS) Astronauts: The Visual
Impairment Intracranial Pressure Risk
Normal Databases for Imaging:
Are They Ethnically Appropriate?
Balwantray C. Chauhan, PhD
Macular Imaging for Glaucoma:
Will It Replace the Nerve Head?
Christian Otto, MD, MMSc
Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, MD, MSc
Assessing Optic Nerve Head Drusen
Prevalence in Normal-Appearing Eyes
Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical
Coherence Tomography
Structural Parameters to Measure
Rates of Damage
Mark Ghassibi, BS
Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD
Optic Disc Stereo Photographs:
Do They Still Play a Role?
George L. Spaeth, MD
Symposia
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Glaucoma Surgery Day
63
Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation
Vikas Chopra, MD
Friday, February 27th
Co-chairs:
TM Outflow Stents
Michele. C. Lim, MD
Steven R. Sarkisian Jr., MD
Brian A. Francis, MD
Surgery Day Section 2 / Symposium 2
ASCRS/AGS: Spotlight on Pigment
Dispersion Glaucoma
Surgery Day Section 1 – MIGS
Moderator
Ron Gross, MD
Moderator
Ahmad Aref, MD
Moderator
Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH
Moderator
Richard A. Lewis, MD
Summary
Summary
Microinvasive glaucoma surgical procedures currently
provide a pivotal option for the treatment of glaucomatous
optic neuropathy. The field is rapidly evolving to incorporate
innovative technologies, techniques, and devices. This session
aims to discuss current indications, surgical techniques, and
available outcome data of various MIGS procedures.
GATT
Davinder S. Grover, MD, MPH
The surgical approach to pigment dispersion glaucoma requires
individualized therapy based on the presence of active pigment
release and the anatomical findings resulting in pigment
dispersion. Current studies and literature are insufficient to guide
decision making. The impact on the potential glaucoma damage
progression must be taken into account.
Surgical Management of Pigmentary
Glaucoma (Similarities to and Differences
from POAG)
Reay H. Brown, MD
iStent
Suprachoroidal Shunts
Thomas W. Samuelson, MD
Steven D. Vold, MD
Trabectome
Sameh Mosaed, MD
Lens-Related Pigment Dispersion
Including Subluxed Cataract and
Spherophakia
Paul Harasymowycz, MD, FRCSC
64
Symposia
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
UGH Syndrome
Two-Center Three-Year Follow-up of a
Micro-Lumen Aqueous Humor Shunt
Douglas J. Rhee, MD
Paul F. Palmberg, MD, PhD
Video Case Studies (1 of 3)
Use of a 45-µm Ab Interno
Subconjunctival Gel-stent with Adjunctive
Mitomycin C for the Treatment of
Uncontrolled Open-Angle Glaucoma
Garry P. Condon, MD
Iqbal Ike K. Ahmed, MD
Video Case Studies (2 of 3)
Brian A. Francis, MD
Surgery Day Section 4 –
Glaucoma Training: At Home and Abroad
Video Case Studies (3 of 3)
Moderator
Marlene R. Moster, MD
Beth E. Edmunds, MD, PhD
Moderator
Robert L. Stamper, MD
Surgery Day Section 3 –
Paper Presentations 6-10
Moderator
Kelly W. Muir, MD
Moderator
Janet B. Serle, MD
24-Month Results from a Prospective,
Randomized, Multicenter Study of a
Schlemm’s Canal Microstent for IOP
Reduction After Cataract Surgery in
Open-Angle Glaucoma
Thomas W. Samuelson, MD
Using a Flow Test to Predict Early
Post-Operative Hypertensive Phase
Following Ahmed Valve Implantation
Edward Moss, MD, FRCSC
Corneal Decompensation Following
Glaucoma Drainage Device Implantation:
An Experimental Model to Evaluate
Nutritional Theory
Ramesh Ayyala, MD, FRCS, FRCOphth
Summary
This symposium is relevant to all glaucoma specialists whether
involved in formal teaching training programs, overseas outreach
settings, mentorship, or their own continued professional
development. It starts with an overview of current glaucoma
fellowship training in the United States, addresses how to
structure a good resident experience, and ends with a highly
relevant section on adopting new surgical techniques into
established practices. We also gain insights into specialist
training elsewhere in the world, such as the Aravind experience
and the remit of organizations such as Orbis in the training of
surgeons in developing countries.
Introduction: Resident and Fellow
Glaucoma Surgeries –
The Numbers and the Future?
Dale K. Heuer MD
Resident Glaucoma Surgery Training in
an Organized Fashion
Steven J. Gedde, MD
The Aravind Eye Hospital Training
Alan L. Robin, MD
Symposia
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Orbis: Training the Trainers Using
Telemedicine
65
Neovascular Glaucoma
Pratap Challa, MD
James D. Brandt, MD
The Sandwich Fellowship:
Training Specialists Abroad
ICE Syndrome
Paul A. Sidoti, MD
Karim F. Damji, MD
Incorporating New Surgeries into
Your Practice
Darrell WuDunn, MD, PhD
Surgery Day Section 6 –
Tweaks of the Trade: Trab and Tube
Moderator
Edward J. Rockwood, MD
Surgery Day Section 5 –
Congenital and Secondary Glaucomas:
The Science and the Surgeries
Moderator
Moderator
Mark B. Sherwood, MD
Martha M. Wright, MD
Moderator
Jennifer Somers Weizer, MD
Summary
Speakers will discuss the best surgical approach to uncommon,
complex, or intractable glaucomas. Surgery for congenital
glaucoma, inflammatory glaucoma, neovascular glaucoma,
and ICE syndrome will be covered. Special considerations for
glaucoma surgery in the nanophthalmic eye will be examined.
Surgery for Primary Congenital
Glaucoma
Allen Dale Beck, MD
Summary
Successful outcomes from glaucoma filtering procedures rely
on a combination of complex biological and technical factors
involved in the procedure and subsequent wound healing
following surgery. This session will address some of these issues.
Factors related to filtering bleb development and survival will
be explored. Different surgical techniques and patient selection
for filtering procedures involving trabeculectomy and tube shunt
devices will be debated and discussed.
The Living Bleb: Clinical Applications of
Cytokines and Bleb Survival
Jeffrey Freedman, MD, PhD
Role of Death Messengers in Bleb
Function
Anthony C. B. Molteno, FRANZCO, FRCS, MB
Glaucoma Surgery in the
Nanophthalmic Eye
Paul F. Palmberg, MD, PhD
Trabeculectomy in the
Progressing Low Pressure Patient
Philip Chen, MD
Uveitis
Shan C. Lin, MD
66
Symposia
Trabeculectomy with Ex-Press Is the
Better Technique
Leon W. Herndon Jr., MD
Trabeculectomy Without Ex-Press
Is the Better Technique
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Saturday, February 28th
Paper Presentations 11-15
Moderator
Nathan M. Radcliffe, MD
Mark B. Sherwood, MD
Has the ABC or the AVB Study Changed
My Tube Preference?
Moderator
Don Budenz, MD, MPH
JoAnn A. Giaconi, MD
Glaucoma Drainage Device: My Top 5
Herbert P. Fechter, MD, PE
New OCT System Shows Collector
Channels Rapidly Open & Close with
Pressure Changes: A Factor in the
Persistent Distal Resistance After MIGS?
Murray A. Johnstone, MD
Surgery Day Section 7 –
Surgical Video Symposium
Moderator
Nathan M. Radcliffe, MD
Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time
Imaging of Physiologic Comprehensive
Aqueous Humor Outflow
Alex Huang, MD, PhD
Association Between Progressive Retinal
Nerve Fiber Layer Loss and Longitudinal
Change in Quality of Life in Glaucoma
Carolina P. Gracitelli, MD
Moderator
Teresa C. Chen, MD
The Proportion of Individual Eyes
Demonstrating Spectral Domain Optical
Coherence Tomography Change in Early
Experimental Glaucoma and Its EyeSpecific Character
Hongli Yang, PhD
Summary
Glaucoma surgical techniques are rapidly evolving. This forum
will allow surgeons to share insight, tips, and tricks they use to
enhance surgical outcomes.
Association Between Dark-to-Light
Changes in Anterior Chamber Angle
Width and Iris Configuration in Dark,
Light, and Dark-to-Light Conditions
Shan C. Lin, MD
Symposia
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Symposium 3
Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma:
New Insights
67
Paper Presentations 16-20
Moderator
Steven L. Mansberger, MD, MPH
Moderator
Neeru Gupta, MD, PhD, MBA
Moderator
Mitra Sehi, PhD
Moderator
Arthur J. Sit, SM, MD
Disparities in Utilization of Glaucoma
Testing Among Enrollees in Medicaid and
Those with Commercial Health Insurance
and How They Vary by Race
Summary
Cutting edge information will be presented on the relationship
between IOP and glaucoma, and on parameters that influence
the disease, including perfusion pressure and cerebrospinal
fluid pressure. Current thinking about aqueous outflow and its
measurement will be considered in the context of the recently
discovered “uveolymphatic” outflow pathway.
How Well Does IOP Relate to Glaucoma? Jeffrey M. Liebmann, MD
Angela Elam, MD
The Impact of Educational Workshops on
Individuals at Risk for Glaucoma in the
Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and
Treatment Project
Michael Waisbourd, MD
Results from the First Teleglaucoma Pilot
Study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Sourabh Arora, MD
Tracking IOP – Mean, Peak, Fluctuation?
What Matters Most Anthony D. Realini, MD
Association Between Hysterectomy &
Oophorectomy and Glaucoma
Prevalence in the United States
Mary Qiu, MD
How Does Perfusion Pressure Relate to
IOP and Glaucoma?
Primary Cilia Signaling Mediates
Intraocular Pressure Sensation
Alon Harris, PhD
Yang Sun, MD, PhD
How Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Relate to IOP and Glaucoma?
R. Rand Allingham, MD
Do We Need a New Goldmann Equation?
Arthur J. Sit, SM, MD
Rethinking Aqueous Outflow Pathways
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
68
Symposia
Symposium 4
Innovating the Glaucoma Practice
of the Future
Implications of the Elimination of the
Surgical Global Period
Ronald L. Fellman, MD
Registry to Report and Improve
Quality Care
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Summary
Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual impairment and disability.
Although a variety of functional and structural tests are available
to diagnose and monitor the disease, there is little understanding
of how the results of these tests are related to the ability of
patients to perform everyday tasks such as driving or reading.
This presentation will discuss currently available methods to
assess functional impairment, their limitations, and also new
work on this area.
Should My Patient Still Be Driving?
Cynthia Owsley, MSPH, PhD
Cynthia Mattox, MD
Panel Discussion: Glaucoma Care
Delivery: Now and in the Future
Panelist
Ruth D. Williams, MD
Panelist
David G. Godfrey, MD
Panelist
Brian L. Lee, MD
Panelist
Michael V. Boland, MD, PhD
Are Standard Visual Fields and
Acuity Enough to Measure Disability
from Glaucoma?
Chris A. Johnson, PhD
When Does Glaucoma Start Affecting a
Person’s Function?
Rohit Varma, MD, MPH
Why Is My 20/20 Patient Complaining of
Reading Difficulty?
Bonnielin K. Swenor, MPH
How Do We Incorporate Information
About Function into Treatment
Anjali Bhorade, MD
Improving the Lives of Our Patients
Who Have Already Lost Vision:
Can We Do More?
George L. Spaeth, MD
Symposium 5
Functional Impairment in Glaucoma
Moderator
Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD
Moderator
Pradeep Y. Ramulu, MD, PhD
New Strategies for Assessment of
Functional Impairment
Peter Rosen, MD
Symposia
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Paper Presentations 21-25
Moderator
Rachel W. Kuchtey, MD, PhD
Moderator
George A. Cioffi, MD
69
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional
Analyses of Age and Intraocular Pressure
Effects on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and
Ganglion Cell Complex Thickness
Xinbo Zhang, PhD
Are We Inadvertently Accelerating
Glaucoma? Benzalkonium Chloride
Penetration Studies and Its Effect on
Outflow Facility and Trabecular
Meshwork Cellularity
Douglas J. Rhee, MD
Impact of the Introduction of Generic
Latanoprost on Glaucoma Medication
Adherence
Joshua D. Stein, MD
Characteristics of Patients Who First
Present with Severe Stage Glaucoma
Victoria Addis, MD
Intraretinal Changes Revealed by TwoPhoton Microscopy in an Optineurin
Normal Pressure Glaucoma Mouse Model
Garrick Chak, MD
70
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Breakfast Roundtables
MIGS 1
MIGS 2
Andrew C. S. Crichton, MD, FRCS
Hady Saheb, MD
Alan S. Crandall, MD
Nils A. Loewen, MD, PhD
Summary
Summary
A review of which procedures are included in microinvasive
glaucoma surgery.
Discussion will focus on integrating MIGS into clinical
practice, with a focus on suitable patients, intraoperative
considerations, and post-operative follow-up.
This roundtable will allow clarification of the expanding
indications for MIGS, and discussion on how to integrate MIGS
into the ophthalmologist’s armamentarium. Surgical pearls and
challenges will be discussed. Participants will better understand
which categories of MIGS are available to patients in the United
States, and which are investigational.
Maximizing Use of an Electronic Health
Record in a Glaucoma Practice
My Top Two Disasters
Michael V. Boland, MD, PhD
Anastasios P. Costarides, MD, PhD
James D. Brandt, MD
Paul F. Palmberg, MD, PhD
Summary
Summary
This session will provide practical examples of how electronic
health records can be used to care for glaucoma patients.
Discussion will focus on the management of longitudinal data
and on the management of structural and functional information
regarding the optic nerve. Participants will also be allowed to
discuss issues specific to their own practices.
Cases of complications of glaucoma surgery will be presented.
Intraoperative complications such as suprachoroidal hemorrhage
will be presented, with discussion of management options. Cases
of late postoperative problems such as chronic hypotony and
tube shunt exposure-related endophthalmitis will be presented.
Management options for the effective reversal of hypotony and
the reduction of tube exposure risk will be discussed.
Breakfast Roundtables
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
New Developments in OCT Imaging for
Glaucoma: Update on the Macula
71
Prevention of Complications from
Trabeculectomy
Robert T. Chang, MD
Simon K. Law, MD
C. Gustavo V. De Moraes, MD
James C. Tsai, MD
Summary
Summary
This presentation on spectral domain OCT for glaucoma will
cover an update on macular imaging, practical tips for using
OCT to make diagnostic decisions, how to avoid pitfalls when
interpreting the images, and serial OCT imaging for assessing
glaucoma progression.
Trabeculectomy is believed by some to be not as safe,
predictable, or efficacious as other glaucoma surgeries
(tubes, shunts, and MIGS), with a steep learning curve. In
this roundtable discussion, we would like to introduce ways
to reduce complications, discuss techniques to improve
predictability, and explore the role of trabeculectomy in the
midst of different glaucoma surgeries.
Management of Tube Complications
Robert D. Fechtner, MD
Would My Patient Benefit from
Genetic Testing?
John H. Fingert, MD, PhD
Herbert P. Fechter, MD, PE
Janey Wiggs, MD, PhD
Summary
Tube surgery is an essential tool for the glaucoma surgeon
but, as with other glaucoma procedures, can have early or late
complications. This roundtable will discuss common and notso-common complications of tube surgery and explore multiple
options for management of these complications.
Summary
Genetic tests are increasingly available and may provide
physicians and their patients with powerful information.
However, it is important to differentiate between cases where
testing has clinical utility for individual patients and cases where
testing has research utility as part of population-based studies.
Specific cases where genetic testing might be most useful in a
glaucoma practice will be discussed.
72
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Workshops
Conquering Coding and ICD-10,
Avoiding PQRS, and VBM Penalties
Superbowl of Glaucoma Grand Rounds
Summary
Summary
Customized for glaucoma specialists, this intensive three-hour
course will address CPT and Category III changes, PQRS, VBM,
and ICD-10-CM knowledge and implementation.
Moderators:
Sue Vicchrilli, COT, OCS
The Super Bowl of Glaucoma Grand Rounds at the AGS
Annual Meeting is an inclusive, interactive session during which
attendees present and discuss challenging glaucoma cases. Over
the course of the morning, we cover a remarkable amount
of content, learning from each other as we discuss the cases,
the pertinent literature, and our clinical experiences. Five to
eight cases are typically presented, and all attendees, including
provisional members, are encouraged to submit a case for
possible inclusion in the grand rounds. All are invited to attend
and participate in the lively discussion.
Moderators:
Dale K. Heuer, MD
Cynthia Mattox, MD
Eydie G. Miller-Ellis, MD
Ronald L. Fellman, MD
Jody R. Piltz-Seymour, MD
PaPer abStractS
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
75
Paper Abstracts
Paper Presentations 1-5: Neurology
1 A Common Variant of the Gene SIX6 (rs33912345)
Is Associated with Global and Regional Reduction
in the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in a Nonglaucomatous Asian Population
R RAND ALLINGHAM1, Tin Aung2,
Eranga Vithana2, Michael Hauser1,
Tien Yin Wong3, Ching-Yu Cheng2
1
Duke University
2 Singapore Eye Research Institute
3 National University of Singapore
Purpose/Relevance
POAG is a complex inherited trait.
Recently, a common genetic variant of
the gene SIX6, rs33912345 (Asn141His), has been identified
that is highly associated with POAG-risk. This variant affects
ocular development in the zebrafish model and is associated with
reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in POAG
cases. We have examined the effect of this variant on RNFL
thickness in a non-glaucomatous Singapore Chinese population.
Methods
Study subjects were enrolled within the Singapore Chinese Eye
Study (SCES), a population-based survey of Singaporean Chinese
aged 40 years or older. Subjects underwent a comprehensive
ocular examination according to a standardized protocol.
SD-OCT was used to measure RNFL thicknesses. Genotyping
of SIX6 rs33912345 was performed using Illumina exome array
(HumanExome BeadChip v1.0).
Results
A total of 2,096 eyes from 1,222 SCES subjects (mean age:
55.0±7.4 years) with rs33912345 genotype data and SD-OCT
images were included for the analysis after glaucoma cases
(21) were excluded. The allele frequency of rs33912345 risk
variant C (His141) was 80%. Each rs33912345 risk allele was
associated with a 1.39 um decrease in mean RNFL thickness,
after adjusting for age, gender, genetic principal components,
and axial length (P = 0.001). The strongest association was
observed in the superior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.76 μm in
RNFL per risk allele, P < 0.001) followed by the inferior RNFL
sector (a decrease of 2.16 μm per risk allele, P = 0.004). There
was no significant difference in RNFL related to genotype in the
nasal and temporal sectors.
Discussion
The common SIX6 POAG-risk variant, rs33912345, is
associated with global reduction in the mean RNFL thickness in
the Singaporean Chinese population without glaucoma. RNFL
changes were confined to the superior and inferior sectors, which
are classically affected in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This
suggests that this genetic variant in addition to increasing of
POAG also reduces RNFL in a large number of the population
at large, including persons that will never be diagnosed with
glaucoma in their lifetimes. Further studies are needed to
determine how this variant, as well as other SIX6 variants,
induce changes in RNFL and how SIX6 variants affect those not
known to have glaucoma.
Conclusion
The common variant of SIX6 that is present in 80% of Asians
and a large percent of all other populations not only increases
risk of POAG but also affects the eyes of those who will never
be diagnosed with glaucoma. This is likely the first variant to
be discovered that will alter the manner in which we calculate
POAG risk as well as refine the way we assess ocular health in
years to come.
Reference
1. Ulmer Carnes M, Liu YP, Allingham RR, Whigham BT, Havens S,
et al.; Hauser MA. Discovery and functional annotation of SIX6
variants in primary open-angle glaucoma. PLoS Genet 10(5):
e1004372. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004372, 2014.
76
Paper Abstracts: Neurology
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
2 Angiography of Peripapillary Retina in Glaucoma
with 70-kHz Spectral OCT
HUANG1,
Jia1,
Liu1,
DAVID
Yali
Liang
Beth Edmunds1, Lorinna Lombardi1,
Rebecca Armour1, Ellen Davis1, John
Morrison1
1
Casey Eye Institute-OHSU
Purpose/Relevance
To detect peripapillary perfusion defect
in glaucoma using optical coherence
tomography (OCT) angiography.
Methods
One eye of each study participant was imaged using a highspeed (70 kHz) 840 nm wavelength spectral OCT system
(RTVue-XR, Optovue, Inc). The optic disc region was scanned
twice using a 3x3 mm volumetric angiography scan. The
split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography (SSADA)
algorithm was used.1 The peripapillary region was defined
as a 700µm wide elliptical annulus outside the disc. En face
angiogram of the retinal circulation was obtained by maximum
flow (decorrelation value) projection. The peripapillary flow
index was defined as the average decorrelation value on the en
face retinal angiogram.2,3 The vessel density was defined as the
percentage area occupied by vessels.
Results
The study included 28 normal and 12 glaucoma participants.
In the normal eye, a dense microvascular network around disc
was visible on OCT angiography (Fig. 1B). This network was
visibly attenuated globally and focally in glaucomatous eyes (Fig.
1F). In normal participants, the between-visit reproducibility
and population variability of peripapillary retina flow index/
vessel density were 4.3%/2.7% and 9.9%/3.8% coefficient of
variation, respectively. The flow index in the glaucoma group
was 0.066 ± 0.012 (mean ± SD), lower (P<0.001 Wilcoxon
rank-sum test) than the normal group (0.082 ± 0.008). The
vessel density in the glaucoma group (80.6% ±11.1%) was lower
(P<0.001) than the normal group (92.9% ± 3.1%). Both flow
index (Pearson’s R = -0.808) and vessel density (R= -0.835) were
highly and significantly (p=0.001) correlated with visual field
pattern standard deviation in the glaucoma group. The area
under the receiver operating curve for differentiating normal and
glaucoma eyes was 0.869 and 0.917 for flow index and vessel
density, respectively.
Discussion
Using OCT angiography implemented on a commercial system,
glaucomatous reduction in peripapillary retinal perfusion could
be visualized as focal defects and quantified as flow index and
vessel density with high reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion
OCT angiography could be useful in the clinical evaluation of
glaucoma and glaucoma progression. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
References
1. Jia Y, Tan O, Tokayer J, Potsaid BM, Wang Y, Liu JJ, Kraus
MF, Subhash H, Fujimoto JG, Hornegger J, Huang D. Splitspectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical
coherence tomography. Opt Express 2012;20:4710-4725. PMCID:
PMC3381646.
2. Jia Y, Morrison JC, Tokayer JM, Tan O, Lombardi L, Baumann
B, Lu CD, Choi WJ, Fujimoto JG, Huang D. Quantitative OCT
angiography of optic nerve head blood flow. Biomedical Opt
Express 2012. PMCID: PMC3521313.
3. Jia Y, Wei E, Wang X, Zhang X, Morricson JC, Parikh M,
Lombardi LH, Gattey DM, Armour RL, Edmunds B, Kraus
MF, Fujimoto JG, Huang D. Optical coherence tomography
angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma. Ophthal
2014;121:1322-1332.
Paper Abstracts: Neurology
77
78
Paper Abstracts: Neurology
3 Lamina Cribrosa Position in the Monkey Optic
Nerve Transection Model of a Non-glaucomatous
Optic Neuropathy
KEVIN IVERS1, Eliesa Ing1, Hongli
Yang1, Stuart Gardiner1, Juan
Reynaud1, Grant Cull1, Lin Wang1,
Claude Burgoyne1
1
Devers Eye Institute
Purpose/Relevance
To test the hypothesis that longitudinally
detected, Spectral Domain Optical
Coherence Tomography (SDOCT)
posterior lamina cribrosa deformation will not occur in monkey
optic nerve transection (ONT). Methods
Both eyes of 5 adult monkeys underwent SDOCT imaging
3-5 times at baseline, then biweekly following unilateral ONT
surgery for 1.5 to 2 months, when animals were sacrificed as per
their primary study. The internal limiting membrane and Bruch’s
Membrane Opening (BMO) were delineated in 48 ONH B-scans
from each pre and post-ONT imaging session. Global ONH
minimum rim width (MRW) and RNFL thickness (RNFLT - 12°
circular scans) were calculated and compared to their baseline
95% Confidence (95% CI) to determine change. The anterior
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
laminar cribrosa surface (ALCS) was delineated within the
baseline and pre-sacrifice SDOCT data sets. Pre-sacrifice ALCS
depth relative to a BMO reference plane (ALCSD)1 was then
compared to its baseline 95% CI to determine ALCSD change.
Results
SDOCT data for 2 ONT animals (M1 and M2) have been
analyzed. Pre and post-ONT global MRW, RNFLT and ALCSD
data (pre-sacrifice only) for both eyes of each animal are shown
in Figure 1. Representative ONT eye baseline and pre-sacrifice
SDOCT B-scans from each animal are shown in Figure 2. Presacrifice percent change in MRW and RNFLT was -31.3% and
-45.0% for M1 and -25.2% and -41.4% for M2, respectively.
Pre-sacrifice ALCSD was unchanged from baseline in both the
ONT and Control eyes of both animals. Discussion
In 2 recent monkey studies, SDOCT detected posterior lamina
cribrosa deformation prior to RNFLT change following chronic
experimental IOP elevation1 but failed to demonstrate lamina
cribrosa deformation 2 years following chronic experimental
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure lowering.2 Assuming our
findings are confirmed in all 5 ONT animals, we propose
that posterior laminar deformation should be included in the
definition of a glaucomatous1 vs. non-glaucomatous2 optic
neuropathy in the monkey eye.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Conclusion
In a preliminary analysis of 2 ONT animals, while SDOCT
MRW and RNFLT demonstrated profound change within the
ONT eyes, ALCSD was unchanged from baseline at 51 (M1)
and 49 (M2) days post transection. Data for all 5 animals will be
presented at the meeting.
References
1. He, et al. IOVS 2014;55:574-586.
2. Yang, et al. IOVS 2014;55:3067-3073. Paper Abstracts: Neurology
79
80
Paper Abstracts: Neurology
4 The Prospective Observational Study of Ocular
Health in International Space Station (ISS)
Astronauts: The Visual Impairment Intracranial
Pressure Risk
CHRISTIAN OTTO1, Yael Barr2, Robert
Ploutz-Snyder1, Rachel Brady3, Charles
Gibson4, David Alexander5, Ashot
Sargsyan3, Nimesh Patel6, Kathleen
Garcia3, Brian Samuels7
1
Universities Space Research Association
The University of Texas Medical Branch
3 Wyle Science, Technology & Engineering
4 Coastal Eye Associates
5 NASA Johnson Space Center
6 The University of Houston
7 University of Alabama at Birmingham
2
Purpose/Relevance
Following space flight, 70% of tested ISS astronauts have
manifested signs of altered eye structure and function; 32%
with disc edema. Similar to glaucoma, the leading hypothesis
involves an elevated translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG);
but unique to space flight, this is believed to be precipitated by
increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This study prospectively
characterized the changes in astronaut eye structure and function
across the three phases of an ISS space flight.
Methods
Five astronauts were recruited. Ocular coherence tomography,
ocular ultrasound, vision testing, funduscopy, and intraocular
pressure (IOP) were collected pre-, post- and inflight monthly
over each six-month mission. Cycloplegic refraction and axial
biometry were collected pre- and postflight.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
One astronaut developed disc edema. On average, the 5 subjects’
ONS diameter increased inflight (6.28±0.32mm, p<0.0001),
compared to preflight (5.89±3.24mm), and returned towards
preflight levels postflight (6.01± 0.32mm, p=0.28). Retinal artery
peak systolic velocity was elevated inflight (15.92±1.64cm/s,
p<0.0001) and postflight (13.27±1.72cm/s, p<0.011) compared
to preflight (10.66±1.78cm/s). Mean IOP was unchanged inflight
(13.95±0.55mmHg, p=0.19) from preflight (14.44±0.63mmHg),
but was lower postflight (12.78±0.58mmHg, p<0.0001).
Average circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL)
increased inflight (104.66±2.71µm, p<0.0001) from preflight
(101.42± 2.75µm), and remained higher postflight (105.78±
2.73µm, p<0.0001). Circumpapillary choroidal thickness also
increased inflight (228.44± 21.67µm, p<0.0001) and was higher
postflight (203.10±21.77µm, p=0.094) compared to preflight
(193.90±21.88µm). Axial length remained unchanged; however
uncorrected distance vision improved inflight compared to
preflight, and remained improved postflight. Cycloplegic
refraction preflight (-1.50± 0.55D) to postflight (-1.22± 0.56D)
revealed a 0.27 Diopter shift (p<0.003).
Discussion
Elevated inflight ONS diameter and increased retinal artery
velocity reflect an elevated pressure within the ONS and likely
contributes to the altered TLPG causing RNFL thickening.
Choroidal thickness increased inflight, and trended toward
persisting postflight, contributing to a hyperopic shift and an
improvement in visual acuity in the four myopes.
Conclusion
Significant alterations to astronaut eye structure and function
occur with exposure to microgravity and are believed to be the
result of chronically elevated ICP and changes in the TLPG.
Reference
1. Otto C. Risk of microgravity-induced visual impairment and
elevated intracranial pressure (VIIP). Washington, DC: BiblioGov,
2013.
Paper Abstracts: Neurology
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
5 Assessing Optic Nerve Head Drusen Prevalence
in Normal-Appearing Eyes Using Enhanced Depth
Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography
MARK GHASSIBI1,2, Jason Chien1,2,
Ramiz Abumasmah1, Jeffrey
Liebmann3,4, Robert Ritch1, Sung
Chul Park1,6
1
Moise and Chella Safra Advanced Ocular
Imaging Laboratory, Einhorn Clinical
Research Center, New York Eye and Ear
Infirmary
2 George Washington University School of
Medicine and Health Sciences
3 Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
4 Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Medical Center
5 Einhorn Clinical Research Center, New York Eye and Ear
Infirmary
6 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Purpose/Relevance
To investigate the prevalence of optic nerve head drusen (ONHD)
in normal-appearing eyes using enhanced depth imaging (EDI)
optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to associate the
presence of ONHD with axial length, age, and gender.
Methods
Serial horizontal and vertical EDI OCT scans (interval between
scans, ~30 µm) of the optic nerve head were obtained on both
eyes of normal subjects. EDI OCT scans were assessed for
Figure 1
81
ONHD by an experienced observer. Signs of ONHD were
defined as hyper-reflective bands perpendicular to the OCT beam
with or without a signal-poor core, as previously reported.1
Isolated very short hyper-reflective bands were categorized as
suspected ONHD. Associations of ONHD with axial length,
age, and gender were assessed.
Results
Among 130 normal subjects with both eyes scanned, ONHD
were detected in at least one eye in 18 subjects (13.8%). Of these
18 subjects, 15 (11.5%) showed short horizontal hyper-reflective
bands with no signal-poor core, and 3 (2.3%) showed a signalpoor core surrounded by hyper-reflective bands. Four (3.1%)
of 130 subjects showed very short hyper-reflective bands only
(ONHD suspects). There were no significant differences in age
(44 vs 39 years, p=0.22) or gender proportion (56% vs 51%
female; p=0.72) between ONHD and non-ONHD subjects.
Axial length was measured in both eyes of 70 out of 130
subjects. Of these 140 eyes, the mean axial length of eyes with
ONHD (12 eyes; 23.5±0.8 mm) was significantly shorter than
that of eyes without ONHD (128 eyes; 24.7±1.5 mm) (p=0.007).
A decrease in axial length by 1 mm increased the odds of ONHD
two-fold (OR=2.00 [CI, 1.15-3.49]; p=0.015).
Discussion
Using EDI OCT, results yielded a higher ONHD prevalence
(13.8%) than previously reported (0.3-3.7%).2,3 A significant
association between ONHD and shorter axial length is
consistent with the hypothesis that ONHD occurs more often in
small, crowded optic nerve heads.
82
Paper Abstracts: Neurology
Conclusion
Subclinical ONHD may be more prevalent than previously
believed, especially in eyes with shorter axial length.
References
1. Merchant KY, Su D, Park SC, et al. Enhanced depth imaging
optical coherence tomography of optic nerve head drusen.
Ophthalmology 2013;120:1409-14.
2. Auw-Haedrich C, Staubach F, Witschel H. Optic disk drusen. Surv
Ophthalmol 2002;47:515-32.
3. Davis PL, Jay WM. Optic nerve head drusen. Semin Ophthalmol
2003;18:222-42.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Paper Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Paper Presentations 6-10: Surgery
6 24-Month Results from a Prospective,
Randomized, Multicenter Study of a Schlemm’s
Canal Microstent for IOP Reduction After
Cataract Surgery in Open-Angle Glaucoma
THOMAS W. SAMUELSON
Minnesota Eye Consultants, P.A.,
Minnetonka, MN, United States
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the long-term ability of a
novel implantable device to lower IOP
in patients with open angle glaucoma
(OAG) undergoing concurrent cataract
surgery.
Methods
This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter
clinical evaluation comparing phacoemulsification and
intracanalicular scaffold (Hydrus™ Microstent, Irvine, CA) to
phacoemulsification alone in patients with OAG and concurrent
cataract with intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤24 mm Hg on ≤4
hypotensive medications, washed out diurnal IOP of 21-36 mm
Hg, and BCVA of ≥20/40. In the Device group the microstent
was placed into Schlemm’s canal via an ab interno approach
under gonioscopic guidance following phacoemulsification and
intraocular lens placement. Control group subjects received
phacoemulsification only. Follow-up was conducted at 1 day,
7 days, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively.
Study eyes were evaluated at each follow-up visit for IOP using
Goldmann tonometry, medication use, visual acuity and ocular
health. Medication washout was conducted at baseline, 12, and
24 months and a diurnal IOP was measured in order to assess
IOP without the influence of topical hypotensive medications.
83
Results
100 eyes from 100 patients were recruited into the study.
Prior to washout, IOP was 18.9±3.3 mm Hg in the Device
group and 18.6±3.8 mm Hg in the Control group; subjects
from both groups were on an average of 2.0±1.0 medications.
Baseline washout diurnal IOP was 26.3±4.4 and 26.6±4.2 in the
Device and Control groups. At 24 months, the proportion of
patients with a 20% reduction in washed out diurnal IOP was
significantly higher in the Device group compared to the Control
group (80 vs. 46%, P=0.0008). Washed out mean diurnal IOP
in the Device group was significantly lower compared to Control
(16.9±3.3 vs. 19.2 ± 4.7 mm Hg, P = 0.0093). The proportion
of patients using no hypotensive medications was higher at 24
months in the Device group (73% vs. 38%, P=0.0008). There
were no differences in follow-up visual acuity between groups.
Discussion
The drop in IOP and medication use between baseline and
follow-up show that the Schlemm’s canal microstent lowers
IOP and medication use when used as an adjunct to cataract
surgery. While the cataract surgery alone conferred an IOP
and medication use reduction, the magnitude diminished in the
second year of follow-up, while the device group was stable.
Surgical complications were minor and transitory, and visual
acuity was comparable in both groups over the 2 year follow-up
period.
Conclusion
This study shows that a Schlemm’s canal microstent implanted
in patients undergoing cataract surgery provided a significant
reduction in IOP and medication use compared to cataract
surgery alone after two years.
Reference
1. Camras LJ, Yuan F, Fan S, Samuelson TW, Ahmed IK, Scheiber A,
Toris C. A novel schlemm’s canal scaffold increases outflow facility
in a human anterior segment perfusion model. Invest Ophthalmol
Vis Sci. 2012;53:6115–6121
84
Paper Abstracts: Surgery
7 Using a Flow Test to Predict Early Post-operative
Hypertensive Phase Following Ahmed Valve
Implantation
EDWARD MOSS1,4, Jason Cheng2,
Laura Beltran-Agullo3, Yvonne Buys4,
Johanna Gonzalez-Rodriguez4, Graham
Trope4
1
University of Toronto
Khoo Tech Puat Hospital, Singapore
3 Institut Catala de la Retina, Barcelona
4 Toronto Western Hospital
2
Purpose/Relevance
A flow test measures certain parameters before implantation
of an Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV).1,2 Our purpose was to
validate the use of such pre-implantation testing to predict early
post-operative intraocular pressure outcomes.
Methods
Patients were enrolled prospectively before AGV (model FP7)
surgery. A simple pre-implantation flow test using readilyavailable materials was conducted prior to each operation.
Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined
as manometer-measured levels at which BSS began or stopped
flowing through the device, respectively. The early hypertensive
phase was defined as IOP >21mmHg within first 2 weeks
postoperatively. Patients were followed for 12 weeks.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks, mean IOP
decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mmHg (p<0.01). The mean
AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mmHg; CP was 6.7±2.3 mmHg. EHP
was detected in 5 of 7 (71%) eyes receiving valves with OP≥18
mmHg and in 2 of 12 (17%) eyes receiving valves with OP<18
mmHg. Using this 18mmHg OP cut-off yielded a sensitivity of
0.71 and specificity of 0.83 for predicting EHP. Discussion
Our results suggest a link between the variability of preimplantation AGV functional characteristics and the likelihood
of EHP. EHP was more likely to occur in AGVs with an
OP>18mmHg. This may be due to excess valve resistance
causing elevated IOP.
Conclusion
Preoperative OP may predict early hypertensive phase. This
measurement could guide quality control prior to surgical
implantation.
References
1. Jones E., et al. Preimplantation Flow Testing of Ahmed Glaucoma
Valve and the Early Postoperative Clinical Outcome. J Current
Glau Prac, 2013(1): p. 1-5.
2. Bochmann F., et al. Intraoperative testing of opening and closing
pressure predicts risk of low intraocular pressure after Ahmed
glaucoma valve implantation. Eye (Lond), 2014.
Paper Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
8 Corneal Decompensation Following Glaucoma
Drainage Device Implantation: An Experimental
Model to Evaluate Nutritional Theory
RAMESH AYYALA1, Blake Williamson1
1
Tulane University Health Sciences
Center
Purpose/Relevance
Corneal endothelial dysfunction is
known to occur in eyes with glaucoma
drainage device implantation (GDD),
the etiology of which remains
unknown. Nutritional deficiency has
been proposed as a possible cause.1 The goal of this study was
to investigate the aqueous humor changes following GDD
implantation in a rabbit model.
Methods
Animals: 8 New Zealand white rabbits were used. Surgery: An
Ahmed glaucoma valve was implanted into the left eye of all
rabbits while the un-operated right eye served as control. pO2
measurement: Oxygen tension was measured at each of these
time points using the OxyLite™ oxygen monitoring system
with oxygen/temperature bare-fibre sensor manufactured by
Oxford Optronix immediately before surgery and at 1 month
and 2 months post-op. The probe obtained measurements every
5 seconds and was held in the anterior chamber for 2 minutes.
0.05cc of aqueous was collected from the experimental and
control eye at each time point for metabolite analysis and stored
at -70C. Glucose and Lactate Analyses: Glucose and lactate
were analysed using respective assay kits (Glucose Assay Kit
[ab65333,Abcam] & Lactate Assay Kit [MAK064 Sigma]). Table 1
85
Results
Oxygen: Oxygen tension was found to be lower in the eye with
the GDD compared to the control eye, and this was statistically
significant at 2 months post op (p=0.0014), Table 1. L1, 2, and
3 represent time points post op day 0, month 1 and month 2
respectively. Regression analysis demonstrated oxygen tension
steadily decreased over time in the surgical eye, and was found
to be an average of 9.1 mmHg lower in the eye with the GDD at
2 months post op (L3). Metabolites: There were no statistically
significant differences in the concentrations of glucose or lactate.
Discussion
Hypoxia seen in the surgical eye may be secondary to increased
aqueous humor turnover/alteration in the aqueous flow pattern
via the GDD (video demonstration). Increased drainage of the
oxygen rich anterior chamber aqueous humor by the GDD
allows the oxygen depleted posterior chamber aqueous humor
to have a greater effect of lowering the overall oxygen content in
the AC. We posulate that this relative paucity of oxygen in the
eye can contribute to corneal endothelial dysfunction.
Conclusion
Oxygen concentration in the anterior chamber aqueous humor
was significantly lower in the surgical eye compared to the
control eye after 2 months of follow up. Hypoxia coupled with
the altered aqueous flow patterns established by the GDD may
contribute to corneal endothelial dysfunction.
Reference
1. Schoenberg ED, Levin KH, Savetsky MJ, McIntire LU, Ayyala
RS. Surgical Outcomes of DSAEK in Patients with Prior Ahmed
Glaucoma Drainage Device Placement. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2013
Jun 19;23(6):807-813.
86
Paper Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
9 Two-Center Three-Year Follow-up of a MicroLumen Aqueous Humor Shunt
PAUL
PALMBERG1,
Juan
Batlle2
1
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
2 Centro Microcirugia, Santo Domingo,
RD
Purpose/Relevance
To assess the safety and efficacy
of a trans-scleral micro-lumen
aqueous drainage device (InnFocus
MircoShuntTM) made of poly(styreneblock-isobutylene-block-styrene), used with adjunctive
Mitomycin C.
Methods
Prospecive 2-center study of primary surgery of 50 eyes
in 50 patients who failed maximum tolerated medication.
Subjects received a MicroShunt alone (N=32) or in combination
with cataract surgery (N=18), all with 0.4 mg/mL Mitomycin C,
implanted ab externo through a 3 mm needle tract in the sclera.
Main outcome measures include success rate (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg
and ≥ 20% reduction in IOP from baseline), IOP, medication use
and adverse events with three years follow-up.
Results
At 3 years (n=22), the qualified success rate (with or without
glaucoma medication) was 95%; the complete success rate (with
glaucoma medication) was 73%; the mean IOP was reduced
from 23.5 ± 5.4 to 10.7 ± 3.5 mmHg (54%) and glaucoma
medications were reduced from 2.7 ± 1.2 to 0.5 ± 0.9 (81%).
All cases of postoperative transient hypotony (12%, 6/50) and
transient choroidal effusion (6%, 3/50) resolved spontaneously.
There were no sight-threatening long-term adverse events.
Discussion
The rationale for substituting the microshunt for the scleral flap
in glaucoma filtering surgery is that at normal aqueous flow the
dimensions of the tube and hydrophobic effects set the transscleral pressure gradient at about 6 mm Hg, a level expected to
reduce the risk of shallow or flat anterior chambers, hypotony
maculopathy and choroidal detachments, as was the case. The
material used, SIBS, previously was shown in rabbits to incite
only a 20u acellular capsule versus a 200u cellular capsule with
silicone, and sheathing of the tube post-operatively was thus
avoided.
Conclusion
The MicroShunt™ yielded a reduction in intraocular pressure
and reduction in supplemental medication at least comparable
to trabeculectomy1 or combined surgery2 with Mitomycin C
in a similar racial distribution of patients and by substituting a
small diameter tube for a scleral flap avoided hypotony-related
complications.
References
1. Scott IU, Greenfield DS, Schiffman J, Nicolela MT, Rueda JC, Tsai
JC, Palmberg PF. Outcomes of primary trabeculectomy with the use
of adjunctive mitomycin. Arch Ophthalmol 1998:116:286-91.
2. Joos KM, Bueche MJ, Palmberg PF, Feuer WJ, Grajewski AL. Oneyear follow-up results of combined mitomycin C trabeculectomy
and extracapsular cataract extraction. Ophthalmology
1995;102:76-73.
Paper Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
10 Use of a 45-μm Ab Interno Subconjunctival
Gel-Stent with Adjunctive Mitomycin C for
the Treatment of Uncontrolled Open-Angle
Glaucoma
IQBAL IKE K. AHMED1, Manjool
Shah1, Arsham Sheybani2
1
2
University of Toronto
Washington University
Purpose/Relevance
To study the intraocular pressure (IOP)
lowering effect and complications of an
ab-interno gelatin stent with adjunctive
mitomycin C (MMC) in patients with
uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods
This was a prospective, non-randomized, single-center trial
in patients with OAG whose IOP’s were uncontrolled by
medications. A 45-μm x 6mm gel-stent (XEN45, Aquesys Inc.,
Aliso Veijo, CA) was implanted via a preloaded injector using
an ab interno approach through a clear corneal incision and
through the anterior chamber angle into the subconjunctival
space to create an ab interno bleb. Adjunctive MMC was
used in all cases and delivered via subconjunctival injection
preoperatively. No adjunctive procedures were permitted in this
study. Needling was permitted postoperatively if necessary. Main
outcome measure was IOP reduction postoperatively. Additional
outcome measures included postoperative glaucoma medication
reduction, and postoperative complications. Results
A total of 57 eyes of 57 patients were included in this study,
with a mean age of 55.6 (range 18 to 86) years old. Seven eyes
had previous glaucoma bleb surgery. All eyes had successful
87
implantation of the gel-stent. The mean follow-up at the time of
this report was 12.5 ± 5.8 months. The mean preoperative IOP
was 26.7 (SD ± 5.1). The mean postoperative IOP was 14.3 ±
4.7 mmHg at 3 months (n=57), 13.8 ± 4.1 at 6 months (n=56),
12.0 ± 2.9 mmHg at 12 months (n=55), 12.5 ± 3.5 mmHg at 18
months (n=46), and 13.1 ± 3.7 mmHg at 24 months (n=33). At
all time points postoperatively, the postoperative IOP was lower
than preoperatively (p<0.0001). Mean postoperative glaucoma
medications were reduced from a mean of 3.5 ± 1.5 preoperative
to 0.5 ± 0.4 at 12 months and 0.8 ± 0.5 at 24 months (p<0.001).
Six eyes (11%) required postoperative needling. Three eyes (5%)
required re-operation for additional glaucoma surgery. No eyes
lost 2 or more lines of visual acuity postoperatively. There were
no cases of persistent hypotony. Discussion
The XEN45 implant is a 45-μm gelatin stent designed to create
an ab-interno bleb without the need to make conjunctival
incisions or scleral flaps. With the use of MMC, the results of
this study show significant IOP-lowering ability of this device
approaching that of a MMC trabeculectomy. Bleb needling
was needed in a subset of eyes. Although the numbers in this
study were limited, no patients lost 2 or more lines of vision
and the procedure was well tolerated with minimal serious
complications. Conclusion
The 45-μm ab interno subconjunctival gel-stent with adjunctive
MMC provided significant IOP-lowering in medium-term
follow-up with minimal serious complications.
Reference
1. Lewis, R. A. (2014). Ab interno approach to the subconjunctival
space using a collagen glaucoma stent. Journal of Cataract &
Refractive Surgery. doi:10.1016/j.jcrs.2014.01.032
88
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
Paper Presentations 11-15: Imaging
11 New OCT System Shows Collector Channels
Rapidly Open & Close with Pressure Changes:
A Factor in the Persistent Distal Resistance After
MIGS?
JOHNSTONE1,
MURRAY A.
Sepideh
Hariri1, Yi Jiang1, Steve Padilla1,
Roberto Reif1, Zhehai Zhou1, Ruikang
Wang1
1
University of Washington
Purpose/Relevance
To describe rapid pressure-dependent
opening and closing of collector
channels using a new OCT platform.
Methods
Radial limbal segments of ex vivo non-human primate (NHP)
nemestrina (2) and human (4) eyes are imaged by SD-OCT from
the surface of the TM. Segments are mounted in a Petri dish
under BSS. An optical microscope and micromanipulator permit
cannula insertion and retention in Schlemm’s canal (SC). Paired
reservoirs provide controlled pressures ∆s (5,10,20,30 mm Hg)
and a perfusion pump provides pulse transients. Assembly into
3D volumes uses a Matlab algorithm to binarize 2D images
using a set threshold. Quantification of SC height and area uses
manual delineation followed by segmentation with FIJI (ImageJ
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
software). Anatomic appearance by SEM under comparable
conditions (SC dilation by using viscoelastic) is assessed in radial
sections cut to a thickness of ~100 μm from each quadrant of the
limbus of 19 NHPs and 8 humans (6,739 total SEM images).
Results
Dilation of SC with BSS for OCT or with viscoelastic for SEM
reveals SC relationships (Fig. 1). Collagen septa at collector
channel ostia (CCO) generally attach at only one end resulting
in a flap-like arrangement that permits mobility. After
perpendicular scleral entry, the lumen of CCO abruptly turn
circumferentially forming intrascleral collector channels (CC)
parallel to SC; thin collagen septum between the SC and CC
lumens result. Cylindrical attachment structures (CAS) arise
from the TM then course across SC where they attach to flaps
at CCO entrances and to thin CC septa. In each of 10 CCO, SC
pressure ∆s induced large SC, CCO and CC lumen dimension
∆s in msec (Fig. 2) with visible lumen opening and closing in
response to as little as 5 mm ∆P. Discussion
SC dilation before SEM and OCT permits appreciation and
correlation of complex 3D relationships of SC structural
elements. The new OCT platform permits high resolution
imaging of the lumen of SC, CCO and CC permitting
quantification of pulse-dependent ∆s in lumen dimensions.
MIGS usually only achieve IOPs in the mid teens suggesting the
presence of an unidentified distal resistance; pressure-responsive
CCO & CC may explain that distal resistance.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Conclusion
This newly developed OCT platform permits identifying rapid
pressure-dependent opening and closing of the lumen of CCO
and CC; changing lumen dimensions can determine distal
outflow system resistance suggesting the region can also play a
role in the glaucoma process. MIGS development and placement
may benefit from awareness of this CCO & CC behaviour.
References
1. Hariri S, Johnstone M, Jiang Y, Padilla S, Reif R, Wang R. A new
platform for high resolution imaging of the aqueous outflow system
structure and pressure dependent motion using optical coherence
tomography. J of Biomedical Optics 19: (11), 2014.
2. Hann CR, Vercnocke AJ, Bentley MD, Jorgensen SM, Fautsch MP.
Anatomic changes in Schlemm’s canal and collector channels in
normal and primary open-angle glaucoma eyes using low and high
perfusion pressures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 55:5834–5841,
2014.
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
89
90
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
12 Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time Imaging of
Physiologic Comprehensive Aqueous Humor
Outflow
ALEX HUANG1, Sindhu Saraswathy2,
Brian Francis3, James Tan3, Robert
Weinreb4
1
University of California, Los Angeles
Doheny Eye Institute
3 UCLA and Doheny Eye Institute
4 University of California, San Diego
2
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Aqueous angiography yielded high quality images given
excitation with a 488 nm laser. Segmental patterns were
observed (p<.0001; Kruskal-Wallis test). In angiographically
positive but not negative areas, OCT demonstrated intrascleral
lumens with observable dextrans trapped in the outflow
pathways. High IOP (70 mm Hg) did not lead to blockage of
AHO. Quantitative analyses showed that there was no difference
in outflow among the four quadrants of the eye by looking for
overall differences in signal intensity among the four quadrants
(p = 0.39; Kruskal-Wallis test).
Discussion
Purpose/Relevance
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) attempt to
enhance native aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in the eye to
lower intraocular pressure (IOP). While results of trabecular
meshwork (TM) bypass are promising, inconsistent success is
seen. One hypothesis for this variability rests upon segmental
(non-360 degrees uniform) AHO past the trabecular meshwork.
We propose aqueous angiography, a real-time, physiologic, and
comprehensive AHO imaging technique.
Methods
Bovine, pig (Fig. 1), and human (Fig. 2) enucleated eyes were
obtained (within 6, 30, and 48 hours of death respectively
from abattoirs or San Diego Eye Bank) and orientated based
upon their inferior oblique insertions. Eyes were pre-perfused
at 30 mm Hg with BSS. Fluorescein (2.5% in BSS), as per AAO
guidelines for capsular stain, was introduced intracamerally.
With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent (488 nm;
aqueous angiography) images were acquired. Concurrent
OCT was performed and fixable fluorescent dextrans were
also introduced into the eye for histological analysis of
angiographically positive areas.
Aqueous angiography provides a comprehensive view of AHO.
It provides 360 degrees of simultaneous outflow information and
incorporates contributions from both the TM (proximal) and
post-TM (distal) outflow pathways. It is also physiologic as the
images are obtained at normal IOP without irrigation-related
high IOP or fluctuations. We propose aqueous angiography
for human intra-operative use to individualize and guide MIGS
toward angiographically functional areas for improved surgical
results.
Conclusion
Aqueous angiography is a real-time, physiologic, and
comprehensive AHO imaging technique.
Reference
1. Swaminathan SS, Oh DH, Kang MG, Rhee DJ. Aqueous outflow:
segmental and distal flow. JCRS 2014;40(8):1263-1272.
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
13 Association between Progressive Retinal Nerve
Fiber Layer Loss and Longitudinal Change in
Quality of Life in Glaucoma
CAROLINA P. GRACITELLI, Ricardo
Abe1, Andrew Tatham1, Peter Rosen1,
Linda Zangwill1, Erwin Boer1, Robert
Weinreb1, Felipe Medeiros1
1
University of California San Diego
Purpose/Relevance
Evaluation of structural optic nerve
damage is a fundamental part of
diagnosis and management of
glaucoma.1 However, the relationship between structural
measurements and disability associated with the disease is not
well characterized.2,3 Quantification of this relationship may
help validate structural measurements as markers directly
relevant to quality of life. The purpose of this study was to
evaluate the relationship between rates of retinal nerve fiber
layer (RNFL) loss and longitudinal changes in quality of life in
glaucoma.
Methods
Observational cohort study including 260 eyes of 130 glaucoma
patients enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma
Study (DIGS). Patients were followed for an average of 3.5 ±
0.7 years. All patients had repeatable visual field defects on
standard automated perimetry (SAP) at baseline. NEI VFQ25 questionnaires were performed annually, and spectral
domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and SAP
were performed at 6-month intervals. A joint model was used
to investigate the association between change in NEI VFQ-25
Rasch-calibrated scores and change in RNFL thickness, adjusting
for confounding socio-economic and clinical variables.
Figure 1
91
Results
Progressive binocular RNFL thickness loss was associated with
worsening of NEI VFQ-25 scores over time. In a multivariable
model adjusting for baseline disease severity and rate of change
in binocular SAP sensitivity, each 1 μm/year loss of RNFL
thickness was associated with a decrease of 1.3 units (95% CI
1.02 to 1.56) per year in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P < 0.001). After
adjusting for the contribution from SAP, 26% (95% CI: 12%–
39%) of the variability of change in NEI VFQ-25 scores was
associated uniquely with change in binocular RNFL thickness.
The association remained significant (P<0.001) after adjusting
for potential confounding factors.
Discussion
Progressive binocular RNFL thickness loss was associated with
longitudinal loss in quality of life, even after adjustment for
progressive visual field loss.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that rates of binocular RNFL change are
valid markers for the degree of neural loss in glaucoma with
significant relationship to glaucoma-associated disability. References
1. Medeiros FA, Alencar LM, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sample PA,
Weinreb RN. Prediction of functional loss in glaucoma from
progressive optic disc damage. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;
127(10):1250-1256.
2. Medeiros FA. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in glaucoma
clinical trials. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014.
3. Hirneiss C, Reznicek L, Vogel M, Pesudovs K. The impact of
structural and functional parameters in glaucoma patients on
patient-reported visual functioning. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e80757.
Figure 2
92
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
14 The Proportion of Individual Eyes Demonstrating
Spectral Domain Optical Coherence
Tomography Change in Early Experimental
Glaucoma and Its Eye-Specific Character
HONGLI YANG1, Juan Reynaud1,
Stuart Gardiner1, Lin He2, Brad
Fortune1, Claude Burgoyne1
1
2
Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR
Alcon Laboratories, Inc.
Purpose/Relevance
To characterize eye-specific,
Spectral Domain Optical Coherence
Tomography (SDOCT) optic nerve head
(ONH) minimum rim width (MRW) and retinal nerve fiber layer
(RNFL) change in early experimental glaucoma (EG).
Methods
Both eyes of 8 monkeys (1.4-21.9 yrs) underwent SDOCT ONH/
RNFL imaging 3-5 times at baseline, then biweekly following
laser-induced, unilateral IOP elevation until the onset of
Confocal Scanning Laser Tomographic (CSLT) surface change in
the EG eye.1 For each imaging session, ONH/RNFL landmarks
were delineated in 40 SDOCT B-scans and ONH MRW and
RNFL thickness 1500 microns from Bruch’s Membrane Opening
(BMO) centroid (RNLFT1500) were calculated for twelve 30º
sectors oriented relative to the Foveal-BMO (FoBMO) axis.1,2
Eye-specific event and trend-based change onset1 was then
evaluated for MRW and RNFLT1500 within each 30º sector of
each control and EG eye.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
EG eye IOP and axon loss (0-30%) have been previously
reported.1 For the 8 EG eyes considered together (Figure 1), at
CSLT-detected early EG onset, the pattern of SDOCT MRW and
RNFLT1500 onset by event and trend-based analyses overlap.
However, MRW change is more frequent and extensive than
detected RNFL change and its pattern is not confined to the
superior and inferior temporal quadrants. Eye-specific MRW
change (Figure 2) occurred in a larger proportion of EG eyes,
was greater in sectoral extent, and preceded RNFLT1500 change
where it occurred. Control eye change in two adjacent 30º degree
sectors occurred for RNFLT1500 only and in only 1 eye (C-M3).
The eye-specific pattern (i.e sectoral extent) of event and trendbased MRW onset was qualitatively similar and not confined to
the superior and inferior temporal sectors for most EG eyes.
Discussion
Eye-specific, SDOCT 30º sectoral ONH MRW change is
detected earlier and more extensively than SDOCT RNFLT
change at the onset of monkey EG. Neither MRW nor RNFL
change are confined to or consistently earliest within the superior
and inferior temporal sectors.
Conclusion
ONH MRW sectoral change is SDOCT-detected earlier than
RNFLT change in most monkey EG eyes. This finding supports
the ONH as a target for early glaucoma detection. The lack
of preferential superior and inferior temporal involvement is
noteworthy, warranting further study.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
References
1. He L et al. IOVS 2014;55:574-586.
2. He L et al. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 18;9(3):e92225.
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
93
94
Paper Abstracts: Imaging
15 Association Between Dark-to-Light Changes
in Anterior Chamber Angle Width and Iris
Configuration in Dark, Light, and Dark-to-Light
Conditions
SHAN LIN1, Roland Lee1, Shuai-Chun
Lin1, Rebecca Chen1, Diego Barbosa1
1
University of California, San Francisco
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the association between
dark-to-light changes in anterior
chamber angle width and iris
configuration in dark, light, and darkto-light conditions.
Methods
In this prospective study, anterior segment optical coherence
tomography images, obtained under both light and dark
conditions, were analyzed to determine angle opening distance
measured at 500 µm from the scleral spur (AOD500), iris
thickness measured at 750 µm from the scleral spur (IT750), iris
thickness measured at 2000 µm from the scleral spur (IT2000),
iris area, and pupil diameter. Comparisons of AOD500, IT750,
IT2000, iris area, and pupil diameter were made between
dark and light conditions. Linear regression models were used
to evaluate the association between dark-to-light changes in
anterior chamber angle width and iris configuration in dark,
light, and dark-to-light conditions.
Results
Three hundred and thirteen eyes from 176 nonglaucomatous
patients were analyzed. AOD500, IT750, IT2000, iris area, and
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
pupil diameter showed significant dark-to-light changes. IT750,
iris area, and pupil diameter in light conditions were significantly
associated with dark-to-light changes in AOD500 (all P<0.05).
IT2000 in light conditions was borderline significantly associated
with dark-to-light changes in AOD500 (P=0.07). IT750,
IT2000, iris area, and pupil diameter in dark conditions were not
significantly associated with dark-to-light changes in AOD500
(all P>0.05). IT750, IT2000, iris area, and pupil diameter in
dark-to-light conditions were not significantly associated with
dark-to-light changes in AOD500 (all P>0.05).
Discussion
Evaluation of four iris parameters in dark, light, and dark-tolight conditions demonstrated that IT750, IT2000, iris area, and
pupil diameter in light condition are significant predictors of
dark-to-light changes in anterior chamber angle width. Conclusion
In our previous study, we demonstrated that iris thickness may
play a role in determining the anterior chamber angle width
because the iris periphery forms one of the boundaries of the
anterior chamber angle and a thicker peripheral iris may directly
contribute to more angle crowding.1 In the current study, we
showed that assessment of iris parameters under light conditions
can provide insight into the dynamics of dark-light changes in
anterior chamber angle width.
Reference
1. Lee RY, Huang G, Porco TC, Chen YC, He M, Lin SC. Differences
in iris thickness among African Americans, Caucasian Americans,
Hispanic Americans, Chinese Americans, and Filipino-Americans. J
Glaucoma. 2013;229:673-8. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e318264ba68.
Paper Abstracts: Science & Discovery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Paper Presentations 16-20:
Science & Discovery
16 Disparities in Utilization of Glaucoma Testing
Among Enrollees in Medicaid and Those with
Commercial Health Insurance and How They
Vary by Race
ANGELA ELAM1, Chris Andrews1,
David Musch1, Paul Lee1, Joshua
Stein1
1
University of Michigan
Purpose/Relevance
Utilization patterns of glaucoma
testing have been studied for Medicare
beneficiaries, but little is known about
utilization of glaucoma testing for those
in Medicaid or those with commercial health insurance and how
rates of testing vary by plan type and race. Methods
We identified persons age ≥ 40 years enrolled in Medicaid or a
large managed care network continuously for ≥ 3 years, newlydiagnosed with OAG between 2007-2009, and ≥ 1 confirmatory
OAG diagnosis. We determined the proportion who underwent
visual field (VF) testing, fundus photography (FP), other ocular
imaging (OOI), and any or none of these tests within 15 months
after initial OAG diagnosis. Logistic regression modelling was
used to assess the impact of insurance type and race on the odds
of undergoing each test.
Results
9444 persons with commercial insurance and 2123 Medicaid
recipients met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of
95
commercially-insured patients with newly-diagnosed OAG
undergoing VF, FP, and OOI were 63%, 21%, and 53%,
respectively, while the proportions were 35%, 19% and 30%
for Medicaid recipients. Compared to those with commercial
insurance, Medicaid recipients were almost 2.5 times more
likely to not receive glaucoma testing in the first 15 months
following initial diagnosis (OR=3.44,CI 3.12-3.79). After
adjustment for confounders, a 60 y.o. white male with OAG
enrolled in Medicaid had a 225% higher odds of receiving no
glaucoma testing compared with a 60 y.o. white male with
commercial insurance (OR=3.25,CI 2.59-4.08); a 60 y.o. black
male with OAG enrolled in Medicaid had a 334% higher odds
(OR=4.34,CI 3.36-5.60) of receiving no testing and a 60 y.o
Latino male with OAG in Medicaid had a 154% higher odds
of no testing (OR=2.54,CI 2.54-3.66) than their counterparts
possessing commercial insurance.
Discussion
Regardless of race/ethnicity, Medicaid recipients are receiving
substantially less follow-up testing for OAG compared to others
with commercial insurance. More work is needed to understand
reasons for these disparities, their impact on outcomes, and ways
to overcome them. Conclusion
Patients with newly-diagnosed OAG enrolled in Medicaid are
receiving considerably less glaucoma diagnostic testing compared
to others with commercial insurance. Disparities are observed
across all races but are most dramatic among blacks.
Reference
1. Friedman DS, Nordstrom B, Mozaffari E, Quigley HA. Variations
in treatment among adult-onset open-angle glaucoma patients.
Ophthalmology. 2005 Sep;112(9):1494-9.
96
Paper Abstracts: Science & Discovery
17 The Impact of Educational Workshops
on Individuals at Risk for Glaucoma in the
Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment
Project
MICHAEL WAISBOURD1, Deiana
Johnson1, Shayla Stratford1, Harjeet
Sembhi1, Jeanne Molineaux1, George
Spaeth1, Jonathan Myers1, Lisa Hark1,
L. Jay Katz1
1
Wills Eye Hospital
Purpose/Relevance
The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection
and Treatment Project is a communitybased project that aims to improve detection, management,
treatment, and follow-up eye care of individuals at high risk
for glaucoma in community-based settings in Philadelphia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of
educational workshops on the level of knowledge, perceived risk
of glaucoma, and rate of attendance in a subsequent glaucoma
detection exam.
Methods
Participants completed an 8-question pre-test to assess
knowledge about glaucoma, attended an educational workshop,
and completed a post-test. A paired samples t-test was used to
assess mean differences in composite pre- and post-test scores,
correct responses, and perceived risk of glaucoma after the
workshop. The rate of attendance of the eye exam following the
educational workshops was assessed.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Seven hundred and seven pre- and post-test surveys were
completed. For all 8 questions, there was a significant increase
in the level of knowledge about glaucoma (P<0.001). The
composite scores increased from M=3.86 (SD=1.95) to M=4.97
(SD=1.82), P<0.001. There was a 30% increase in participants’
perceived risk of glaucoma (from 30% to 39%, P<0.001). In the
5 largest community sites, 44% (n=221/480) of the participants
who attended an educational workshop scheduled a glaucoma
exam appointment and 33%(n=160/480) completed their
glaucoma detection exam.
Discussion
Our study is in agreement with others,1,2 showing an increase in
individuals’ knowledge of glaucoma following an educational
intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first
study to investigate the impact of educational workshops
on recruitment of patients for a glaucoma detection exam in
community-based settings.
Conclusion
Educational workshops increased knowledge and
awareness about glaucoma and were helpful in recruiting
patients for community-based glaucoma detection exams.
We recommend including these workshops when conducting
outreach programs.
References
1. Kim S, Stewart JF, Emond MJ, Reynolds AC, Leen MM, Mills RP.
The effect of a brief education program on glaucoma patients. J
Glaucoma. 1997 Jun;6(3):146-51.
2. Oermann MH, Needham CA, Dobal MT, Sinishtaj L, Lange
MP. Filling the waiting time in the clinic with education about
glaucoma. Insight. 2001 Jul-Sep;26(3):77-80. Paper Abstracts: Science & Discovery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
18 Results from the First Teleglaucoma Pilot Study
in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
ARORA1,
Giorgis2,
SOURABH
Abeba T.
Abiye Mulegeta2, Girum Gessesse3,
Alemayehu Weldeyes4, Fikru Melka4,
Samreen Amin1, Faazil Kassam5, Ayaz
Kurji6, Karim Damji1
1
University of Alberta
Addis Ababa University
3 Jimma University
4 Ras Desta Hospital, Ethiopia
5 University of Calgary
6 University of Toronto
2
Purpose/Relevance
To review diagnostic outcomes and clinical referral pathways of
high risk patients assessed through an innovative communitybased teleglaucoma (TG) program.
Methods
Prospective cohort study. Patients over age 40 were referred to
the TG program from outpatient diabetic & hypertensive clinics
at Ras Desta Hospital as well as via community awareness
programs. Assessment consisted of a structured clinical history,
VA, IOP with tonopen, CCT, and dilated anterior segment
as well as stereo fundus photographs (disc & disc/macula).
Information was uploaded via the Secure Diagnostic Imaging
(SDI) website, and reviewed by a glaucoma specialist (AG,
AM, GG), who provided remote diagnosis & management
recommendations. Clinical referral pathways were noted. Part
way through the program front line staff were empowered to
refer patients the same day based on criteria for obvious and
serious eye pathology. 97
Results
There were 1002 patients (53% female) assessed with a mean
age of 51.0±11.7 years. The prevalence of glaucoma and
glaucoma suspects were 7.9% (79 cases) and 13.8% (138 cases)
respectively. Retinopathy was found in 9.1%, with hypertensive
retinopathy 2.7% & diabetic retinopathy 2.5% of all cases.
AMD was present in 1.5% and cataract in 16% of all cases.
Hyperopia and myopia were present in 31.6% and 13.4%,
respectively. 31% of cases were normal. Disposition: 26.7% of
patients were referred to a general ophthalmologist, 0.7% to a
glaucoma specialist (for surgery), 1.5% to a retina specialist and
19.3% to an optometrist.
Discussion
There is a high prevalence of glaucoma in patients with high risk
characteristics assessed through this TG program. The majority
of patients had ocular pathology that could be managed by
local comprehensive ophthalmologists. Downstream effects of
increasing referrals to care providers need to be further explored. Conclusion
This model of healthcare delivery can improve access to
glaucoma care for community members at high risk for
glaucoma.
References
1. Kyari F, et al. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan
Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors. Middle East Afr J
Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr-Jun;20(2):111-25.
2. Resnikoff S, et al. Global data on visual impairment in the year
2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Nov;82(11):844-51.
98
Paper Abstracts: Science & Discovery
19 Association Between Hysterectomy &
Oophorectomy and Glaucoma Prevalence in the
United States MARY QIU1, Noelle Pruzan1, Ye Elaine
Wang1, Kuldev Singh2, Shan Lin1
1
2
University of California, San Francisco
Stanford University
Purpose/Relevance
It has been hypothesized that female
sex hormones may be protective of
the optic nerve, and that early loss of
estrogen may lead to premature aging
and increased susceptibility of the optic nerve to glaucomatous
damage. Clinical studies of post-menopausal women suggest
that hormone replacement therapy may be associated with lower
intraocular pressure, protection against retinal nerve fiber layer
defects, and overall reduction in the risk of glaucoma. A recent
clinical study reported that bilateral oophorectomy before age
43 was associated with a 60% increased risk of glaucoma. The
purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between
hysterectomy / oophorectomy and glaucoma prevalence in a
United States population. Methods
This cross-sectional study included 2067 women from the
2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES) who were 40 years or older and answered the
survey questions about history of glaucoma, hysterectomy, and
oophorectomy. Multivariate logistic regression models were
created to identify independent predictors for self-reported
glaucoma, adjusting for demographics, female reproductive
variables, and other medical and ophthalmic conditions. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
After adjustment for demographics, medical conditions,
and reproductive variables, hysterectomy and/or bilateral
oophorectomy was associated with increased prevalence of
glaucoma (OR: 2.21, p=0.02). Subjects with both hysterectomy
and bilateral oophorectomy had a higher prevalence of
glaucoma compared to those without both hysterectomy and
bilateral oophorectomy (OR: 1.62, p=0.07), though this was
not statistically significant. When hysterectomy and bilateral
oophorectomy were analyzed independently from each other,
the odds ratio for hysterectomy was 2.12 (p=0.09) and the odds
ratio for bilateral oophorectomy was 1.07 (p=0.9).
Discussion
In women aged 40 years or older in the United States,
hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy is independently associated
with a 2-fold higher prevalence of glaucoma, after adjusting
for other reproductive factors. This finding supports the
hypothesis that early loss of estrogen may be a risk factor
for glaucoma. When hysterectomy and oophorectomy were
examined as independent variables, hysterectomy was more
strongly associated with increased glaucoma than oophorectomy,
although neither was statistically significant. Conclusion
It is possible that the association between hysterectomy/
oophorectomy and glaucoma is not mediated through estrogen. References
1. Pasquale LR, et al. Female reproductive factors and primary openangle glaucoma in the Nurses’ Health Study. Eye (Lond). 2011
May;25(5):633-41.
2. Vajaranant TS, et al. Risk of glaucoma after early bilateral
oophorectomy. Menopause. 2014 Apr;21(4):391-8.
Paper Abstracts: Science & Discovery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
20 Primary Cilia Signaling Mediates Intraocular
Pressure Sensation
YANG SUN1, Alexander Obukhov1,
Carlo Iomini2, Louis Cantor1, Robert
Weinreb3, Karen Joos4, Na Luo1
1
Indiana University
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
3 University of California San Diego
4 Vanderbilt University
2
Purpose/Relevance
Primary cilia are sensory organelles on the surface of eukaryotic
cells that mediate mechanotransduction in the kidney, brain, and
bone. However, their potential role in the trabecular meshwork
(TM) is unknown. We propose that primary cilia also mediate
pressure mechanotransduction in TM cells.
Methods
Using human TM cells isolated from patients, we
performed immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and
immunohistochemistry experiments to examine the TM.
We examined subcellular distribution of OCRL, an inositol
phosphatase, and TRPV4, an mechanosensory channel, in cilia
function. Using murine models, we examined the role of cilia in
IOP regulation.
Results
We show that TM cells, which are defective in glaucoma,
have primary cilia that are critical for response to pressure
changes. Primary cilia in TM cells shorten in response to fluid
flow and elevated hydrostatic pressure, and promote increased
transcription of TNF-α, TGF-β, and GLI1 genes. Furthermore,
OCRL is found to be required for primary cilia to respond to
99
pressure stimulation. The interaction of OCRL with transient
receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a ciliary mechanosensory
channel, suggests that OCRL may act through regulation of
this channel. A novel disease-causing OCRL allele prevents
TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling. In addition, TRPV4
agonist treatment reduced intraocular pressure in mice; TRPV4
knockout animals exhibited elevated intraocular pressure.
Discussion
Once thought as a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium
has increasingly become recognized as a critical regulator of
mechanotransduction. Our study shows that cilia in the TM
cells of the eye are similarly required for the regulation of
pressure, which when dysregulated is strongly implicated in the
pathogenesis of glaucoma.
Conclusion
Mechanotransduction by primary cilia in TM cells is implicated
in how the eye senses pressure changes and highlights OCRL
and TRPV4 as attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of
glaucoma.
References
1. Na, L., Conwell, M., Chen., XJ., Kettenhofen, CI., Westlake, CJ.,
Cantor, LB., Wells, CW.,Weinreb, RN., Corson, TW., Spandau,
D., Joos, KM., Iomini, C., Obukhov, AG., Sun, Y.*, Primary Cilia
Signaling Mediates Intraocular Pressure Sensation. Proc. Nat. Acad.
Sci., 2014, Aug 16, 2014 Epub.
2. Luo, N., West, C, Murga-zamalloa, C., Sun, L., Wells, C., Weinreb,
R., Travers, J., Kahana, H., Sun, Y.* OCRL localizes to the primary
cilia: a novel role of cilia in Lowe syndrome, Human Mol Genetics,
(2012) 2012 Aug 1;21(15):3333-443.
3. Kottgen, M., Buchholz, B., Garcia-Gonzalez, M.A., Kotsis, F., Fu,
X., Doerken, M., Boehlke, C., Steffl, D., Tauber, R., Wegierski, T.
et al. (2008) TRPP2 and TRPV4 form a polymodal sensory channel
complex. J Cell Biol, 182, 437-447.
100
Paper Abstracts: Hot Topics
Paper Presentations 21-25: Hot Topics
21 Impact of the Introduction of Generic
Latanoprost on Glaucoma Medication Adherence
JOSHUA D. STEIN1, Nakul
Shekhawat1, Nidhi Talwar1, Rajesh
Balkrishnan1
1
University of Michigan
Purpose/Relevance
To determine whether enrollees
with open-angle glaucoma who
switched from brand name to generic
prostaglandin analogues (PGAs)
exhibited a change in medication adherence compared to those
who remained on brand name products when generics became
available.
Methods
All beneficiaries age >40 years with open-angle glaucoma
continuously enrolled in a nationwide managed-care network
from 2009-2012 who were taking PGAs prior to generic
latanoprost availability were identified. We calculated the mean
adherence rates for topical PGAs during the 18 months prior
to generic latanoprost availability (September 2009-February
2011). We then determined the mean adherence rates during
the subsequent 18 months after generic latanoprost first became
available (July 2011-December 2012) for those enrollees who
were exclusively maintained on brand name PGAs and compared
these adherence rates to those who switched exclusively to
generic latanoprost. Multivariable logistic regression identified
factors associated with an improvement or worsening of
adherence rates of ≥25%.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
8,427 enrollees met the study eligibility criteria. Compared to
enrollees who switched to generic latanoprost once it became
available, enrollees remaining on brand name PGAs were 28%
less likely to experience an improvement of adherence (odds
ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94) and 39% more likely to
experience worsening of adherence (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.041.86). Other factors associated with improved adherence during
the post-generic period included lower monthly medication
copay during the post-generic entry period (p<0.0001) and black
race (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50). A total of 612 patients
(7.3%) completely discontinued all interventions for glaucoma at
the time generic latanoprost became available.
Discussion
With cost often being a significant barrier to adherence,
switching patients to generic medications may help improve
adherence. The ophthalmologic community should be aware
of the large number of patients who completely discontinued
glaucoma medication use altogether during the transition period
when generic latanoprost became available and work with
insurers and pharmacists to prevent this from happening when
other PGAs become available as generics.
Conclusion
This study highlights the impact of medication cost and access
to generic PGAs on medication adherence. We identified a
subset of patients who clearly exhibited an improvement in
adherence when they were switched from a brand name PGA
to generic latanoprost. When clinicians know or suspect that a
patient is struggling with adherence, attempts should be made,
whenever feasible, to switch such patients to generic glaucoma
medications. This can be particularly helpful for patients with
high copays and racial minorities.
Reference
1. Tsai JC. A comprehensive perspective on patient adherence to
topical glaucoma therapy. Ophthalmology 2009;116:S30–S36.
Paper Abstracts: Hot Topics
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
22 Characteristics of Patients Who First Present
with Severe Stage Glaucoma
VICTORIA ADDIS1, Taylor Blachley1,
Cynthia Mattox2, Ronald Fellman3,
Joshua Stein1
1
University of Michigan
New England Eye Center
3 Glaucoma Associates of Texas
2
Purpose/Relevance
It is challenging to care for patients
presenting with severe stage glaucoma
as they have extensive visual field loss upon initial presentation
and are at high risk of blindness. The purpose of this study is to
assess the sociodemographic and other characteristics of patients
presenting with severe stage glaucoma and compare them with
others who present with less severe disease.
Methods
Enrollees aged ≥40 years in a large US managed care network
that were newly diagnosed with glaucoma and received an ICD9-CM glaucoma severity staging code (mild, moderate, or severe)
on the date of first glaucoma diagnosis were identified. Logistic
regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with
an initial presentation of severe stage glaucoma as compared to
mild or moderate stage disease.
Results
There were 2535 patients with newly-diagnosed glaucoma who
met the inclusion criteria. The proportion with mild, moderate,
and severe stage disease was 55.0%, 31.7%, and 13.3%,
101
respectively. Females had a 35% reduced odds of presenting
with severe stage disease (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; CI, 0.500.84; P=0.001). Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Asian
Americans had a 108% increased odds of presenting with severe
stage glaucoma (OR, 2.08; CI, 1.13-3.82; P=0.02).There was no
significant difference in the odds of presenting with severe stage
glaucoma for Blacks or Latinos relative to whites. The higher
one’s level of income, the lower the odds of presenting with
severe stage glaucoma. Persons with incomes of ≥$125,000 per
year had a 69% reduced odds of presenting with severe stage
glaucoma compared to those earning <$30,000/yr. (OR, 0.31;
CI, 0.17-0.56; P<0.0001). There was no significant association
between education level, geographic region of residence, urban/
rural residence, or comorbid diabetes and the risk of presenting
with severe stage glaucoma.
Discussion
Patients benefiting most from glaucoma screening programs
are those at greatest risk for going blind. This study identifies
characteristics of persons who present with severe stage
disease in at least one eye and who may benefit from glaucoma
screenings.
Conclusion
Among this group of patients with health insurance,
characteristics of persons who first present with severe stage
glaucoma in at least 1 eye include males, Asian Americans, and
persons of lower income.
Reference
1. Fellman RL et al. Savvy Coder: Coding and Reimbursement. Know
the New Glaucoma Staging Codes. EyeNet. Oct 2011. 65-66.
102
Paper Abstracts: Hot Topics
23 Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Analyses of
Age and Intraocular Pressure Effects on Retinal
Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex
Thickness
XINBO ZHANG1, Brian Francis2, Ou
Tan1, Rohit Varma3, David Greenfield 4,
Joel Schuman5, Nils A. Loewen5, Mitra
Sehi 4, David Huang1
1
Oregon Health & Science University
Doheny Eye Institute
3 University of Southern California
4 University of Miami
5 University of Pittsburgh
2
Purpose/Relevance
To study the effect of age and intraocular pressure (IOP) on
retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC)
thickness in normal eyes. Methods
We analyzed the data from subjects enrolled in the multi-center
longitudinal Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma (AIG) Study
(www.AIGStudy.net). The data included yearly visits from the
normal subjects group in the AIGS study. Fourier-domain optical
coherence tomography (OCT) was used to map the thickness
of NFL and GCC three times on each visit. To adjust for the
repeated measurements for the same subjects, mixed effect
models were used to evaluate the longitudinal effect of age and
IOP on the NFL and GCC thickness. The measurements at
baseline were used to examine the cross sectional effects among
individual subjects. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
The analysis included 192 eyes of 92 normal participants with
follow-up visits between 2009 and 2013. The longitudinal
analyses showed the overall GCC thickness on average decreased
0.25 μm per year (p <0.001, standard error = 0.049), while the
overall NFL thickness decreased 0.10 μm per year (p=0.18,
standard error = 0.077). The cross-sectional analyses showed
the GCC thickness was 0.17 μm thinner for each year older
(p<0.001, standard error = 0.050), while the RNFL was 0.21 μm
thinner for each year older (p<0.001, standard error = 0.065).
We did not find significant IOP effect on either GCC or RNFL
from either longitudinal or cross-sectional analysis.
Discussion
These results on normal age-related thinning of NFL and GCC
can be used to establish criteria to detect abnormally rapid
thinning that might indicate glaucomatous progression.
Conclusion
NFL and GCC thin with age; they do not seem to be affected by
IOP.
References
1. Parikh, Rajul S. et al. Normal Age-Related Decay of Retinal Nerve
Fiber Layer Thickness. Ophthalmology, 2007, Volume 114, Issue
5, 921-926.
2. Ou Tan et al. Detection of Macular Ganglion Cell Loss in
Glaucoma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.
Ophthalmology, 2009, Volume 116, Issue 12, 2305-2314.
Paper Abstracts: Hot Topics
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
24 Are We Inadvertently Accelerating Glaucoma?
Benzalkonium Chloride Penetration Studies and
Its Effect on Outflow Facility and Trabecular
Meshwork Cellularity
DOUGLAS J. RHEE1, Dong Jin Oh1,
Min Kang1, Xu He1, Marc ToetebergHarms2
1
2
Case Western Reserve University
University Hospital Zurich
Purpose/Relevance
Introduction: Cadaveric studies have
long implicated accelerated trabecular
meshwork endothelial (TM) cell loss
in glaucoma pathogenesis. It was unknown if the TM cell loss
was a primary mechanism or secondary to chronic therapy. The
preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is toxic to TM cells
in vitro, but BAC has yet to be recovered from aqueous humor.
We hypothesized that topical BAC reaches TM tissue in vivo and
that chronic BAC exposure would lead to alterations of outflow
facility and TM cell loss ex vivo.
Methods
Topical BAC (0.2%), or fluorescently labeled BAC (for
penetration studies), and preservative free artificial tears
(control) were applied to rabbits. Rabbits were sacrificed at
5, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
determined the peak and trough tissue/aqueous concentrations
of BAC. Immunohistochemistry was used for ocular penetration
studies. Perfused cadaveric human anterior chambers determined
the effect of peak and trough concentrations of BAC on outflow
facility and TM cellularity.
103
Results
BAC was found in TM, ciliary body, lens, iris, and corneal
endothelium, but not aqueous. Peak and trough concentrations
were 6.96 µL and 1.02 µL/30 mL at 30 minutes and 5 minutes,
respectively, in TM tissue. At 12 minutes, labeled BAC showed
the highest fluorescent intensity areas between TM and sclera
(49,554). At 20 minutes, the collector channels had the higher
fluorescent intensity (43,216). IOP in BAC perfused anterior
segments, 1.02 mL/30 mL (n=3), trended higher and was
statistically significant (p<0.05) at three time points (fig 1).TM
cellularity experiments are on-going, but preliminary evidence
(n=2) demonstrates decreased cellularity in BAC anterior
segments (p=0.41).
Discussion
BAC reaches rabbit TM at pharmacologic doses. Chronic
exposure of trough levels of BAC had a small impact on IOP.
Preliminary data indicate a decrease in TM cellularity.
Conclusion
These data indicate that BAC may contribute to long-term TM
dysfunction.
References
1. Alvarado J, Murphy C, Juster R. Trabecular meshwork cellularity
in primary open-angle Glaucoma and nonglaucomatous normals.
Ophthalmology 1984;91:564-579.
2. Badouin C, Denoyer A, Desbenoit N, Hamm G, Grise A. In
vitro and in vivo experimental studies on trabecular meshwork
degeneration induced by benzalkonium chloride (an American
Ophthalmological Society Thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc
2012;110;40-63.
3. Ammar DA, Kahook MY. Effects of glaucoma medications
and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork
and no-pigment ciliary epithelial cell lines. Br. J Ophthalmol.
2011;95:1466-1469.
Figure 1. The average of 3 Human ex vivo anterior chamber perfusion systems perfused with BAK of 1.02 µL of ex vivo media of
30 mL. There were statistically significant at 81, 83, and 84 hrs.
104
Paper Abstracts: Hot Topics
25 Intraretinal Changes Revealed by Two-Photon
Microscopy in an Optineurin Normal Pressure
Glaucoma Mouse Model
GARRICK CHAK1, P. J. Nicholls1, Marc
Caron1, Henry Tseng1
1
Duke University
Purpose/Relevance
Because the eye is grossly normal in
primary open angle glaucoma (POAG),
the mechanism of how retinal ganglion
cells (RGC) degenerate in POAG
remains elusive. We recently generated
and characterized a novel mouse model expressing the E50K
optineurin mutation (BAC-hOPTNE50K mouse) found in patients
with familial normal-pressure POAG. We hypothesized that
E50K optineurin may induce retinal changes associated with
RGC loss. Using two-photon microscopy, we found novel
intraretinal structural changes from aged BAC-hOPTNE50K mice
that may yield fresh insight into POAG pathophysiology.
Methods
The BAC-hOPTNE50K mouse model has been previously
reported by our laboratory. Two-photon microscopy was
used to image flat mount retinas from young (2 months old)
and aged (18 months old) wildtype and BAC-hOPTNE50K
mice (n=5 animals per age group and genotype). Images were
acquired using a Zeiss LSM 510 microscope with a motorized
stage, assembled into a mosaic with at least 120 z-stack optical
sections, and analyzed with ImageJ software. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
In aged BAC-hOPTNE50K retinas, we discovered an intricate
network of reticular intraretinal structures that appear to be
cellular processes localized to the outer plexiform layer (OPL).
These structures were restricted to the OPL and not observed in
other retinal layers. Additionally, they are associated with small,
round deposits within capillaries penetrating into the OPL from
the inner surface of the retina. These reticular structures and
intravascular deposits were minimally observed in retinas from
age-matched wildtype mice, and not observed in both young
BAC-hOPTNE50K and wildtype mice.
Discussion
Because age-related RGC degeneration occurs despite normal
intraocular pressure in our mouse model, this data suggest
that intrinsic retinal changes may influence RGC function and
survival in POAG. Our discovery also raises the possibility that
subclinical intraretinal changes might be found in POAG patients
for use as novel diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets in
early POAG.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe novel
intraretinal changes and intravascular deposits in retinas from an
aged, genetic POAG animal model. Further studies may elucidate
the role of these intraretinal structures in RGC degeneration for
POAG.
Reference
1. Henry Tseng, Thorfin Riday, Howard Bomze, et al. Visual
impairment in mice expressing glaucoma-associated E50K mutant
optineurin. ARVO 2014. Program Number 6176. Poster Board
Number B0081. Orlando, FL.
PoSter abStractS
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
107
Poster Schedule
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 26
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM Moderated Poster Session (1-37)
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM Poster Viewing (1-37)
CME
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 27
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM Moderated Poster Session (38-84)
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM Poster Viewing (38-84)
CME
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 28
7:00 AM – 8:00 AM Moderated Poster Session (85-124)
7:00 AM – 3:30 PM Poster Viewing (85-124)
CME
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 26
Optic Nerve
Poster #
Author
Title
1
Kathryn Bollinger, MDProtection Against Retinal Ganglion Cell Death by Sigma Receptor Ligand
(+)-Pentazocine
2
Ricardo Y. Abe, MDFrequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and Changes in Quality of Life of
Glaucoma Patients: A Longitudinal Study
3
Joanne Wen, MDDynamic Changes of the Anterior Chamber Angle Following Intravitreal Injection
4
Sophie Cai, BAClinical Significance of Computationally Derived Visual Field Defect Archetypes in
Patients with Glaucoma
5
Teresa Chen, MDPatient Characteristics Associated with Artifacts in Spectral Domain Optical
Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Glaucoma
6
Shandiz Tehrani, MD, PhDActin-Rich Astrocytic Extensions Re-orient Prior to Axonal Injury Within the Optic
Nerve Head in a Rat Model of Glaucoma
7
Jason Chien, BSAssociation Between Intraocular Pressure Changes and Structural Changes in
Schlemm’s Canal, Choroid, and Iridocorneal Angles During the Water Drinking Test
in Normal Subjects
8
Mariel Lavieri, PhDKalman Filter User-Friendly Decision Support Tool for Visualizing and Monitoring
Open-Angle Glaucoma Progression
9
Andrew J. Tatham, FRCOphthThe Relationship Between Conventional Measures of Visual Function and Motor
Vehicle Collisions in Glaucoma: Do We Need Better Tests?
10
Mohammed Rigi, MDAgreement Between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Spectral Domain
Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT) Imaging
11
Haiyan Gong, MD
Shorter Scleral Spur in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
12
Miriam Kolko, MD
Retinal Glutamate Uptake in Stressed Müller Cells
13
Michael Rosman, BA
Pilocarpine Expands Schlemm’s Canal in Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients
14
Linda Wang, BS
Differences in Iris Parameters Among Caucasians, Chinese, and Japanese
15
John Liu, PhDEffect of Latanoprostene Bunod Compared with Timolol Maleate on Ocular
Perfusion Pressure in Subjects with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension
(CONSTELLATION)
108
Poster Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
16
C. Gustavo De Moraes, MD,
MPH
Differences in SENSIMED Triggerfish Parameters between Treated Glaucomatous
Eyes Experiencing Previous Fast and Slow Rates of Visual Field Progression
17
Deepta Ghate, MDOptic Nerve Morphology as a Marker for Disease Severity in Cerebral Palsy of
Perinatal Origin
18
Robert D. Fechtner, MDA Randomized Trial of Fixed-Dose Combination Brinzolamide 1% / Brimonidine
0.2% as Adjunctive Therapy to Prostaglandin Analogs
19
Elana Rosenberg, MDRelationship Between 24-hour Systemic Blood Pressure and SENSIMED Triggerfish
Recording in Glaucoma Patients
20
Rachel Kuchtey, MDCharacterization of Ocular Phenotypes of Microfibril Deficient Mice
21
Jeffrey Peterson, MDIris Parameters in Open Angle Eyes Measured with Swept Source Fourier Domain
Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT)
22
Alice Williams, MD
23
William Sponsel, MDRefined Frequency Doubling Perimetry Analysis Reaffirms Central Nervous System
Control of Chronic Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration
24
Samantha Wang, BAContinuous Twenty-Four Hour Ocular Dimensional Profiles Using a Contact Lens
Sensor in Ocular Hypertensive Patients
25
Hideki Fukuoka, MD, PhDIntraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Body Mass Index as Risk
Factors for Glaucoma
26
David Meadows, PhDUtilizing Fundus Photographic Images to Detect Glaucoma Based on Novel Arterial
and Venous Network Biomarkers
27
Vikas Chopra, MDCharacterization of Corneal Endothelium in Glaucomatous Eyes Managed
Medically and Surgically
28
Mauricio Turati Acosta, MDIridocorneal Angle Observation and Description in Preterm Newborn Infants with
the RetCam 3
29
Kelly Ma, MD, MPH
Effect of Pupil Dilation on Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Open Angles
30
Suchi B. Patel, MD
CPAPs Effect on Ocular Pressures in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients
31
Mazeyar Saboori, MDAssociation of Endothelial Cell Density and Glaucoma Severity in Patients with
Exfoliation Glaucoma
32
Alon Skaat, MDRho-Kinase Inhibitor AR-12286 Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% and 0.7% Efficacy
in Patients with Exfoliation Syndrome (XFS) and Ocular Hypertension (OHT) or
Exfoliative Glaucoma (XFG)
33
Brenda Nuyen, MDSymmetry of Circadian 24-h IOP-Related Patterns in Glaucoma Patients Using a
Contact Lens Sensor
34
Jesús Jiménez-Román, Chief of Department 35
Simon K. Law, MDProspective Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Acupuncture as Treatment for
Glaucoma: A Pilot Study
36
Jeffrey Freedman, MD, PhD
A Novel Method for Treating Failed Glaucoma Implants
37
Elise Taniguchi Minimum Rim Width Measurements by Swept Source OCT as a Predictor of
Paracentral Visual Field Loss
A Novel Testing Sequence for RAPDx Pupillography
Continuous Intraocular Pressure Monitoring with a Wireless Contact Lens and
Ocular Telemetry Sensor in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma: Pilot Study
Poster Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
109
Friday, February 27
Surgery
Poster #
Author
Title
38
L. Jay Katz, MDOAG Patients Uncontrolled on 1-3 Medications Randomized to Implantation of
One, Two, or Three Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents: Results Through 18 Months
from Prospective, Randomized Study
39
Steven Vold, MDProspective, Randomized Evaluation of Micro-Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS)
with Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents vs. Prostaglandin in Open-Angle or
Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Naïve to Therapy
40
Félix Gil-Carrasco, DirectorProspective Randomized Study of Two Different Models of the Ahmed Glaucoma
Valve in Eyes with Neovascular Glaucoma
41
Oluwatosin U. Smith, MDGonioscopy-Assisted Transluminal Trabeculotomy for the Treatment of Primary
Congenital Glaucoma and Juvenile Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Preliminary Report
42
Alex Theventhiran, MDA Comparison of Topical Anesthesia and Retrobulbar Block During Glaucoma
Filtering Surgery
43
Mark Welch, DORisk Factors for Further Intervention After Initial Angle Surgery for Developmental
Glaucoma
44
Marc Toeteberg-Harms, MDIOP Lowering Efficacy of Phacoemulsification Cataract-Extraction with Intraocular
Lens Implantation Alone (Phaco) Versus Plus Excimer Laser Trabeculotomy (PhacoELT) Versus Plus Ab Interno Trabeculotomy with the Trabectome (Phaco-AIT) –
One-Year Results
45
Davinder S. Grover, MD, MPHOne-Year Results of an Ab-Interno Gelatin Stent in Combination with Mitomycin C
for the Treatment of Glaucoma
46
Kateki Vinod, MDLong-Term Outcomes and Complications of Pars Plana Baerveldt Implantation in
Children with Glaucoma
47
Jonathan Myers, MDOutcomes Two Years After MIGS with Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents, One
Suprachoroidal Stent and Travoprost in Patients with Refractory OAG and Prior
Traeculectomy
48
Avneet Sodhi, MDThe Efficacy of Cataract Surgery Combined with Either Endoscopic
Cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) or Microbypass Stent, and Cataract Surgery Alone in
Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients
49
Nathan Radcliffe, MDMicroPulse Trans-scleral Cyclophotocoagulation (mTSCPC) for the Treatment of
Glaucoma Using the MicroPulse P3 Device
50
Nils A. Loewen, MD, PhD
51
Amanda Kiely, MDThe Effect of No-Sponge vs. Sponge Placement of Mitomycin C on Outcomes of
Trabeculectomy with Ex-PRESS Shunt: Interim Report
52
Abraham Suhr, MD
53
Cindy Hutnik, MD PhdThe Interaction of Primary Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells with Metal Alloy
Candidates for Micro-Invasive Glaucoma Surgery
54
Sachi R. Patel, BSComparison of Surgical Outcomes of the Molteno 185mm2 Shunt and the Baerveldt
250mm2 Shunt: Is There a Difference?
55
Aileen Sy, MD
56
Sarah Kuchar, MDTreatment Outcomes of Micropulse Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation in
Advanced Glaucoma
57
David G. Godfrey, MDIntermediate-term Results of the GATT Procedure in Eyes with Prior Incisional
Glaucoma Surgery
58
Brian Francis, MDTrabeculotomy Ab-Interno (Trabectome) in Patients with Very High Pre-operative
Intraocular Pressure
59
Ramya Swamy, MD, MPH
Meta-Analysis of Trabeculectomy Ab-Interno Outcomes
Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant Comparison Study (250-mm2 vs 350-mm2)
Supra-Tenon Capsule Placement of Baerveldt Implant
Safety and Efficacy of Trabectome in Uveitic Glaucoma
110
Poster Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
60
Aaron Winter, MDPhaco-iStent No Steroids Study: How Does Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Affect
the Early Postoperative IOP Profile of Patients Undergoing Combined Cataract
Surgery and Trabecular Micro-Bypass Surgery?
61
Philip Niles, MD, MBAComparison of Post-operative Intraocular Pressure Spikes in Femtosecond Laserassisted Cataract Surgery to Phacoemulsification Alone in Glaucomatous and Nonglaucomatous Eyes
62
Kevin Kaplowitz, MD
63
Qi Cui, MD PhDThe Effect of Mitomycin C and 5-Flurouracil Adjuvant Therapy on the Outcomes of
Ahmed Valve Implantation
64
Ahmed Alomairi, MD
65
Mohammad Hamid, MDComparison of Surgical Outcome of Non-perforating Deep Sclerectomy Between
Pseudoexfoliative and Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients
66
Reay Brown, MDPressure Reduction Following Cataract Surgery with a Trabecular Micro-Bypass
Device
67
Sachin Kalarn, BS
68
Daniel Lee, MDThree Year Follow-up of Intraoperative Subconjunctival Mitomycin C Injection with
Lidocaine in Conjunction with Placement of Express Minishunts for Treatment of
Glaucoma
69
Michael Pokabla, DOThree-year Follow-up of a One-Suture Technique for Placement of Glaucoma
Drainage Devices
70
Noelle L. Pruzan, MD
A Pilot Case Series of Consecutive Patients Undergoing Ab Interno Trabeculotomy
71
Lian Chen, MD
Trabeculodialysis for Uveitic Glaucoma
72
Anita Motwani, BS
Outcomes of Bleb Needling with Mitosol After Ex-PRESS Shunt Surgery
73
Angeles Ramos-Cadena, MD
Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Primary Congenital Glaucoma
74
Anna Dastiridou, MD, PhD
Challenges in Tube Surgery Technique in Patients with PROSE Scleral Lenses
75
Morgan Renner, MD, MPH Which Is Better? (1) Pre- or (2) Post-Cataract iStent Implantation
76
Evan Allan, MD
Ex-PRESS Shunt Surgery Following Failed Canaloplasty: An Update
77
Kevin Gamett, MD
Efficacy of Combined Phacoemulsification and iStent Implantation
78
Michael Stiles, MD
Two-Year Outcome of Trabectome Procedure by Single Surgeon
79
Shakeel Shareef, MDThe Effect of Proper Anatomic Placement of an iStent on Intraocular Pressure and
Medications During Cataract Surgery in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma and
Cataract
80
Megan Chambers, MDInjection of Perfluoropropane Gas and Viscoelastic as Rescue Therapy for Ocular
Hypotony Following Glaucoma Filtering Surgery
81
Jasbeth Ledesma Gil, MD
82
Milica Margeta, MD, PhDStaying Away from the Optic Nerve: A Formula for Modifying Glaucoma Drainage
Device Surgery in Pediatric and Other Small Eyes
83
Eun Ah Kim
Long-term Bleb-Related Infections: Incidence, Risk Factors and Influence of Bleb
Revision
84
Gabriel Lazcano-Gomez, MD
Use of Subconjunctival 5-Fluorouracil Injections to Rescue a Failing Ahmed
Ahmed Valve Revision in Pediatric Glaucoma
Is There an Optimal Timeframe for YAG Goniopuncture After Canaloplasty?
Glaucoma Mini-Shunt Implantation After Keratoplasty
The Economic Burden of Glaucoma Over a Five-Year Period
Poster Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
111
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 28
Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
Poster #
Author
Title
85
Louis R. Pasquale, MDProspective Study of Flavonoid Intake and Risk of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma
86
Jason Bacharach, MDEvaluation of PG324, a Fixed Dose Combination of AR-13324 and Latanoprost,
in Patients with Elevated Intraocular Pressure in a Double-Masked, Randomized,
Controlled Study
87
Andrew Lewis, MDProportion of Non-responders to Beta-Blockers and Prostaglandin Analogs in
OHTS, CIGTS, and Enrollees in a United States Managed Care Plan
88
Chi-Hsin Hsu, MDLens Position Parameters as Predictors of Intraocular Pressure Reduction After
Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery
89
Ji Woong Lee, MDRelationship of Structural and Functional Rates of Change as a Function of
Glaucoma Severity
90
Nisha Chadha, MDA Randomized, Prospective Comparison of 360 Degree Selective Laser
Trabeculoplasty (SLT) vs. 577 nm Micropulse Laser Trabeculoplasty (MLT) in Eyes
with Open-Angle Glaucoma
91
Divakar Gupta, MD
92
Shivali Menda, MDChange in Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Early and Suspected
Glaucoma
93
Shuai-Chun Lin, MDThe Association Between Serum Manganese Level and the Prevalence of Glaucoma
in the South Korean Population
94
Kaweh Mansouri, MD, MPHRandomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of
Pattern Scanning Laser Trabeculoplasty (PSLT) to Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty
(SLT)
95
Nelson Winkler, BSAnalysis of a Novel Physician-Led Team-Based Care Model for the Treatment of
Glaucoma
96
Robert M. Kinast, MDConcentration Accuracy of Compounded Mitomycin C for Ophthalmic Surgery
97
Caitlin Kakigi, BAThe Association Between Visual Field Abnormalities and the Use of Antihypertensive
Medications in the United States
98
Matthew Trese, MA
Quantitative Trait Analysis of Timolol Response – A Combined Analysis
99
Emily Schehlein, BS
Costs of Glaucoma Care to Patients and Their Families
100
Jaya Kumar, MDComparing Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) Versus Electronic Monitors to
Evaluate Glaucoma Medication Non-adherence
101
Edward J Rockwood, MD 102
Kristin Biggerstaff, MDAccuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Billing Code
for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Veterans Affairs Administrave Databases:
A Validation Study
103
Andrew Camp, MD
104
Leyla Ali Aljasim, MD, FRCSEffectiveness of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) Following Failed
Trabeculectomy
105
Christina Guadalupe Isida
Comparative Study of Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations Between the 24-Hour
Llerandi, MD Diurnal Tensional Curve, Borrone Test and the Water Drinking Test in Patients with
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
106
Andrew Plummer, BS
Family History(ies) of Glaucoma
107
Lisa Cowan, MD, PhD
Patient Attitudes Towards Novel Drug Delivery for Treatment of Glaucoma
108
Abraham Park, MD
Effect of Lidocaine on the Cytotoxicity of Mitomycin C
109
Derek Mai, MD
Automated Reminders and Technology Access in Glaucoma Patients
Fellow Eye Treatment Refusal in CIGTS Participants
Long-Term Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery
Ocular Surface Disease Signs and Symptoms in Patients Using Glaucoma Drops
112
Poster Schedule
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
110
Veena Rao, MDLaser Trabeculoplasty Practice Patterns in Relation to Glaucoma Medication
Adherence
111
Shenoda Elmaseh, MD
112
Joanna Queen, MDVariation in Number of Doses, Bottle Volume, and Calculated Yearly Cost of
Generic and Branded Latanoprost
113
C. Gustavo De Moraes, MD, Effect of Switching from Latanoprost to Bimatoprost in Primary Open-Angle
MPH Glaucoma Patients Who Experienced a Hypotensive Effect Reduction During
Treatment
114
David Seamont, BS
Do Males Have More Severe Glaucoma?
115
Philip Sun, MS
Diplopia Associated with Glaucoma Drainage Devices
116
Renée Petrie, MDComparison of Microbial Contamination Rates Between 2.5ml and 5.0ml
Dispensers of Travoprost 0.004% with Sofzia
117
Jullia Rosdahl, MD PhDThe Best Glaucoma Quiz? A Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Glaucoma
Knowledge Assessments
118
Ryan Burton, MD
Resident Perspectives on Microinvasive Glaucoma Surgeries (MIGS)
119
David Eng, BS
Timeline of Glaucoma
120
Anna Junk, MD
Sutureless 360 Degree Cyclodialysis Cleft Repair
121
Rachelle Rebong, MD
Patients’ Attitudes Towards Generic Versus Brand-name Glaucoma Eye Drops
122
Pradeep Ramulu, MD, MHS, PhDDo Bottle Cap Colors Adequately Communicate the Identity of Topical Ophthalmic
Medications?
123
Sarah Van Tassel, MD
124
Robert Feldman A Randomized Trial of Fixed-Dose Combination Brinzolamide 1% / Brimonidine
0.2% as Adjunctive Therapy to Travoprost 0.004%
Anesthetic Device Reduces Pain Perception for Laser Iridotomy
Video Screen Capture of Flicker Chronoscopy and Other Ophthalmic Imaging
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
113
Poster Abstracts
Thursday, February 26 / Posters 1-37
Optic Nerve
Results
1 Protection Against Retinal Ganglion Cell Death by
Sigma Receptor Ligand (+)-Pentazocine
KATHRYN BOLLINGER1, Jing Zhao1,
Sylvia Smith1, Garrison Wier1
1
Georgia Regents University
Purpose/Relevance
Sigma Receptor 1 (σR1) is a member
of a family of endoplasmic reticulumassociated proteins that are expressed
throughout the mammalian nervous
system and visceral organs. The
endogenous function of σR1 is not known. However, ligands for
this receptor have shown robust neuroprotective effects in brain
and retina. The goal of this work is to determine whether the
sigma receptor ligand, (+)-Pentazocine (PTZ), can alter survival
of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) exposed to the inflammatory
stimulus, TNF-α, or to the excitotoxic stimulus, NMDA
(N-Methyl-D-Aspartate).
Methods
Purified primary cultures of RGCs derived from mice were
subjected to TNF-α (10ng/ml) in the presence/absence of (+)PTZ (3μM) for 48 hours. TUNEL analysis was performed.
Western blots were also performed to detect MAPK and
caspase-3 expression. In addition, neurotoxicity was induced
by intravitreal injection of NMDA into wild-type and (+)-PTZtreated mice. RGC survival was assayed by measuring Brn3a
immunoreactivity in flat-mounted retinas. Our data showed that TNF-α induced apoptosis of cultured
RGCs. The σR1 ligand, (+)-PTZ, significantly decreased
apoptotic cell death. Western blot analyses showed that cleaved
caspase-3 was increased in RGCs treated with TNF-α, and pretreatment with (+)-PTZ inhibited the cleaved caspase-3 increase.
In addition, TNF-α activated p-38, and (+)-PTZ pre-treatment
inhibited p-38 activation within primary RGC cultures. NMDA
intravitreal injection induced 40% loss of RGCs from within
the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of mouse retinas. Pre-treatment of
animals with (+)-PTZ prior to NMDA treatment resulted in a
statistically significant increase in RGC survival.
Discussion
In vitro activation of sigma receptor 1 with (+)-PTZ protects
RGCs from TNF-α-induced cell death, and decreases p38 MAPK
activation. In vivo (+)-PTZ treatment protects RGCs from
NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.
Conclusion
Sigma receptor 1 activation is a therapeutic target for retinal
neurodegenerative diseases including glaucoma.
References
1. Zhao J, Ha Y, Liou GI, Gonsalvez GB, Smith SB, Bollinger KE.
Sigma receptor ligand, (+)-pentazocine, suppresses inflammatory
responses of retinal microglia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014
May 8;55(6):3375-84.
2. Smith SB, Duplantier J, Dun Y, Mysona B, Roon P, Martin PM,
Ganapathy V. In vivo protection against retinal neurodegeneration
by sigma receptor 1 ligand (+)-pentazocine. Invest Ophthalmol Vis
Sci. 2008 Sep;49(9):4154-61.
3. Luedtke RR, Perez E, Yang SH, Liu R, Vangveravong S, Tu Z,
Mach RH, Simpkins JW. Neuroprotective effects of high affinity
sigma 1 receptor selective compounds. Brain Res. 2012 Mar
2;1441:17-26.
114
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
2 Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and
Changes in Quality of Life of Glaucoma Patients:
A Longitudinal Study
RICARDO Y. ABE1, Carolina Gracitelli1,
Alberto Diniz-Filho1, Linda Zangwill1,
Robert Weinreb1, Felipe Medeiros1
1 Hamilton Glaucoma Center - University
of California San Diego - UCSD
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the relationship between
rates of change on frequency doubling
technology (FDT) perimetry and longitudinal changes in quality
of life (QoL) of glaucoma patients.
Methods
Prospective observational cohort study with one hundred fiftytwo subjects (127 glaucoma and 25 healthy) followed for an
average of 3.2 ± 1.1 years. All subjects were evaluated with
National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ25), FDT and standard automated perimetry (SAP). Subjects
had a median of 3 NEI VFQ-25, 8 FDT and 8 SAP tests during
follow up. Mean sensitivities (MS) of the integrated binocular
visual fields were estimated for FDT and SAP and used to
calculate rates of change. A joint longitudinal multivariable
mixed model was used to investigate the association between
change in binocular MS and change in NEI VFQ-25 Raschcalibrated scores. Potentially confounding socio-economic and
clinical variables were also analyzed.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
There was a statistically significant correlation between change in
binocular MS for FDT and change in NEI VFQ-25 scores during
follow-up in the glaucoma group. In multivariable analysis, each
1dB/year change in binocular FDT MS corresponded to a change
of 0.8 units per year in the NEI VFQ-25 scores (P = 0.001). For
binocular SAP MS, each 1 dB/year change was associated with
2.2 units per year change in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P <0.001).
The multivariable model containing baseline and rate of change
information from SAP had stronger ability to predict change in
NEI VFQ-25 scores compared to the equivalent model for FDT
(R2 of 50% and 30%, respectively). There were no significant
associations between changes in FDT and SAP and changes in
NEI VFQ-25 scores for the healthy group.
Discussion
Rates of progressive visual field loss on FDT perimetry were
significantly associated with decline in patient-reported QoL in
glaucoma. However, SAP performed significantly better than
FDT in predicting NEI VFQ-25 scores in our population.
Conclusion
SAP may still be the preferable perimetric technique for
predicting risk of disability from the disease.
Reference
1. Medeiros FA, Gracitelli CP, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM, Boer ER,
Rosen PN. Rates of Progressive Visual Field Loss and Longitudinal
Changes in Quality of Life of Glaucoma Patients. Ophthalmology.
2014 (In press).
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
3 Dynamic Changes of the Anterior Chamber Angle
Following Intravitreal Injection
JOANNE WEN1, Scott Cousins2,
Stefanie Schuman2, R Rand Allingham2
1
2
University of Washington
Duke University Eye Center
Purpose/Relevance
A post-hoc analysis of the MARINA
and ANCHOR trials reported four
cases of eyes receiving laser peripheral
iridotomies during the course of antiVEGF treatment presumably for the development of angleclosure.1 We hypothesize that the sudden increase of vitreous
volume produced by intravitreal injections may affect anterior
segment anatomy and increase risk of acute angle closure. In this
study, we use AS-OCT to evaluate the dynamic changes of the
anterior chamber angle following routine intravitreal injections
to evaluate changes in the iris-lens configuration induced by
intravitreal injections.
Methods
Patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for the
treatment of NVAMD were recruited after informed consent.
Pre- and immediate post-injection IOP and AS-OCT images were
acquired. Measurements of the anterior segment including angle
opening distance (AOD) and trabeculo-iris space area (TISA) at
500 µl and 750 µl from the scleral spur (AOD500, AOD 750,
TISA-500 and TISA 750, respectively) and scleral spur angle
were compared.
Results
Twenty-one eyes from 21 patients were studied. The mean
increase in IOP following injection was 23.4±11.4 mmHg. The
115
mean (±SD) differences between pre- and post-injection images
of the temporal angle were: 0.05±0.11 mm (AOD500) (p=0.04),
0.07±0.13 mm (AOD750) (p=0.01), 0±0.04 mm2 (TISA500)
(p=0.7), 0.02±0.07 mm2 (TISA750) (p=0.17) and 2.55±4.5
degrees (p=0.02). There was no significant difference between
pre- and post-injection image measurements of the nasal angle.
However, there was significant narrowing of the nasal AOD
and TISA in phakic vs pseudophakic eyes (nasal AOD500,
TISA 500 and TISA750 measurements; p=0.05, 0.03 and 0.02,
respectively). Discussion
While all eyes demonstrated significant narrowing of the
temporal AOD and angle measurements, the nasal angle in
phakic eyes demonstrated significantly greater narrowing
following intravitreal injections compared to pseudophakic eyes.
Further studies are needed to determine whether these changes
may lead to clinically relevant angle closure, especially in phakic
eyes.
Conclusion
Physicians performing intravitreal injections should be aware of
these dynamic anterior segment changes following intravitreal
injections and the possibility that there may be increased risk of
angle closure with prolonged elevation of IOP in predisposed
eyes. Reference
1. Bakri SJ, Moshfeghi DM, Francom S, et al. Intraocular pressure
in eyes receiving monthly ranibizumab in 2 pivotal agerelated macular degeneration clinical trials. Ophthalmology
2014;121:1102-1108.
116
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
4 Clinical Significance of Computationally Derived
Visual Field Defect Archetypes in Patients with
Glaucoma
SOPHIE CAI1, Tobias Elze2, Peter Bex3,
Louis Pasquale4, Lucy Shen4
1
Harvard Medical School
Schepens Eye Research Institute
3 Northeastern University
4 Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
2
Purpose/Relevance
Glaucoma monitoring would benefit
from a clinically-validated quantitative
classification system for visual field (VF) defects. Recently,
Elze et al. applied the unsupervised statistical learning method
of archetypal analysis to a large VF database from a tertiary
glaucoma practice, deriving 17 VF archetype (AT) patterns
into which any VF can be decomposed (Figure). VF archetypal
analysis may aid clinicians in reproducibly describing VFs,
tracking VF changes over time, and separating complex VF
defects into different etiologies. Here, we evaluated clinical
correlates of ATs.
Methods
From 30,995 reliable Humphrey 24-2 VFs, we used Elze et al.’s
algorithm to select VFs most representative (coefficient>0.7) of
each AT. Medical records of corresponding patients were
reviewed; systemic and ocular characteristics were compared
between each AT and all others combined using the chi-square
or two-tailed t-test.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
(P<0.001), and AT11 (peripheral rim defect) (P=0.002) were
associated with cup-to-disc ratio (CDR)≤0.5. AT6 (central
island) (P=0.018), AT10 (inferonasal defect) (P=0.046),
AT14 (superior paracentral defect) (P=0.048), and AT16
(inferior paracentral defect) (P=0.028) were associated with
CDR>0.5. Other significant associations included AT2 (superior
defect): ptosis (P<0.001); AT4 (temporal wedge defect): systemic
hypertension (P=0.024); AT11 (peripheral rim defect): trial
lens hyperopia>6D (P=0.028); AT6 (central island): age 40-50
years (P<0.001), African ancestry (P<0.001), current smoking
(P<0.001), and higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001); AT10
(inferonasal defect): diabetes mellitus (P=0.008); AT12 (temporal
hemianopia): stroke (P=0.002) and diabetes mellitus (P=0.025);
AT13 (diffuse inferior defect): African ancestry (P=0.002) and
chronic angle closure glaucoma (P<0.001); and AT16 (inferior
paracentral defect): female sex (P=0.015).
Discussion
Associations with systemic and ocular characteristics were
identified across ATs. Several associations are consistent with
previous literature, supporting VF ATs’ clinical validity. We also
found features of debilitating glaucomatous VF loss (AT6 and
AT13) that may help identify at-risk populations for targeted
screening.
Conclusion
Computationally derived VF ATs may reflect underlying
differences in patient clinical characteristics, with implications
for glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring.
Reference
1. Elze T et al. 2013 IOVS; 54 ARVO E-Abstract 3962.
Results
243 patients were included. AT1 (no focal defect) (P<0.001),
AT2 (superior defect) (P=0.045), AT4 (temporal wedge defect)
Figure 1
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
5 Patient Characteristics Associated with
Artifacts in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence
Tomography Imaging of the Retinal Nerve Fiber
Layer in Glaucoma
TERESA CHEN1, Huseyin Simavli2,
Chris Que2, Jennifer Rizzo2, Edem
Tsikata2, Rie Maurer2, Yingna Liu2
1
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary,
Harvard Medical School
2 Harvard Medical School
Purpose/Relevance
To determine patient factors and eye
conditions associated with artifacts in
spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) retinal
nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans.
Methods
A retrospective review was performed of patients who
underwent a complete eye exam (by TCC) with SD-OCT RNFL
scanning during the period of September 2009 to July 2013 at
an academic institution. The latest SD-OCT scan was used for
the study if a patient had multiple eye scans. The frequencies of
twelve artifact types were described in this retrospective review
of 2313 eye scans from 1188 patients. Generalized estimating
equations model was utilized to analyze associations between
increased artifact incidence and 10 patient characteristics,
which included age, sex, race, visual acuity, refractive error,
astigmatism, cataract status, glaucoma staging, visual field
reliability, and glaucoma diagnosis.
Results
The study population primarily consisted of normal and
glaucoma suspect eyes as well as eyes with open angle glaucoma,
117
ocular hypertension, and pediatric glaucoma. A total of 1070
or 46.3% of the 2313 eye scans had at least one artifact.
De-centration error was the most common artifact (27.8%),
followed by posterior vitreous detachment artifacts (14.4%).
Visual acuity of less than 20/40 (p<0.0001), presence of moderate
to severe cataracts (p<0.0001), advanced stage of glaucoma
(p<0.0001), and a diagnosis of open angle glaucoma (p=0.0003)
were associated with increased incidence of artifacts.
Discussion
The most common reasons for SD-OCT RNFL measurement
artifacts were de-centration, posterior vitreous detachments,
poor central vision, moderate to severe cataracts, and advanced
glaucoma.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest and most
comprehensive study on artifacts in spectral domain OCT
imaging for glaucoma. Clinicians should first assess scans for
artifacts before making therapeutic decisions based on RNFL
thickness measurements. Future technology improvements
should focus on eliminating artifacts from de-centration and
posterior vitreous detachments.
References
1. Ho J, Sull AC, Vuong LN, Chen Y, Liu J, Fujimoto JG, Schuman
JS, Duker JS. Assessment of artifacts and reproducibility across
spectral- and time-domain optical coherence tomography devices.
Ophthalmology 2009; 116: 1960–1970.
2. Han IC, Jaffe GJ. Evaluation of artifacts associated with macular
spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology
2010; 117: 1177–1189.
3. Asrani S, Essaid L, Alder BD, Santiago-Turla C. Artifacts in
Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements in
Glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132: 396-402.
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Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
6 Actin-Rich Astrocytic Extensions Re-orient Prior
to Axonal Injury Within the Optic Nerve Head in
a Rat Model of Glaucoma
SHANDIZ TEHRANI
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Conclusion
Re-orientation of ONH astrocyte extensions occurs early in
response to elevated IOP, is unique to the ONH, and specific for
IOP elevation.
Oregon Health & Science University,
Portland, OR
Purpose/Relevance
Optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes
react to tissue stress in the setting of
elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).1
ONH astrocytic reactivity may be
the link between elevated IOP and
axonal degeneration. The purpose of this study is to identify
and quantify morphologic changes in the orientation of ONH
astrocytic extensions in a rat model of glaucoma using the
filamentous actin marker, phalloidin.
Methods
Episcleral hypertonic saline injection was used to produce
chronic IOP elevation in rats and tissues were collected after 5
weeks. Fellow eyes served as controls. For comparison, eyes with
optic nerve transection were also collected at 2 weeks. Axonal
degeneration in retrobulbar optic nerves was graded on a scale
of 1-5. ONH sections (n ≥ 4 eyes per group) were co-labeled
with phalloidin and antibodies to astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic
protein (GFAP) and aquaporin 4 (Aqp4), or axonal tubulin βIII.
Confocal microscopy and FIJI image analysis software were used
to quantify the orientation of actin bundles.
Results
Control ONHs showed stereotypically arranged actin bundles
within astrocyte extensions (Fig. 1A, B), in contrast to
myelinated optic nerve (Fig. 1C). Actin-rich astrocytic extensions
co-labeled with GFAP and Aqp4; however, actin labeling defined
more astrocytic extensions than either GFAP or Aqp4 (Fig. 1D,
E). ONH actin bundle orientation was nearly perpendicular
to axons (82.9o ± 6.3o relative to axonal axis), unlike the
retrobulbar optic nerve (45.4o ± 28.7o, p<0.05). With IOP
elevation, ONH actin bundle orientation became disorganized,
even in eyes with no perceivable axonal injury (i.e. 38.8o ± 15.1o
in grade 1, p<0.05 in comparison to control ONHs; Fig. 2A, B).
With severe injury, ONH actin bundle orientation became more
parallel to the axonal axis (24.1o ± 28.4o, p<0.05 in comparison
to control ONHs; Fig. 2C, D). ONH actin bundle orientation in
transected optic nerves was unchanged (Fig. 2A-C).
Discussion
Actin filament labeling with phalloidin delineated fine astrocytic
extensions not reflected by either GFAP or Aqp4. Actin-rich
astrocytic extensions in the ONH are uniquely ordered in
contrast to the remainder of the optic nerve.
Figure 1
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Figure 2
Reference
1. Sun D, Qu J, Jakobs TC. Reversible reactivity by optic nerve
astrocytes. Glia. 2013;61:1218–1235.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
119
120
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
7 Association Between Intraocular Pressure
Changes and Structural Changes in Schlemm’s
Canal, Choroid, and Iridocorneal Angles During
the Water Drinking Test in Normal Subjects
JASON CHIEN1,2, Mark Ghassibi1,2,
Thipnapa Patthanathamrongkasem1,
Jeffrey Liebmann3,4, Robert Ritch1,
Sung Chul Park1,5
1
Moise and Chella Safra Advanced Ocular
Imaging Laboratory, Einhorn Clinical
Research Center, New York Eye and Ear
Infirmary
2 George Washington University School of
Medicine and Health Sciences
3 Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
4 Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Medical Center
5 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Purpose/Relevance
To investigate the structural changes in Schlemm’s canal (SC),
choroid, and iridocorneal angles in conjunction with intraocular
pressure (IOP) changes during the water drinking test (WDT).
Methods
Normal subjects were instructed to drink 1 liter of water within
5 minutes. 41 serial horizontal anterior segment enhanced depth
imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans
Figure 1
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
(interval between scans, ~70 µm) of the temporal corneoscleral
limbus, a horizontal macular EDI OCT scan at the foveal center,
and horizontal and vertical swept-source OCT scans of the
anterior segment were obtained on one eye of each participant 5
times: before, and at 15 minutes, 1, 3, and 24 hours after water
drinking. SC cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured after
manual SC delineation in anterior segment EDI OCT scans in
the overlapping area among the 5 sets of serial scans. Subfoveal
choroidal thickness was measured in each macular EDI OCT
scan. Trabecular iris angle (TIA500) was measured in horizontal
and vertical swept-source OCT scans.
Results
We included 12 eyes of 12 normal subjects (mean age =
37±15 years). Mean IOP increased significantly from baseline
(14.9±1.6 mmHg) at 15 minutes after water drinking (18.2±2.2
mmHg; p<0.001) and subsequently decreased at 1 (15.9±2.2
mmHg), 3 (14.3±1.9 mmHg), and 24 hours (14.4±1.9 mmHg)
(p=0.19, 0.18, and 0.37, respectively). Mean SC CSA decreased
significantly from baseline (4998±725 µm2) at 15 minutes
(4566±679 µm2; p<0.001) and subsequently increased at 1
(4796±646 µm2), 3 (4784±538 µm2) and 24 hours (4821±604
µm2) (p=0.14, 0.19, and 0.14, respectively). Mean subfoveal
choroidal thickness increased significantly from baseline
(296±104 µm) at 15 minutes (310±108 µm; p<0.001) and 1
hour (304±105 µm; p=0.004) and subsequently decreased at
3 (300±108 µm) and 24 hours (296±101 µm) (p=0.10 and
0.74, respectively). Mean TIA500 decreased significantly from
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
baseline (44.1±13.3°) at 15 minutes (41.0±13.5°; p=0.006) and
1 hour (42.2±12.5°; p=0.037) and subsequently increased at
3 (44.4±12.7°) and 24 hours (45.1±13.6°) (p=0.76 and 0.32,
respectively). In all parameters studied, peak changes from
baseline occurred at 15 minutes after water drinking.
Discussion
SC compression in acute IOP elevation is consistent with
a previous report.1 Our results further demonstrated that
SC returns to baseline size as IOP decreases to its baseline
level. Transient choroidal expansion2 and iridocorneal
angle narrowing at the time of IOP elevation suggest a
pathophysiologic mechanism for SC compression.
121
Conclusion
Dynamic changes occur in posterior (choroid) and anterior (SC
and iridocorneal angles) segments during WDT provocation.
Transient SC compression in acute IOP elevation during the
WDT may be attributed to choroidal expansion and subsequent
forward movement of the iris-lens diaphragm. Studies on these
dynamic changes may be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology
of IOP elevation in various conditions.
References
1. Kagemann L, Wang B, Wollstein G, et al. IOP elevation reduces
Schlemm’s canal cross-sectional area. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
2014;55:1805-9.
2. De Moraes CG, Reis AS, Cavalcante AF, et al. Choroidal expansion
during the water drinking test. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol
2009;247:385-9.
122
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
8 Kalman Filter User-Friendly Decision Support
Tool for Visualizing and Monitoring Open-Angle
Glaucoma Progression
MARIEL LAVIERI1, Manqi Li1, Sam
Devaprasad1, Greggory Schell1, Pamela
Martinez Villarreal1, Jonathan Helm2,
Mark Van Oyen1, David Musch1,
Joshua Stein1
1
The University of Michigan
2 Indiana University
Purpose/Relevance
To create a user friendly interface and decision support tool
that can visualize tonometric and perimetric measurements of
patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG), including intraocular
pressure (IOP), mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard
deviation (PSD) values, and to display dynamically-adjusted,
personalized forecasts of these indicators and optimized
recommendations for when the patient should be tested next.
Methods
The tool was developed in Excel 2013 using Visual Basic for
Applications (VBA) and MATLAB Compiler Runtime. The tool
displays data from past visits and changes in key ophthalmic
test results to support clinical decision making. It runs Kalman
filtering algorithms1 to model the IOP, MD, and PSD dynamics
of patients with OAG. Knowledge about those dynamics is
updated as additional readings from the patient are obtained.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
It generates forecasted values for IOP, MD, and PSD for each
individual patient as well as suggested testing frequencies in
the form of a “time to next test”. The tool has been calibrated
and validated using longitudinal data from patients who were
enrolled in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study
and the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study.
Results
A sample screenshot from the tool is presented in Figure 1. This
tool calculates adjusted predictions and personalized testing
frequencies in real-time, providing clinicians with valuable
insight to enable personalized glaucoma management.
Discussion
This software generates real-time personalized predictions of the
status of each patient’s OAG and when future testing should be
performed so as to identify progression in a timely manner.
Conclusion
It is possible to integrate a Kalman Filter approach into a
software tool that can run on personal computers to improve
visualization of tonometric and perimetric measurements and
how they change over time. Such information can enhance
patient care.
Reference
1. G. Schell, M.S. Lavieri, J. Helm, X. Liu, D. Musch, M. Van Oyen,
J. D. Stein. Using Filtered Forecasting Techniques to Determine
Personalized Monitoring Schedules for Patients with Open-Angle
Glaucoma. Opthalmology. 2014; 121(8):1539-46.
Figure 1. Sample tool output. Visual field plots (left) and prior, current, and forecasted test results (right).
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
9 The Relationship Between Conventional Measures
of Visual Function and Motor Vehicle Collisions in
Glaucoma: Do We Need Better Tests?
ANDREW J. TATHAM1, Erwin Boer2,
Carolina Gracitelli 3, Peter Rosen3,
Linda Zangwill 3, Robert Weinreb3,
Felipe Medeiros3
1
University of Edinburgh, UK
Entropy Control, Inc., La Jolla, CA
3 University of California, San Diego
2
123
Results
18 of 153 subjects (11.8%) reported a MVC. The MVC group
was older, had worse binocular SAP sensitivity, worse contrast
sensitivity, worse ability to divide attention (UFOV and driving
simulation) and drove fewer miles. Low contrast driving
simulation was the best discriminator of MVC (AUC 0.80 versus
0.69 for binocular SAP and 0.59 for UFOV). In multivariate
models, longer reaction times to driving simulator tasks provided
additional value compared to SAP and UFOV, with a 1 standard
deviation increase in reaction time (approximately 0.75s)
associated with 2-fold increased odds of MVC.
Discussion
Purpose/Relevance
Although drivers with glaucoma are at increased risk of motor
vehicle collisions (MVCs), the association with conventional tests
of visual function is weak. Better methods to assess MVC risk are
needed. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of
two tests of divided attention – Useful Field of View (UFOV) and
divided attention during simulated driving.1
Methods
A cross-sectional study of 153 drivers with glaucoma or suspect
glaucoma from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study
(DIGS) at Hamilton Glaucoma Center, University of California,
San Diego. All subjects had visual acuity, contrast sensitivity,
SAP, UFOV, driving simulation, and cognitive assessment. The
driving simulator evaluated reaction times to peripheral stimuli
presented at 3 contrasts during a driving task. Three-year history
of MVCs and average mileage per week were recorded.
Measures of ability to divide attention during simulated driving
were more strongly associated with MVC than conventional
functional measures or UFOV.
Conclusion
Given the significance of MVCs, the present study underscores
the need to develop better methods of risk assessment in drivers
with glaucoma, and provides evidence that predictive models
that account for the ability to divided attention may provide a
means to improve estimates of risk.
Reference
1. Tatham AJ, et al. Glaucomatous Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer
Thickness Loss is associated with Slower Reaction Times under a
Divided Attention Task. Am J Ophthalmol 2014, in press.
124
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
10 Agreement Between Gonioscopic Examination
and Swept Source Spectral Domain Anterior
Segment Optical Coherence Tomography
(ASOCT) Imaging
MOHAMMED RIGI1, Alice Chuang2,
Laura Baker1, Lauren Blieden1,2,
Hector Bello Lopez-Portillo1,2,
David Lee1,2, Vandana Minnal 1,2,
Robert Feldman1,2
1
Robert Cizik Eye Clinic
The University of Texas Medical
School
2
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate agreement between gonioscopy and spectral domain
(CASIA SS-1000, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) ASOCT, as well as the
interobserver and intervisit agreement in narrow and open angle
eyes.
Methods
One eye of 86 participants was enrolled in the study. The study
eye was examined by gonioscopy using the Spaeth grading
system in the dark by 2 glaucoma specialists on the same day
and imaged by the CASIA SS-1000 in the dark using 2D mode.
A second set of measurements was taken within 6 months of
the first. The images were exported, and superior angles were
evaluated by 2 readers and described using Spaeth terms. The
Spaeth grades from both instruments were converted to angle
status “Closed” if the grade was A or B and “Open” if the grade
was C, D, or E. Both the gonioscopy and ASOCT examiners
were masked to the readings performed by their counterparts.
Kappa statistics were used to calculate inter-instrument
agreement as well as the interobserver and intervisit agreement
for each instrument. The agreement criteria were <0.4 poor; 0.4
– 0.75 fair to good; and > 0.75 excellent.1
Results
Of 86 participants, the mean age was 50.9 ± 18.4 years with
69% female and 40% White, 23% Hispanic, and 22% Black.
Forty-seven percent were normal eyes, 23% open angle
glaucoma eyes (or suspects), and 30% narrow angle glaucoma
eyes (or suspects). Seventeen percent of participants did not
return for the second visit. Please see Tables 1 and 2 for
additional results. ASOCT “over-called” closed angles compared
to gonioscopy in 13-33% of eyes. Discussion
Both gonioscopy examiners and ASOCT readers had good to
excellent agreement when classifying angle status as open or
closed. The agreement between gonioscopy and ASOCT was
poor to fair on visit 1 and fair to good for visit 2, which may be
due to the indentation of the cornea during gonioscopy.
Conclusion
ASOCT and gonioscopy have good to excellent interobserver
and intervisit agreement. ASOCT may result in more angles
being classified as closed. Reference
1. Fleiss, J.L. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 2nd ed.
New York; John Wiley; 1981. Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
11 Shorter Scleral Spur in Eyes with Primary OpenAngle Glaucoma
HAIYAN GONG1, David Swain1, Joseph
Ho2, Julia Lai1
1 Boston
University
England Eye Center
2 Tufts-New
Purpose/Relevance
To determine whether the scleral
spur is shorter in primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG) eyes compared to
age-matched normal eyes and whether
the collapse of Schlemm’s canal (SC) is more prevalent in eyes
with a shorter scleral spur.
Methods
The anterior segments of normal (n = 21) and POAG eyes (n =
21) were fixed and processed for light microscopy. The scleral
spur length, ratio of posterior trabecular meshwork (TM)
insertion into the scleral spur to the posterior TM height, and
the percentage of SC collapse were measured. Analysis using
an existing mathematical model was conducted to estimate
the distances that the scleral spur would theoretically move in
vivo and to determine if thesedistances would be sufficient to
keep SC open in POAG compared to normal eyes.
Results
The mean scleral spur length was significantly shorter in POAG
eyes compared to normal eyes (p < 0.0001). A higher percentage
125
of SC collapse was found in POAG eyes than in normal eyes (p <
0.0001). Estimated posterior movement of scleral spur in POAG
eyes was less than sufficient to prevent the collapse of SC. A
significant negative correlation was found between the posterior
scleral spur movement and percent collapse of SC (p < 0.0001).
Discussion
A shorter scleral spur found in POAG eyes is associated with an
insufficient posterior scleral spur movement and a high incidence
of SC collapse, which we believe is due to insufficient support
of SC and TM by the short scleral spur. If these values could
be measured in-vivo, they could provide additional means for
management of POAG.
Conclusion
A shorter scleral spur found in POAG eyes was associated with
a higher percent of SC collapse. Our data suggest that a shorter
scleral spur may be a risk factor in the development of POAG by
being insufficient to hold SC open.
References
1. Moses RA, Grodzki WJ. The scleral spur and scleral roll. Invest
Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1977;16:925-931.
2. Nesterov AP, Hasanova NH, Batmanov YE. Schlemm’s canal and
scleral spur in normal and glaucomatous eyes. Acta Ophthalmol
1974;52:634-646.
126
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
12 Retinal Glutamate Uptake in Stressed
Müller Cells
KOLKO1,
Tsai2,
MIRIAM
James
Rupali
Vohra1, Anne Katrine Toft-Kehler1,
Iswariyaraja Gurubaran1, Dorte Skytt1
1
University of Copenhagen
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of
Mount Sinai and Icahn School of Medicine
at Mount Sinai
2
Purpose/Relevance
The viability of retinal ganglion cells is essential to maintain the
neuronal function of the retina. Müller cells (MC) are assumed
to be vital in neuroprotection of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC).
In this study we evaluate the ability of MC, stressed by energy
restriction, mitochondrial inhibition or low-grade inflammation,
to remove glutamate from the extracellular space and to protect
RGC.
Methods
The human Müller glial cell line, MIO-M1 (Limb et al.) and
primary mouse Müller cells, were used in combination with
primary mouse RGC. Changes in glutamate (glu) uptake
and release were evaluated in stressed MC. The viability and
mitochondrial function were evaluated, and the expression
of glutamate receptors as well as apoptotic and inflammatory
genes were evaluated. By means of western blot analysis and
immunohistochemistry gene regulations were confirmed at the
protein level. Finally, MC ability to protect RGC was evaluated
in a co-culture model in which MC were exposed to the different
stress factors. Results
The glutamate transporters EAAT1-3 were identified in MIOM1 cells. Levels of EAAT1 protein were identified in MIO-M1
cells and was shown to be up-regulated in energy restricted MC.
Energy restriction caused a graduate loss of glycogen stores but
did not cause MC death. Glu uptake was increased in energy
restricted MC whereas glu uptake decreased in MC exposed to
endothelin-1 or H2O2. Inhibition of mitochondrial activity did
not affect viability or glu uptake in MC with sufficient energy
availability, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial activity in
energy compromised MC reduced MC viability, and reduced
their ability to remove glu from the extracellular space. The
presence of MC in inserts over RGC increased RGC viability.
When MC were stressed their ability to protect RGC decreased.
Discussion
In a model system the presence of MC increase RGC survival.
The MC homeostasis and the regulation of glu-transporters and
low-grade inflammatory molecules are affected in MC when
stressed by either energy restriction or exposure to oxidative
stress/low-grade inflammation. When MC are exposed to either
restricted energy availability or low-grade inflammation, their
homeostasis change and their ability to protect RGC is affected.
Conclusion
Overall, the present study reveals an important role of MC in
RGC survival.
Reference
1. Limb GA, Salt TE, Munro PMG, Moss SE, Khaw PT. (2002) In
vitro characterization of a spontaneously immortalized human
Müller cell line (MIO-M1). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:864–869. Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
13 Pilocarpine Expands Schlemm’s Canal in OpenAngle Glaucoma Patients
ROSMAN1,
Skaat1,
MICHAEL
Alon
Jeffrey Liebmann2, Sung Chul Park3,
Robert Ritch3
1
New York Eye and Ear of Mount Sinai
Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia
University
3 Manhattan Eye and Ear Infirmary
2
127
Results
Ten eyes (10 subjects; mean age, 69±12 years) were included.
Mean intraocular pressure was 18.6±6.5 mmHg before
pilocarpine administration and 17.7±6.5 mmHg after (p<0.01).
SC could be imaged successfully before and after pilocarpine
administration and was continuous in the scanned area in all
eyes. Following pilocarpine administration, mean SC crosssectional area increased by 40%, from 2107±313 µm2 to
2938±904 µm2 (p<0.001). Mean SC volume increased from
7294201 ±1076359 µm3 to 10139750 ±3124602 µm3 (p=0.01).
Discussion
Purpose/Relevance
Pilocarpine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist,
increases trabecular outflow and has been used in the treatment
of glaucoma for over 140 years.1 An improved understanding
of its effect on the structure of Schlemm’s canal (SC) in vivo in
glaucoma patients may help better explain its mechanism of
action. Methods
Open-angle glaucoma patients with no other ocular or systemic
diseases known to affect iridocorneal angle or trabecular
aqueous outflow structures were prospectively recruited. Eightyone serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical
coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans (interval between B-scans,
~35 µm) of the nasal corneoscleral limbal area were obtained
before and 40 minutes after topical administration of pilocarpine
2% in one eye of each patient. All patients developed miosis
after pilocarpine administration. The EDI OCT B-scans in the
overlapping area between the two sets of serial scans (before
and after pilocarpine administration) were selected for analysis
using conjunctival vessels and iris anatomy as landmarks. The
SC cross-sectional area was measured in each selected EDI OCT
B-scan. After three-dimensional reconstruction, SC volume was
determined. We demonstrated significant increase in SC cross-sectional
area and volume after pilocarpine administration. Whether this
results from a direct effect on SC or is secondary to an effect on
the ciliary musculature and/or trabecular meshwork remains to
be determined. Conclusion
Pilocarpine expands SC in open-angle glaucoma patients. EDI
OCT of SC may prove useful in the evaluation the mechanisms
of action of pharmacologic agents for glaucoma.
Reference
1. Rosin, A. (1991). “Pilocarpine. A miotic of choice in
the treatment of glaucoma has passed 110 years of
use”. Oftalmologia (Romania) 35 (1): 53–55.
128
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
14 Differences in Iris Parameters Among
Caucasians, Chinese, and Japanese
LINDA WANG1, Rebecca Chen2,
Roland Lee2, CHI-HSIN HSU2, Dandan
Wang3, Shan Lin2, Toshimitsu Kasuga4
1
UCSF School of Medicine
UCSF
3 UCLA
4 Juntendo University School of Medicine
2
Purpose/Relevance
To assess the differences in iris structural measurements among
American Caucasians, Chinese, and Japanese aged 40 years and
over, in order to determine associated factors of increased risk
for angle closure in Chinese and Japanese patients.
Methods
Prospective multi-center cross-sectional study with three genderand age-matched cohorts: American Caucasians, Chinese, and
Japanese. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography
(ASOCT) was used to image the anterior segment. Customized
software was then used to calculate the related parameters from
ASOCT images.
Results
The main outcome measures of this study were iris thickness
at 750µm from the scleral spur (IT750), iris curvature (ICurv),
iris area (IArea), and pupil diameter (PD). Data from 121
Caucasian, 124 Chinese, and 62 Japanese subjects were eligible
for analysis after exclusions. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and multiple
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
linear regression analysis showed that both Chinese and Japanese
had thicker irises (P = 0.023, P = 0.040, respectively) and larger
iris areas (P=0.002, P<0.001, respectively) than Caucasians. In
addition, Japanese patients had more concave irises and larger
pupil diameters compared to Caucasians (P<0.001 for ICurv and
PD) and Chinese (P<0.001 for ICurv, P=0.005 for PD).
Discussion
After controlling for potential confounding variables using
ANCOVA, we found that there are indeed significant differences
in IT750, ICurv, IArea, and pupil diameter between the three
ethnicities. Multiple linear regression showed that both Chinese
and Japanese had thicker irises and larger iris areas than their
Caucasian counterparts. These data corroborate previous studies
implicating these factors as causing “crowding” at the angle,
impeding the outflow of aqueous fluid to create relatively high
angle closure rates in Asian populations.
Conclusion
In dark conditions, Japanese patients are similar to Chinese in
that they have thicker irises and larger iris areas compared to
age- and gender-matched Caucasians. In addition, Japanese
patients have more anteriorly bowed irises and larger pupil
diameters compared to both Chinese and Caucasians.
References
1. Wang BS, Narayanaswamy A, Amerasinghe N et al. Increased iris
thickness and association with primary angle closure glaucoma. Br
J Ophthalmol 2011; 95: 46–50.
2. Wang D et. al. Differences in iris structural measurements among
American Caucasians, American Chinese and mainland Chinese.
Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2012 Mar;40(2):162-9.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
15 Effect of Latanoprostene Bunod Compared with
Timolol Maleate on Ocular Perfusion Pressure in
Subjects with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular
Hypertension (CONSTELLATION)
JOHN LIU1, Jason Vittitow2, Baldo
Sforzolini2, Robert Weinreb1
1
2
University of California, San Diego
Bausch+Lomb
Purpose/Relevance
Latanoprostene bunod (LBN) is an
NO-donating prostaglandin F2α
receptor agonist under development for
the reduction of elevated intraocular
pressure (IOP) in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG)
or ocular hypertension (OHT). The CONSTELLATION study
previously showed that LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024%
administered QD reduced IOP in patients with OAG or OHT
over a 24 hour period whereas timolol maleate ophthalmic
solution 0.5%, administered BID, reduced daytime IOP
only. Here we explore ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), the
relationship between systemic blood pressure and IOP, in that
study.
Methods
This was a randomized, single-center, open-label, activecomparator, crossover study. Subjects instilled either 1 drop of
LBN QD (8 PM) or 1 drop of timolol BID (8 PM, 8 AM) for
4 weeks and were crossed over to the alternate treatment for
another 4 weeks. IOP and arterial blood pressure (BP) were
129
measured every 2 hours for 24 hours at the baseline, week 4 and
week 8 study visits. Sitting OPP was defined as 95/140 x mean
blood pressure - IOP, while supine OPP was defined as 115/130
x mean blood pressure - IOP. Results
LBN 0.024% demonstrated consistent, higher than baseline,
OPP for the entire 24-hour period (n=21). The mean (±SE)
change from baseline (CFB) diurnal sitting, diurnal supine and
nocturnal supine OPP (mmHg) was 3.8 (±1.0), 4.0 (±0.9), and
2.2 (±1.2), respectively, during LBN treatment (P<0.01 for
diurnal sitting and supine) and 2.0 (±1.0), 2.2 (±0.9), and -1.3
(±1.2), respectively, during timolol treatment. The difference
between treatments in the CFB was significant for diurnal sitting
and nocturnal supine OPP (P≤0.02). Discussion
Low OPP has been implicated as a risk factor in the progression
of OAG. In our study, LBN lowered IOP without any negative
effects on MAP leading to a greater OPP compared to baseline
during the day and compared to timolol during the night.
Conclusion
The ability of LBN to improve OPP together with sustained IOP
lowering over a 24 h period may be of benefit in the management
of patients with OHT and OAG and warrants further study. Reference
1. Liu JHK et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:E-abstract 3549.
130
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
16 Differences in SENSIMED Triggerfish®
Parameters Between Treated Glaucomatous
Eyes Experiencing Previous Fast and Slow Rates
of Visual Field Progression
C. GUSTAVO DE MORAES1, Sonja
Simon-Zoula2, Jessica Jasien3, Robert
Ritch3, Jeffrey Liebmann1
1
Columbia University Medical Center
Sensimed AG
3 New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of
Mount
2
Purpose/Relevance
SENSIMED Triggerfish® (TF) is a device based on a contact-lens
sensor that measures ocular dimensional changes in corneoscleral
biomechanics that occur in part due to changes in intraocular
pressure (IOP). We tested the hypothesis that TF parameters
differ between treated glaucoma eyes experiencing previous fast
and slow visual field (VF) progression.
Methods
In this prospective interventional study, primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG) patients with at least 8 reliable 24-2 SITAStandard VF tests were included. Eyes were classified as having
fast progression if (i) pointwise progression (defined as two or
more adjacent VF test locations in the same hemifield) revealed
a threshold sensitivity rate of change more negative than -1.0
dB/year with p<0.01 or (ii) a global rate of VF change based
on mean deviation score (MD) more negative than -1.0 dB/
year. Slowly or minimally progressing eyes were those with a
VF MD rate of change more positive than -0.5 dB/year with
no significant pointwise progression. 40 eyes (40 patients)
were enrolled although 9 eyes were excluded due to poor or
insufficient TF signals. 24-hour TF parameters were compared
between the two groups.
Figure 1
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
15 fast and 16 slow progressors safely underwent 24-hour
TF session and provided satisfactory outputs. Paradoxically,
eyes with previous slow progression revealed TF parameters
consistent with higher peaks and fluctuation at night,
despite similar profiles during the day (Figure). However,
fast progressors had lower Goldman IOP at the time of
TF placement, were on a greater number of anti-glaucoma
medications (particularly prostaglandins), and had greater
number of laser trabeculoplasty procedures (overall P<0.05).
Logistic modeling of the relationship between TF parameters and
disease progression rate yielded a model with 94.1% specificity
and 41.2% sensitivity, with TF variability from mean during the
sleep period as the only significant variable. Linear regression
identified 24-hour median peak ratio, TF variability from mean
during sleep period and 24-hour mean trough ratio as significant
variables.
Discussion
Patients with previous fast progression were treated more
aggressively, which resulted in the decrease of nocturnal peaks
and variability, despite similar daytime profiles. TF parameters
are useful to depict the effects of glaucoma treatment on 24-hour
volumetric changes of eyes experiencing previous fast or slow
progression.
Conclusion
TF parameters may be useful to define treatment efficacy of IOPlowering interventions.
Reference
1. Mansouri K, Medeiros FA, Tafreshi A, Weinreb RN. Continuous
24-hour monitoring of intraocular pressure patterns with a contact
lens sensor: safety, tolerability, and reproducibility in patients with
glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130(12):1534-9.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
17 Optic Nerve Morphology as a Marker for Disease
Severity in Cerebral Palsy of Perinatal Origin
DEEPTA GHATE1,2, Sachin Kedar1,2,
Abdulbaset Kamour3
1
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Truhlsen Eye Institute
3 University of Kentucky College of Public
Health
2
Purpose/Relevance
To correlate optic nerve head (ONH)
pallor and cupping to period of
gestation (POG) at birth and severity of neurological damage in
children with perinatal onset static encephalopathy (POSE).
Methods
54 consecutive patients with POSE were enrolled. Exclusion
criteria included genetic, metabolic or congenital structural brain
abnormalities not related to perinatal complications; intraocular
disease (ROP/glaucoma/cataract) and hydrocephalus. ONH
morphology (pallor and cup to disc ratio-CDR) was assessed
independently by 2 fellowship-trained ophthalmologists by
dilated examination using direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy.
ONH were labeled as pale or large cup (cup/disc ratio≥0.5) only
if the 2 ophthalmologists agreed. Inter-rater reliability was >0.8
for all parameters. A pediatric neurologist determined eligibility,
age of onset of POSE, neurological deficit and reviewed available
neuroimaging. Results
Mean age was 11.88±6.53years; period of gestation at birth:
33.26±4.78weeks. 33/54 (61%) showed ONH pallor or cupping.
Of the patients with ONH pallor (n=17), 88% were quadriplegic
131
and 82% non-ambulatory. Mean cup/disc ratio was 0.45±0.22;
50% patients had large cup. Multivariate logistic regression
models showed that disc pallor was significantly associated with
non-ambulatory status (OR: 12.5; p=0.03) and quadriplegia
(OR: 21.7; p=0.0025) and large cup was associated with age at
examination (OR 1.15; p=0.025). Cup/disc ratio and age showed
positive correlation (r=0.42; p=0.002). ONH parameters were
not statistically associated with POG at birth. Discussion
It has been previously hypothesized that a large cup in premature
children is associated with period of gestation (POG) > 28
weeks.1 It is difficult to prognosticate the eventual neurologic
outcome and ambulatory status from POSE till age 2-5 years.
Earlier referral for rehabilitation can result in improved
functional outcomes in children with POSE. Recognition of the
association of POSE and large cups will prevent unnecessary
examinations under anesthesia for glaucoma.
Conclusion
ONH changes are common in POSE and are not associated with
POG. Optic disc pallor, a bedside clinical finding is a prognostic
indicator for severe neurological insult in high-risk children with
perinatal complications that should prompt early referral for
rehabilitation. Optic disc cupping is correlated with the age at
examination which may indicate that the cupping worsens with
age.
Reference
1. Jacobson L et al: Optic disc morphology may reveal timing of insult
in children with periventricular leucomalacia and/or periventricular
haemorrhage. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003.87:1345-9.
132
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
18 A Randomized Trial of Fixed-Dose Combination
Brinzolamide 1% / Brimonidine 0.2% as
Adjunctive Therapy to Prostaglandin Analogs
ROBERT FECHTNER1, Donald
Budenz2, Harvey DuBiner3, Albert
Khouri1, Douglas Hubatsch4, Jonathan
Myers5
1
Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual
Science, New Jersey Medical School,
Rutgers, Newark, NJ
2 University of North Carolina School of
Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC
3 Clayton Eye Center, Morrow, GA
4 Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX
5 Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA
Purpose/Relevance
Brinzolamide 1%/brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination
(BBFC) is an effective IOP-lowering therapy that produces
IOP reductions of 5.4 to 8.8 mmHg from untreated baseline
levels.1 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and
efficacy of adding BBFC to patients with open-angle glaucoma
or ocular hypertension who were inadequately controlled with
prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy.
Methods
This was a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallelgroup study conducted at 30 sites in the United States from
October 2013 to May 2014 (NCT01937312). Patients washed
out prior glaucoma medications and received once-daily
latanoprost 0.005%, bimatoprost 0.01%, or travoprost 0.004%
open-label for 30 days. Eligible patients were randomized to
receive BBFC or vehicle 3 times daily plus their once-daily PGA
for the 6-week study phase. The primary efficacy endpoint was
the between-group difference in mean diurnal IOP (8 am, 10 am,
3 pm, and 5 pm average) at week 6; mean and percent betweengroup difference in diurnal IOP change from baseline at week 6
were secondary endpoints. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored
throughout the study.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
188 patients were randomized and received study medication;
the intent-to-treat population comprised 182 (BBFC+PGA,
n=88; vehicle+PGA, n=94). Mean ± SD age was 65.1±9.5 years,
and most patients were female (63.7%), white (63.7%), and
diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma (78.6%). Mean diurnal
IOP at baseline was similar between groups (BBFC+PGA,
22.7±2.1 mmHg; vehicle+PGA, 22.4±2.8 mmHg). Least squares
(LS) mean ± SE diurnal IOP at week 6 was 17.1±0.4 mmHg
with BBFC+PGA and 20.5±0.4 mmHg with vehicle+PGA. The
between-group difference was –3.4±0.5 mmHg (P<0.0001).
Mean diurnal IOP reduction from baseline was –5.7±0.30 with
BBFC+PGA mmHg vs –1.9±0.3 mmHg with vehicle+PGA
(difference, –3.7±0.4 mmHg; P<0.0001); this translated
to –24.7±1.3% vs –8.2±1.2% (difference, –16.5±1.8%;
P<0.0001). The most common treatment-related AE was blurred
vision (BBFC+PGA, 9.7%; vehicle+PGA, 6.3%). AE-related
discontinuations were reported for 10.8% and 1.1% of patients,
receiving BBFC+PGA or vehicle+PGA, respectively.
Discussion
BBFC+PGA produced significantly lower IOP and significantly
greater IOP reductions from baseline at week 6 compared
with vehicle+PGA, demonstrating an additive effect. AEs were
consistent with the known safety profile of BBFC and PGAs.2,3
Conclusion
The IOP-lowering efficacy of BBFC adjunctive to PGA therapy
was superior to PGA monotherapy and was not associated
with new safety concerns. BBFC+PGA offers an effective
treatment option for patients inadequately controlled with PGA
monotherapy.
References
1. Katz G, et al. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(6):724-730.
2. Alm A, et al. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008;53(suppl1):S93-105.
3. Nguyen QH. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2014;8:853-864.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
19 Relationship Between 24-hour Systemic Blood
Pressure and SENSIMED Triggerfish Recording
in Glaucoma Patients
ELANA ROSENBERG1, C. Gustavo De
Moraes1, Jessica Jasien2, Jeffrey
Liebmann2, Robert Ritch2, Sonja
Simon-Zoula3
1
Columbia University
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary
3 Sensimed
2
Purpose/Relevance
SENSIMED Triggerfish® (TF) is a device based on contact-lens
sensor that measures dimensional changes in corneoscleral
biomechanics that occur in part due to changes in intraocular
pressure (IOP), allowing real-time, semi-continuous 24-hour
monitoring. We investigated the relationship between TF IOPrelated parameters and systemic blood pressure (BP) variations
in treated glaucoma patients with previous fast vs. slow rates of
visual field (VF) progression.
Methods
Patients were classified as either fast or slow progressors based
on VF testing prior to TF placement. Eyes were classified as
133
having fast progression if (i) pointwise progression (defined as
two or more adjacent VF test locations in the same hemifield)
revealed a threshold sensitivity rate of change more negative than
-1.0 dB/year with p<0.01 or (ii) a global rate of VF change based
on mean deviation score (MD) more negative than -1.0 dB/year.
Slowly or minimally progressing eyes were those with a VF MD
rate of change more positive than -0.5 dB/year with no significant
pointwise progression. 40 eyes (40 patients) were enrolled
although 9 eyes were excluded due to poor or insufficient TF
signals. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP during the
24-hour monitoring, including while asleep and awake were
analyzed. We tested the association between BP parameters and
the following TF IOP-related parameters: 24-hour median:peak
ratio; 24-hour minimum:peak ratio; 24-hour variability from
mean; sleep variability from mean; 24-hour mean:trough ratio;
24-hour wake to sleep slope; 24-hour number of peaks; sleep
number of peaks.
Results
15 fast and 16 slow progression eyes were studied. Table A
summarizes the main findings. Overall, fast progressors had
significantly lower systolic BP at all periods compared to slow
progressors, whereas mean arterial BP and diastolic BP reached
borderline significance in the period patients were awake. There
was no significant correlation between BP parameters and any of
the TF IOP-related parameters.
Comparisons between Groups Parameter/ Period/ Progression group Mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 24-­‐hour Sleep Wake Mean Arterial Pressure (mmHg) 24-­‐hour Sleep Wake Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 24-­‐hour Sleep Wake TABLE A SD Min Median Max P-­‐Value Slow 72.3 15.9 35.0 71.0 168.0 Fast 71.7 14.2 40.0 71.0 136.0 0.368 Slow 65.7 14.8 35.0 65.0 134.0 Fast 65.5 11.2 40.0 66.0 114.0 0.840 Slow 76.6 15.2 41.0 76.0 168.0 Fast 75.1 14.5 43.0 74.0 136.0 0.068 Slow 90.0 16.7 52.0 89.0 179.0 Fast 89.2 14.5 56.0 88.0 156.0 0.234 Slow 83.3 16.4 52.0 81.0 162.0 Fast 82.5 11.8 56.0 83.0 130.0 0.424 Slow 94.4 15.4 53.0 93.0 179.0 Fast 92.9 14.5 59.0 93.0 156.0 0.069 Slow 124.7 19.1 76.0 124.0 226.0 Fast 121.8 18.8 78. 120.0 200.0 <.001 Slow 117.5 19.5 76.0 114.0 198.0 Fast 114.3 17.2 78.0 112.0 178.0 0.013 Slow 129.4 17.2 83.0 128.0 226.0 Fast 125.9 18.4 80.0 125.0 200.0 <.001 134
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Discussion
References
Our findings support recent studies suggesting an association
between systemic BP and glaucomatous VF progression.
However, there appears to be no significant relationship between
these hemodynamic changes and TF IOP-related parameters.
TF parameters may not be affected by circadian hemodynamic
variations in treated glaucoma patients.
1. Leske MC, Heijl A, Hyman L, Bengtsson B, Dong L, Yang
Z. Predictors of long-term progression in the early manifest
glaucoma trial. Ophthalmology 2007; 114: 1965–1972.
Conclusion
In conclusion, parameters as measured by the SENSIMED
Triggerfish did not appear to have a significant relationship to
systemic blood pressure. Additional research is warranted to
more fully explicate these findings.
2. Hulsman CA, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, Witteman JC, de Jong
PT. Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and open-angle glaucoma:
the Rotterdam study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Jun;125(6):805-12.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
20 Characterization of Ocular Phenotypes of
Microfibril Deficient Mice
135
Purpose/Relevance
had 3% greater ACD as compared to controls (p<0.05). For
both microfibril deficient and wild type mice, AL of females
was approximately 1.3% shorter as compared to males. From
3 to 6 months of age, AL increased approximately 3.6%.
Axial length was not different between microfibril deficient
and wild type controls. Thinning of the RNFL was observed in
the superior quadrants of microfibril deficient mice at 3 and 6
months. Thinning of the RNFL progressed to include the inferior
quadrants at 9 months. To characterize ocular phenotypes of
mice with defective microfibrils.
Discussion
RACHEL KUCHTEY1, Jessica Kunkel1,
John Scichilone1, John Kuchtey1
1
Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt
University
Methods
Two independent lines of mice with microfibril deficiencies
due to mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene were investigated and
compared to normal controls. Measurements were made at 3, 6
and 9 months of age. Central cornea thickness (CCT), anterior
chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) were measured by
spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using
the Bioptigen Envisu imaging system for mice. Retinal nerve fiber
layer thickness (RNFL) was determined by analysis of retinal
SD-OCT images using Diver 2.0 and MatLab software.
Results
Similar results were found for both lines of microfibril deficient
mice. CCT of microfibril deficient mice was approximately
17% thinner than CCT of controls (P<10-9). Microfibril mice
Microfibril deficient mice have thinner CCT and deeper ACD
but normal AL, as compared to controls. Similar findings in
both lines of microfibril deficient mice suggest that these ocular
phenotypes are caused by microfibril deficiency. Progressive
thinning of the RNFL found in microfibril deficient mice is
consistent with a glaucoma phenotype caused by microfibril
deficiency.
Conclusion
Microfibril deficient mice could be used as a glaucoma model for
further investigation of glaucoma pathogenesis and treatment.
Reference
1. Kuchtey J, Kuchtey RW. The microfibril hypothesis of glaucoma:
implications for treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. J
Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Mar-Apr;30(2-3):170-80. PMID:
24521159.
136
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
21 Iris Parameters in Open Angle Eyes Measured
with Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior
Segment Optical Coherence Tomography
(ASOCT)
JEFFREY PETERSON1,2, Alice Chuang1,
Hector Bello Lopez-Portillo1,2,
Mohammed Rigi2, Donna Nguyen1,2,
Lauren Blieden1,2, Robert Feldman1,2
1
The University of Texas Medical School
at Houston
2 Robert Cizik Eye Clinic
Purpose/Relevance
Accurate and reproducible measurements of iris anatomy are
limited by conventional imaging modalities, and standard
reference ranges for iris parameters in a normal population have
yet to be established. Newer generation ASOCT instruments,
including the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya,
Japan), utilize swept source Fourier domain technology to
produce rapid and high resolution measurements of the entire
iris. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the distribution
of iris parameters in the dark for open angle eyes using images
taken with the Casia SS-1000 and establish a reference range for
this population.
Methods
Ninety-eight participants with gonioscopically open angles
previously imaged with ASOCT were included1 and stratified
into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years).
An experienced reader used the Anterior Chamber Analysis and
Interpretation software to mark the scleral spur landmark.2 Iris
surface area, iris radius, and pupil radius were then determined.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Iris volume was calculated from iris surface area and iris radius
using Pappus’s centroid theorem formula. Iris parameters were
summarized for all eyes in each age group with descriptive
statistics, and means between age groups were compared using
one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results
The study included 55 White (56%), 23 Black (23%), 10
Hispanic (10%), and 10 Asian (10%) participants. Fifty-nine
eyes (50%) were women. The mean (±SD) age was 50 (±15)
years (range 21-79 years). The mean (±SD) for iris parameters
in all eyes and in eyes of each age group are shown in Table 1.
SD=standard deviation
Discussion
Both pupillary radius (P<0.001) and iris radius (P=0.007)
decreased with age. Iris volume was not affected by age
(P=0.625).
Conclusion
These results are the first to establish reference values for iris
parameters in the dark in an open angle population and will
be integrated into future studies examining iris changes in the
pathogenesis of primary angle closure.
References
1. Rigi M, Blieden LS, Nguyen D, et al. Trabecular-iris circumference
volume in open angle eyes using swept-source Fourier domain
anterior segment optical coherence tomography. J Ophthalmol
2014;2014:590978.
2. Cumba RJ, Radhakrishnan S, Bell NP, et al. Reproducibility of
scleral spur identification and angle measurements using fourier
domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography. J
Ophthalmol 2012;2012:487309.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
22 A Novel Testing Sequence for RAPDx
Pupillography
WILLIAMS1,
Results
Duan1,
ALICE
Xuanchu
Priyanka Gogte1, Michael Waisbourd1,
Lisa Hark1, George Spaeth1
1
137
Wills Eye Hospital
Purpose/Relevance
The presence of a relative afferent
pupillary defect (RAPD), traditionally
detected with the swinging flashlight
method, is a sign of optic nerve
pathology but is necessarily subjective. An objective tool that
could identify and quantify the degree of an RAPD could be
useful in identifying and staging patients with glaucoma.1 The
purpose of this study is to compare the standard testing sequence
on the Konan RAPDx pupillograph to a customized sequence.
This new sequence evokes a pupil response curve which more
closely resembles that produced by the swinging flashlight
method and allows for the measurement of a novel pupillary
response parameter, the duration of maximum constriction
(MC).
Methods
Nineteen patients with glaucoma underwent Humphrey visual
field testing and RAPDx testing using a standard sequence
and a custom sequence. Exclusion criteria included active
inflammation of the eye, recent intraocular procedure, and
any non-glaucomatous condition that may cause an RAPD,
anisocoria or corectopia. RAPDx testing results included
the response amplitude asymmetry (RAA), response latency
asymmetry (RLA), and MC. These parameters were correlated
with the visual field mean deviation (MD).
Higher RAA for both the standard (r=-0.51, p=0.03) and custom
sequences (r=-0.52, p=0.02) was significantly correlated with
worse average MD between the fellow eyes. Higher RAA for
the custom sequence was significantly correlated with greater
asymmetry of MD between the fellow eyes (r=0.48, p=0.04).
This association was not significant for the standard sequence
(r=0.43, p=0.07). Correlations between MD values and the other
pupillary response parameters, RLA and MC, failed to reach
significance. Discussion
RAA, a quantitative measure of asymmetric pupillary response
between the two eyes, correlates with disease severity as
measured by visual field MD in a group of patients with
glaucoma. Standard and custom testing sequences were similar
in this regard. The custom testing sequence may produce RAA
values that correlate more closely to MD asymmetry than those
produced by the standard testing sequence. Conclusion
A novel testing sequence for the RAPDx pupillograph provides
an objective, quantitative measure of pupillary dysfunction that
correlates with disease severity. Further research is needed to
determine the most useful testing sequences and combinations
of clinical and pupillary response parameters for detecting and
staging glaucoma.
References
1. Tatham et al. Detecting Glaucoma Using Automated Pupillography.
Ophthalmology 2014;1:1-9.
138
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
23 Refined Frequency Doubling Perimetry Analysis
Reaffirms Central Nervous System Control
of Chronic Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration
WILLIAM SPONSEL1, Analaura
Villareal 2, Matthew Reilly 2, Ted
Maddess3
1
WESMDPA, UTSA, UIW, and ARCCEVS
University of Texas San Antonio
3 Australian National University, Canberra
2
Purpose/Relevance
Refined analysis of frequency doubling
perimetric data was performed to assess
binocular visual field conservation in patients with comparable
degrees of bilateral glaucomatous damage, to determine whether
unilateral visual field loss is random, anatomically symmetric, or
non-random in relation to the fellow eye.
Methods
Case control study of 41 consecutive patients with bilaterally
mild to severe glaucoma; each right eye visual field locus
was paired with randomly-selected co-isopteric left eye loci,
performing 690,000 (10,000 complete sets of 69 loci) such
iterations per subject. The potential role of anatomic symmetry
in bilateral visual field conservation was also assessed by pairing
mirror-image loci of the right- and left-eye fields. The mean
values of the random co-isopteric and the symmetric mirror
pairings were compared with natural point-for-point pairings of
the two eyes by paired t-test.
Results
Mean unilateral Matrix thresholds across the entire 30-degree
visual field were 17.0 dB left and 18.4 dB right (average 17.7).
The better of the naturally paired concomitant loci yielded
binocular equivalent mean bilateral Matrix threshold of 20.9
dB, 1.6 dB higher than the population mean of the 690,000
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
coisopteric pairings (t = -10.4; P<10-12). Thus, a remarkable
natural tendency for conservation of the binocular Matrix visual
field was confirmed, far stronger than explicable by random
chance. Symmetric pairings of precise mirror-image loci also
produced values higher than random co-isopteric pairings
(∆ 1.1dB; t = -4.0; P=0.0004). Discussion
Integrated bilateral visual field analysis should better define
actual visual disability and more accurately reflect the functional
efficacy of current ocular and future CNS-oriented therapeutic
approaches to the treatment of glaucoma. Glaucomatous
eyes provide a highly accessible paired-organ study model for
developing therapeutics to optimize conservation of function in
neurodegenerative disorders.
Conclusion
Integrated bilateral visual field analysis should better define
actual visual disability and more accurately reflect the functional
efficacy of current ocular and future CNS-oriented therapeutic
approaches to the treatment of glaucoma. Glaucomatous
eyes provide a highly accessible paired-organ study model for
developing therapeutics to optimize conservation of function in
neurodegenerative disorders.
References
1. Sponsel WE, Groth SL, Satsangi N, Maddess T, Reilly MA. Refined
data analysis provides clinical evidence for central nervous system
control of chronic glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Transl Vis Sci
Tech 2014;3:1.
2. Crish SD, Sappington RM, Inman DM, Horner PJ, Calkins DJ.
Distal axonopathy with structural persistence in glaucomatous
neurodegeneration. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2010;107:5196-5201.
3. Schlamp CL, Li Y, Dietz JA, Janssen KT, Nickells RW. Progressive
ganglion cell loss and optic nerve degeneration in DBA/2J mice is
variable and asymmetric. BMC Neurosci 2006;7:66.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
24 Continuous Twenty-Four Hour Ocular
Dimensional Profiles Using a Contact Lens
Sensor in Ocular Hypertensive Patients SAMANTHA WANG1, Tomas Grippo1,
Jessica Maslin1, Chaoying Xu1, James
Tsai2, Sonja Simon-Zoula3, Ji Liu1
1
Yale University School of Medicine
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
3 Sensimed AG
2
Purpose/Relevance
To compare 24-hour ocular dimensional
profiles between untreated ocular
hypertensive (OHT) patients and those of healthy controls and
untreated primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using a
contact lens sensor.
Methods
We recruited seventeen patients with a documented history of
OHT to undergo a 24-hour recording session with a contact lens
sensor (Triggerfish®, Sensimed AG, Switzerland).1,2 Twenty-four
hour Triggerfish (TF) profiles and variables were then compared
to those of age-matched healthy controls (n=16) and untreated
POAG patients (n=16). OHT patients were further stratified
into glaucoma converters (n=5) and non-converters (n=12) using
clinical criteria.
Results
OHT patients (age range: 34-79 years, 47% males)
demonstrated a greater mean number of 24-hour TF peaks
compared to healthy controls (17.6±6.5 vs. 12.6±4.5, p=0.017)
139
and POAG patients (17.6±6.5 vs. 13.4±3.7, p=0.030). OHT
patients showed more nocturnal TF peaks compared to healthy
controls (6.9±3.6 vs. 3.6±1.2, p=0.002) and POAG patients
(6.9±3.6 vs. 4.2±1.6, p=0.010). The number of brief peaks
(trough-to-peak time <30 minutes) in the nocturnal period was
greater in OHT patients compared to healthy controls (8.4±7.3
vs. 4.4±3.7, p=0.009) and POAG patients (8.4±7.3 vs. 4.6±2.4,
p=0.020). No significant differences in the 24-hour TF profiles
were detected between converters and non-converters.
Discussion
OHT patients exhibited a higher number of TF peaks compared
to healthy controls and POAG patients. The majority of these
peaks occur during the nocturnal period and are brief in nature. Conclusion
Continuous 24-hour TF recordings are different in OHT patients
compared to healthy controls and untreated POAG patients.
Further work is needed to better understand TF characteristics
that may distinguish OHT patients at higher risk of developing
glaucoma.
References
1. Mansouri K, Shaarawy T. Continuous intraocular pressure
monitoring with a wireless ocular telemetry sensor: initial clinical
experience in patients with open angle glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol
2011;95(5):627-9.
2. Mansouri K, Medeiros FA, Tafreshi A, Weinreb RN. Continuous
24-hour monitoring of intraocular pressure patterns with a
contact lens sensor: safety, tolerability, and reproducibility in
patients with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2012;130(12):1534-9.
140
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
25 Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness,
and Body Mass Index as Risk Factors for
Glaucoma
HIDEKI FUKUOKA1, Chikako Tange1,
Rei Otsuka2, Fujiko Ando2, Hiroshi
Shimokata3
1 National Center for Geriatrics and
Gerontology
2 Aichi Shukutoku University
3 Nagoya Univ of Arts and Sciences
Purpose/Relevance
Glaucoma is a multifactor optic neuropathy for which the most
blamed factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Some papers
reported that a significant correlation was found between IOP
and central corneal thickness (CCT) or body mass index (BMI).
It is important for the diagnosis of glaucoma, in which, in the
early to medium-advanced stages, the vertical cup-to-disc ratio
(VCDR) increases earlier than the horizontal one. Herein, we
report the findings of a relationship between VCDR and IOP or
CCT or BMI after adjusted by age and optic disc area.
Methods
The subjects were 2,819 eyes conducted with no surgical history
(788 men, 739 women; average age, 59.6 ± 11.7 years) living in
the regions located at the center of Japan who had participated
in the third wave (2002–2004) of the National Institute of
Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA).
VCDR was assessed using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
II. Statistical analysis were conducted using the Analysis
System (SAS) (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). VCDR was set in
multivariate mixed linear model analysis as objective variables.
Explanatory variables were IOP, central corneal thickness
(CCT), and body mass index (BMI). The data were adjusted by
age and by optic disc area and analyzed by sex (male, female).
Results
VCDR significantly increased with a low BMI in male (F=7.55,
p=0.0062). Meanwhile, VCDR significantly increased with a thin
CCT (F=4.28, p=0.0389) and a high IOP (F=25.08, p<.0001)
in female. There was no significant relationship between VCDR
and CCT or IOP in male and VCDR and BMI in female. Discussion
It was shown that the risk factors for glaucoma may be different
by sex.
Conclusion
​ he findings of this study revealed different association with
T
VCDR and other factors by sex.
References
1. Geloneck MM, Crowell EL, Wilson EB, Synder BE, Chuang AZ,
Baker LA, Bell NP, Feldman RM. Correlation Between Intraocular
Pressure and Body Mass Index in the Seated and Supine Positions. J
Glaucoma. 2013 Nov 16. 2. Wei W, Fan Z, Wang L, Li Z, Jiao W, Li Y. Correlation analysis
between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in
juveniles in Northern China: the Jinan city eye study. PLoS One.
2014 Aug 22;9(8).
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
26 Utilizing Fundus Photographic Images to Detect
Glaucoma Based on Novel Arterial and Venous
Network Biomarkers DAVID MEADOWS1, Mark Sherwood2,
Daniel Gibson2, Nick Dunbar2, Dan
Dickrell2, Darell Turner1, Sunil Gupta3,
Wayne Solley4
1
Sentinel Diagnostic Imaging, Inc.
University of Florida
3 Retina Specialty
4 Texas Retina
2
Purpose/Relevance
To determine if retinal vascular blood flow capacity, calculated
from the vessel morphology in high-resolution fundus
photography, is a robust metric for screening glaucomatous
patients.
Methods
Literature reports have indicated that retinal blood flow is
compromised in meaningful percentage of glaucoma patients.
Two suggested mechanisms for vascular dysfunction are
increased resistance to flow and/or reduced perfusion pressure.
A new method of automatically classifying blood flow capacity
of retinal vascular networks into healthy or glaucoma categories
has been developed (OQULUS™). It utilizes standard highresolution color fundus photographs to characterize the
morphology and geometry of arterial and venous networks.
Based on connectivity and flow capacitance of individual vessel
segments, the overall network flow capacities were calculated.
Arterial bifurcations were carefully characterized using metrics:
diameter ratios, area ratios and branching angles, etc. Vascular
network flow metrics define the ability for blood to pass
efficiently through the interconnected series of retinal vessels.
The image sample set analyzed consisted of 30 high-resolution
color fundus images from 15 healthy and 15 glaucomatous
141
patients (http://www5.cs.fau.de/research/data/fundus-images/).
Biomarkers were identified for the arterial and venous networks
from each image.
Results
The analysis procedures indicated that a large difference
between healthy and glaucomatous eyes was exhibited by the
overall network flow rates. The healthy arterial networks had
an average flow capacity of 1.50 ± 0.74 µL/kPa-s while the
glaucomatous arterial networks had an average flow that was
reduced by 70% to 0.43 ± 0.16 µL/kPa-s (ROC analysis: Area
= 0.85, Sensitivity = 0.82, Specificity = 0.85). Strong biomarker
signals were also evidenced in: vein blood flow capacity. This
difference clearly highlighted the diminished flow capacity of
retina vasculature in glaucomatous patients due to a global
narrowing of the vessel networks. Discussion
Ocular blood flow deficiency has been suggested as a cause of
optic nerve damage, either directly or indirectly through raised
intraocular pressure, supporting the results from the dataset
analysis using the OQULUS™ software. Other strong biomarker
signals include: artery and vein diameter, artery tortuosity, artery
and vein asymmetry index, artery bifurcation angle.
Conclusion
Results for the OQULUS™ software based on Constructal
Analysis algorithms clearly identified biomarkers that enable the
automated screening of glaucoma patients from color fundus
imagery.
Reference
1. Meadows, D., Dickrell, D., Clark, R., ARVO 2014 National
Meeting - ISIE, “Correlations between glaucoma and arterial
vascular flow capacity computed from retinal fundus photographic
images.”
142
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
27 Characterization of Corneal Endothelium in
Glaucomatous Eyes Managed Medically and
Surgically
VIKAS CHOPRA1, Olivia L. Lee1, Mark
Breazzano2, Cristina Modak3, Srinivas
Sadda1, Brian Francis1,
1
Doheny Eye Institute, UCLA
Vanderbilt Eye Institute
3 Doheny Eye Institute
2
Purpose/Relevance
To describe the characteristics of the
corneal endothelia of glaucomatous eyes
by non-contact specular microscopy. To compare endothelial cell
density (ECD) in eyes with medically versus surgically managed
glaucoma. Methods
Non-contact specular microscopic examination of the central
cornea using Konan NSP-9900 was performed for three groups
of eyes from age-matched patients: [Group 1] normal controls
(n=113); [Group 2] glaucoma with medical management only
(n=41); [Group 3] glaucoma with prior glaucoma surgery
(trabeculectomy, tube shunt or SLT) ± concurrent medical
management (n=39). Any eye with prior corneal or cataract
surgery was excluded. The corneal ECD, coefficient of variation
(CV) and percentage of hexagonal cells (HEX) were calculated
by 2 independent, trained graders using the Konan Center
method. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Glaucoma patients collectively had a significantly lower ECD
(2336 cells/mm2 ± 476, mean ± S.D.) than controls (2679 cells/
mm2 ± 303), (P<0.001). Mean ECD was significantly lower in
eyes with prior glaucoma surgery (2196 cells/mm2 ± 557) than
controls (p<0.0005). Surgically treated eyes had lower mean
ECD as compared to eyes with medically treated glaucoma (2433
cells/mm2 ± 366), however this difference was not statistically
significant (p=0.062). There was no significant difference in CV
(p=0.600) or HEX (p=0.452) between the corneal endothelia of
these three groups. Discussion
Eyes with glaucoma, particularly those with prior trabeculectomy,
tube shunt or SLT, have lower corneal endothelial cell densities as
compared to normal eyes. This reduction of ECD, in the absence
of change in CV or HEX, may represent corneal endothelial loss
from glaucoma treatment and/or glaucoma itself.
Conclusion
Eyes with glaucoma are vulnerable to endothelial cell loss.
Interventions to decrease intraocular pressure in these eyes,
whether medical or surgical, should be embarked upon with the
risk of endothelial damage in mind.
Reference
1. Gagnon MM1, Boisjoly HM, Brunette I, Charest M, Amyot
M. Corneal endothelial cell density in glaucoma. Cornea. 1997
May;16(3):314-8.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
28 Iridocorneal Angle Observation and Description
in Preterm Newborn Infants with the RetCam 3
Discussion
In ophthalmology there are a wide variety of imaging systems for
the anterior and posterior segment. Neonatal patients represent
a challenge to examine and document the iridocorneal angle.
The RetCam 3 was able to provide adequate visualization and
evaluation of the iridocorneal angle in newborn preterm infants.
This may assist the ophthalmologist in the assessment of the
angle and its development in the neonate, and may provide an
early detection possible anomalies.
ACOSTA1,
MAURICIO TURATI
Jesús
Jiménez-Arroyo1, Mariana EscalanteCastañón1, Itzel Perez-Gudiño1, Iqbal
Ike Ahmed2, Maria Ana MartinezCastellanos1, Magdalena GarciaHuerta1, Félix Gil-Carrasco1, Jesús
Jiménez-Román1
1 Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en
Mexico
2 University of Toronto
Conclusion
Using the RetCam 3, we were able to obtain high quality images
that permited adequate evaluation of the iridocorneal angle
anatomy in a safe and relatively efficient manner.
Purpose/Relevance
Describe the anatomic characteristics of the iridocorneal angle in
preterm newborn infants using the RetCam 3.
References
1. Azad RV, Chandra P, Chandra A, Gupta A, Gupta V, Sihota R.
Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in
congenital glaucoma. Indian J Ophthalmol 2014;62:163-6.
Methods
Observational and descriptive case series. From August 2013
to February 2014 all preterm newborns from the Hospital
Materno-Infantil de Toluca were ophthalmologically evaluated
at the Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico. Images
from the temporal quadrant of the angle were obtained with the
RetCam 3 by a glaucoma specialist under topical anesthesia.
Interpretation of the images was performed by two glaucoma
specialists. Angles were graded using the Shaffer classification
system.
2. Perera SA, Bsakaran M, Friedman DS, Tun TA, Htoon HM,
KumarRS, et al. Use of EyeCam for imaging the anterior chamber
angle. Invest Ophtalmol Vis Sci 2010;51: 2993-7. Results
58 eyes from 29 preterm newborns were evaluated. Average
gestational age was 30.7 ± 3 weeks. 76% were males, and
the average birth weight was 1249 ± 448 grams. All eyes
were successfully imaged, with the following results based on
gestational age:
Gestational Age
Table 1
N
Angle Grading
I
2
143
3
4
27-28
12
7
5
29-30
20
6
13
1
31-33
18
1
8
7
2
34-37
8
6
2
144
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
29 Effect of Pupil Dilation on Intraocular Pressure in
Patients with Open Angles
KELLY MA1, Manishi Desai1,
Meenakshi Chaku1, Kate McConnell1,
Saba Al-Hashimi1
1
Boston University Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
Pupillary dilation poses a significant
risk for patients with occludable narrow
angles, but little has been proven with
regards to its effects on intraocular
pressure (IOP) in patients with open angles. Several studies have
attempted to investigate IOP fluctuations after pupil dilation
in normal individuals or patients with different types of open
angle glaucoma (OAG);1,2 however, the vast majority of them
were either small scale or focused on a particularly subset of
OAG. Our aim was to perform a larger-scale study assessing
the changes in IOP, if any, after pharmacologic iris dilation in
healthy patients and those with or suspect for OAG.
Methods
103 patients with open angles demonstrated by gonioscopy
were prospectively enrolled. IOP was measured using Goldmann
applanation before and 30 minutes after dilation using
phenylephrine 2.5% and tropicamide 1%. Results
Of 103 patients (200 eyes), 39 were normal subjects, 34 were
OAG suspects, and 30 had OAG. Of them, 29 patients had
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
diabetes mellitus. 176 eyes were phakic and 24 pseudophakic. A
statistically significant increase in IOP after dilation (p<0.0001)
was found; however, this increase was not clinically relevant (0.7
± 2.3 mmHg). Disease states affected changes in IOP (p=0.02).
OAG and glaucoma suspect (GS) patients exhibited statistically
significant changes in IOP upon dilation (p<0.0001; p=0.01),
whereas patients without glaucoma did not (p=0.38). IOP
increases were seen in both phakic and pseudophakic groups
(p=0.001; p=0.003). The presence of diabetes was not significant
(p=0.88).
Discussion
Pupillary dilation results in a statistically significant but clinically
negligible rise in IOP. We found that OAG patients had the most
robust increase in IOP with dilation, followed by GS patients.
Patients without glaucoma did not exhibit significant changes in
IOP.
Conclusion
Our data indicate that there is no added risk in dilating patients
with OAG or OAG suspicion. Further studies are needed to
show whether these fluctuations in IOP have an effect in the
clinical course of the disease long term.
References
1. Kronfeld PC et al. The effect of mydriatics upon the intra-ocular
pressure in so-called primary wide-angle glaucoma. Trans Am
Ophthalmol Soc. 1942, 40:127-140.
2. Kim JM et al. Changes in intraocular pressure after pharmacologic
pupil dilation. BMC Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep 27;12:53.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
30 CPAPs Effect on Ocular Pressures in Obstructive
Sleep Apnea Patients
SHUCHI B. PATEL1, Olga Lekakh1
1
Loyola University Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
Several studies have shown specific
correlations between obstructive
sleep apnea (OSA) and primary
open-angle glaucoma. However,
there is controversy over whether
positive pressure administered by
CPAP machines significantly raises intraocular pressure (IOP).
Additionally, a concurrent decrease in blood pressure will lower
ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), which has been shown to be a
risk factor for glaucoma progression. The primary objective of
this study is to determine if increasing levels of positive airway
pressure correlate with increasing levels of IOP and decreasing
levels of OPP.
Methods
This is a prospective clinical study with a target population of
OSA patients who require CPAP machine use. IOP and systemic
blood pressure were measured after each of the following
consecutive intervals: 0 minutes (patient upright), 15 minutes of
patient lying supine, 30 minutes of supine CPAP machine use,
15 minutes of patient lying supine without CPAP, 15 minutes of
patient sitting upright. Results
23 subjects have completed the study. In the right eye, mean IOP
increased .96 mmHg after CPAP use, and 1.04 mmHg in the left
145
eye (Figure 1). OPP was found to decrease after CPAP use by
.07 mmHg and .15 mmHg in the right and left eye respectively.
Additionally, mean IOP increased after CPAP use in glaucoma
suspects and open angle glaucoma subjects, but decreased after
CPAP use in subjects without glaucoma (Figure 2).
Discussion
It is thought that CPAP increases IOP by elevating intrathoracic
pressure, which elevates pressure in the venous circulation and
reduces aqueous humor outflow. As IOP increases and OPP
decreases after CPAP use, the decrease in ocular perfusion
decreases oxygenation within the optic vasculature and nerves,
possibly damaging the optic nerve and causing glaucomatous
changes.
Conclusion
The increase in IOP with CPAP machine use in glaucomatous
patients may suggest that more aggressive glaucoma treatment
is warranted in CPAP utilizing glaucoma patients. Current
data is not statistically significant, but data collection and
sub-group analysis of patients with POAG vs low tension
glaucoma is ongoing. Similarly, further analysis of concurrent
anti-hypertensive and anti-glaucoma medications as well as an
increased sample size will give more significant data.
Reference
1. Kiekens S, et al. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Is
Associated with an Increase in Intraocular Pressure in Obstructive
Sleep Apnea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Mar;49(3):934-40.
146
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
31 Association of Endothelial Cell Density and
Glaucoma Severity in Patients with Exfoliation
Glaucoma
MAZEYAR SABOORI1, Iqbal Ike
Ahmed 2, Arsham Sheybani 3
1 Wayne State University School of
Medicine, Kresge Eye Institute
2 University of Toronto
3 Washington University School of
Medicine
Purpose/Relevance
To determine the relationship between endothelial cell density
(ECD) and glaucoma severity in patients with exfoliation
glaucoma (XFG).
Methods
This is a retrospective chart review of 86 eyes of 43 patients
diagnosed with XFG and IOL dislocation seen at a single
surgeon practice. ECD and cup-to-disc ratio (c/d) were recorded
for all eyes. Glaucoma severity was determined based on c/d.
Each patient had one eye assigned to a less severe glaucoma
group and the other eye to a more severe group based on c/d.
Patients with identical c/d in both eyes were used as controls.
ECD was compared in fellow eyes with different c/d and in
fellow eyes with identical c/d. Paired t-test was used for statistical
analysis. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Of the 43 patients, 27 had different c/d and 16 had identical
c/d in fellow eyes. ECD in patients in the more severe glaucoma
group was significantly lower than the less severe group
(1799.92 ± 533 vs. 1603.34 ± 578, p = 0.008). ECD compared
in right and left eyes of controls was not significantly different
(1810.31 ± 804 vs. 1531.38 ± 604, p = 0.086). Discussion
Previous studies have shown that eyes with exfoliation syndrome
(XFS) with and without glaucoma have lower ECD than eyes
without XFS. No previous group has evaluated ECD in fellow
eyes of patients with XFG. Our study shows that the fellow eye
with worse glaucoma is associated with a lower ECD.
Conclusion
Our data suggests that decreased ECD in patients with XFS
is associated with greater glaucoma severity. Further work is
needed to establish whether ECD is an independent predictor for
glaucomatous progression in patients with XFS. References
1. Naumann, G. O. H., & Schlo, U. (2000). Keratopathy in
Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome as a Cause of Corneal Endothelial,
1111–1124.
2. Tomaszewski, B. T., Zalewska, R., & Mariak, Z. (2014).
Evaluation of the endothelial cell density and the central corneal
thickness in pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation
glaucoma. Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014, 123683.
doi:10.1155/2014/123683
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
32 Rho-Kinase Inhibitor AR-12286 Ophthalmic
Solution 0.5% and 0.7% Efficacy in Patients with
Exfoliation Syndrome (XFS) and Ocular
Hypertension (OHT) or Exfoliative Glaucoma
(XFG)
ALON SKAAT1, Jessica Jasien1, Robert
Ritch1
1
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of
Mount Sinai
Purpose/Relevance
147
Results
The study eye mean baseline IOP was 25±2.4mmHg, mean
IOP reduced to 19.1±2.3 mmHg at 1 week (P<0.001),
17.5±3.6 mmHg at 1 month (P<0.001), and 17.4±3.6 mmHg
at 3 months (P<0.001), yielding an average IOP reduction
of 26.8%, 35.3% and 35.8% respectively. At the 13 week
visit, after AR-12286 was discontinued, mean IOP increased to
21.6±5.4 mmHg (P=0.06 compared to baseline). At 6 months,
the mean IOP was 21.8±7.8 mmHg (P=0.2), and AR-12286 was
discontinued. At week 25 the mean IOP was 21.3±5.3 mmHg
(P=0.06).
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP)
is the sole proven modifiable risk
factor for XFG development and
progression. Rho-associated protein
kinase inhibitors have been studied for their ability to lower
IOP, by several mechanisms including disruption of adhesions
between the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and increasing
aqueous outflow. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate
the efficacy of AR-12286 and evaluate its lasting effect on IOP
after discontinuation.
Discussion
Methods
AR-12286 was well tolerated and provided clinically statistical
significant ocular hypotensive efficacy with XFS and OHT
or XFG patients. This drug may represent a new therapeutic
paradigm for the treatment of XFG.
Double-blind, interventional study. Study eye of 6 men and
4 women was randomized to AR-12286 0.5% or 0.7%
adjunctive to current IOP lowering regimen for 6 months.
Visits included baseline, 1 week, 1 and 3 months; at 3 months
AR-12286 was discontinued for one week and was resumed at
week 13. At the 6 month visit, AR-12286 was discontinued, with
final visit at week 25. Rho-kinase inhibition has not yet been studied in patients with
XFS or XFG. The possibility that treatment with Rho-kinase
inhibitor, with concomitant transient disruption of trabecular
architecture, will allow exfoliation material and pigment trapped
in the trabecular space to be dislodged and result in a longlasting increase in aqueous outflow facility and lowering of IOP
has been an exciting concept.
Conclusion
References
1. Hall A . Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Science 1998;
279: 509-14.
2. Rao VP & DL Epstein. Rho GTPase/Rho kinase inhibition as a
novel target for the treatment of glaucoma. BioDrugs 2007; 21:
167-77.
35 30 25 mmHg 25 21.6 19.1 20 17.5 21.8 21.3 17.4 15 10 Baseline 1 Week 1 Month 3 Months 13 Weeks 6 Months Time 25 Weeks Figure 1. Baseline and follow-up visits IOP measurements of the study eyes (drug discontinuation visits are marked in arrows).
Figure 1. Baseline and follow-­‐up visits IOP measurements of the study eyes (drug discontinuation visits are marked in red arrows). 148
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
33 Symmetry of Circadian 24-h IOP-Related
Patterns in Glaucoma Patients Using a Contact
Lens Sensor
BRENDA NUYEN1, Tarek Shaarawy2,
Kaweh Mansouri2
1
2
University of California, San Diego
University of Geneva
Purpose/Relevance
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Complete bilateral CLS data could be obtained in 12 patients;
six patients had a less than 80% of valid CLS measurements.
No serious adverse events (AE) related to CLS monitoring were
recorded. Transient conjunctival hyperemia (15 patients) and
blurred vision (13 patients) were the most frequent AEs. On
average, inter-eye correlation was r = 0.75 ± 0.20 (range, 0.16 to
0.95) and r = 0.77 ± 0.15 (range 0.49 to 0.91), after excluding
the three patients with incomplete recordings.
To study the inter-eye correlation of
continuously measured circadian IOPrelated patterns in untreated glaucoma
patients.
Discussion
Eighteen newly diagnosed and untreated patients with open
angle glaucoma underwent a single session of bilateral
ambulatory 24-hour monitoring of IOP-related patterns
using a contact lens sensor (CLS; Triggerfish, Sensimed AG,
Switzerland). The CLS measures ocular dimensional changes
at the corneo-scleral junction that are assumed to be related
to intraocular pressure (IOP) and volume changes. IOP was
measured before and after CLS monitoring using Goldmann
applanation tonometry (GAT). Inter-eye agreement of 24-hour
patterns was calculated using Spearmann correlation (r).
Conclusion
Methods
Examples of Bilateral CLS monitoring
Left eye = dark
Right eye = light
Figure 1
Results show good inter-eye agreement for circadian IOP-related
patterns using the CLS. These results show a higher inter-eye
degree of IOP symmetry in untreated glaucoma patients than
previously reported with standard static tonometry.
The contact lens sensor provides more thorough information
regarding patterns of IOP measurement than has been noted
before, and thus promises to enhance understanding and
predictions guiding prognosis and treatment of glaucoma.
Reference
1. Sit AJ, Liu JH, Weinreb RN. Asymmetry of right versus left
intraocular pressures over 24 hours in glaucoma patients.
Ophthalmology. 2006 Mar;113(3):425-30. Epub 2006 Jan 10.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
34 Continuous Intraocular Pressure Monitoring with
a Wireless Contact Lens and Ocular Telemetry
Sensor in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma:
Pilot Study
JESUS JIMENEZ-ROMAN, Claudia
Cortes-Alcocer1, Fernando Del Real1,
Iqbal Ike Ahmed 2, Mauricio Turati
Acosta1, Félix Gil-Carrasco1
1
Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en
Mexico
2 University of Toronto
Purpose/Relevance
Report our initial clinical results with a wireless ocular telemetry
sensor (OTS) for continuous intraocular pressure (IOP)
monitoring in patients with open angle glaucoma.
Methods
Prospective, observational study. We included 7 patients with
diagnosis of POAG. We performed a conventional IOP 24-hr
monitoring with Goldman tonometer during diurnal period
(8:00-17:00) and Perkins and Schiotz tonometry in nocturnal
period (20:00-6:00). Then a wireless monitoring in which OTS
measures changes in corneal curvature induced by variations in
IOP. Patients were asked to fill a tolerability form grading their
level of ocular comfort on a 10 grade scale. Results
Mean age 57.28 ± 14.5 years, 85.7% female. The highest
signals were recorded during the nocturnal period as same as
Figure 1
149
in the conventional IOP monitoring. Prolonges Peaks (>1 hr)
were observed in all patient outside office hours. We identify
3 different patterns in the graph record from Triggerfish with
specific characteristics. No serious adverse events were reported.
Patients average score for comfort was 6.5 and the most frequent
symptoms were itching from the antenna patch, foreign body
sensation, and redness.
Discussion
Although continuous monitoring Triggerfish® technology does
not directly measure IOP, but the change in curvature of the
cornea produced by it, it registers a signal during 24 hours and
a graph of the intraocular pressure’s behavior is obtained. This
pilot study was able to identify 3 types or patterns of tension
curves in only 7 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.
Further studies are required that aim to correlate the clinical
variables of each patient with curved pattern recorded by
Triggerfish®.
Conclusion
We know that IOP behavior is a dynamic event in which many
factors intervene. Some of these factors are: corneal thickness,
biomechanical properties of the cornea. It is likely that these
graphic patterns recorded by Triggerfish® are generated by
several of these factors interacting among themselves.
References
1. Couvillon La, et al. Telemetry monitoring of intraocular pressure.
Biotelemetry. 1976;3:123-126.
2. Leonardi M, et al. Wireless contact lens sensor for intraocular
pressure monitoring: assessment on enucleated pig eyes. Acta
ophthalmol 2009; 87: 433-437.
Figure 2
150
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
35 Prospective Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy
of Acupuncture as Treatment for Glaucoma:
A Pilot Study
SIMON K. LAW1, Starrie Lowe1,
Samuel Law1, JoAnn Giaconi1, Anne
Coleman1, Joseph Caprioli1
1
Jules Stein Eye Institute
Purpose/Relevance
To prospectively evaluate the safety and
efficacy of acupuncture as treatment for
glaucoma.
Methods
Glaucoma patients whose intraocular pressure (IOP) had been
stable without history of surgical intervention or had failed
surgery >3 years prior were enrolled. All patients were randomly
assigned to receive one acupuncture therapy (either with eyerelated acupuncture points [eye-points] or non-eye related
acupuncture points [non-eye-points], for 12 sessions over 6-12
weeks) and then crossover to receive another acupuncture
therapy with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Blood
pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and IOP were recorded before
and after each session. Diurnal IOP (every 2 hours from 8AM
to 4PM), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual field (VF)
were measured before and after each 12-session therapy. Optic
disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements were
obtained before and after the entire study.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
not complete the study due to change of health condition (2
patients), moving away (2 patients), lack of transportation (3
patients), and family crisis (1 patient). Three patients (12.5%)
were withdrawn from the study due to needle sensitivity (2
patients) and IOP increase after treatment (1 patient). After each
acupuncture session, mean IOP exhibited a slight increase with
eye-points (increase from 12.9±1.8 to 13.6±2.0 mmHg, p=0.019)
and non-eye-points (increase from 13.0±1.5 to 13.5±1.7 mmHg,
p=0.073) treatment. HR, IOP, and BCVA showed no significant
change after 12 sessions of either acupuncture therapy. Systolic
and diastolic BP was reduced after 12 sessions of non-eye-points
therapy (p=0.040 and 0.002, respectively), but no significant
changes were noted with eye-points therapy. Optic disc and
RNFL measurements and VF tests recorded no significant
changes after the study.
Discussion
Systemic effects in terms of BP may be affected by acupuncture
of certain acupuncture points, but not found in acupuncture with
eye-points. Acupuncture has no overall effect on IOP reduction,
and may temporally increase the IOP immediately after
treatment sessions. Further studies of acupuncture on ocular
circulation are warranted.
Conclusion
Acupuncture has no overall effect on IOP reduction, and may
temporally increase the IOP immediately after treatment sessions.
Compliance and rate of adverse events with acupuncture therapy
for glaucoma were low.
Results
Reference
24 glaucoma patients volunteered for the study and 11 patients
(45.8%) completed the study. Two patients (8.3%) did not
qualify for the study at screening. Eight patients (33.3%) did
1. Law SK, Li T. Acupuncture for glaucoma. Cochrane Database
Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;5:CD006030. doi: 10.1002/14651858.
CD006030.pub3.
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
36 A Novel Method for Treating Failed Glaucoma
Implants
JEFFREY FREEDMAN1, Azra Idrizovic2,
Pavel Iserovich3
1
Dept. Ophthalmology SUNY Brooklyn
St John’s Episcopal Hospital
3 Columbia University
2
Purpose/Relevance
o improve the success rate of the
T
second glaucoma implant by impeding
the effect of cytokines formed by the
existing implant.
Methods
It has been observed in two patients that removing a failed
glaucoma implant, with the simultaneous insertion of the second
implant, improved the success of the second implant in both
patients.1 Based on this observation, four patients with failed
glaucoma implants had the tubes of these implants tied off
to eliminate the possible effects of cytokines produced by the
failed implant. The cytokine levels were measured in the blebs
of the second implant, during its formation. The main outcome
measure was success or failure of the second implant bleb
related to the levels of TGF-β2 and intraocular pressure (IOP)
measurements.
Results
Success of the second implant, defined as IOP of 5 mmHg to
20 mmHg with adjunctive medical therapy, occurred in all four
151
patients. Average preoperative IOP was 36 ± 4.6 mmHg. The
average IOP during bleb development was 23 ± 0.9 mmHg and
final IOP was 18 ± 2.9 mmHg. The average preoperative TGF-β2
level was 22733 ± 6205 pg/ml., and postoperative TGF-β2 was
10238 ± 1515 pg/ml. Normalized (against preoperative levels)
TGF-β2 relative concentrations reduced significantly p=0.0005
after operation. The average follow up period was 10 months.
Discussion
During the development of the second bleb, TGF-β2 levels were
low and no hypertensive phases were noted. The proposed
reason for the successful outcomes of the blebs in this study is
associated with the elimination of the influence of the TGF-β2,
which would have been formed by the failed bleb. All failed blebs
became functional when the tube was re-opened.
Conclusion
During the development of the second bleb, TGF-β2 levels were
low and no hypertensive phases were noted. The proposed
reason for the successful outcomes of the blebs in this study is
associated with the elimination of the influence of the TGF-β2,
which would have been formed by the failed bleb. All failed blebs
became functional when the tube was re-opened.
Reference
1. Freedman J, Iserovich P. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in
glaucomatous aqueous and encysted Molteno implant blebs
and their relationship to pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
2013;54:4851-4855.
152
Poster Abstracts: Optic Nerve
37 Minimum Rim Width Measurements by Swept
Source OCT as a Predictor of Paracentral Visual
Field Loss
ELISE TANIGUCHI1, Eleftherios
Paschalis1, Haobing Wang1, Angela
Turalba1, Louis Pasquale1, Lucy Shen1
1 Massachusetts
Eye and Ear Infirmary
Purpose/Relevance
Lamina cribrosa depth (LCD) and
minimum rim width at Bruch’s
membrane opening (BMO-MRW) were
introduced with spectral domain optical
coherence tomography (OCT) to improve glaucoma detection.
We assessed these parameters using swept source OCT (SS-OCT)
in patients stratified by pattern of visual field loss.
Methods
Thirty two patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG), visual
acuity better than 20/50, reliable Humphrey visual field (HVF)
and no previous glaucoma surgeries underwent radial scans
of the optic nerve head by SS-OCT (Atlantis, Topcon) and
circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT)
measurements by spectral domain OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg),
during the same visit. Vertical LCD (VLCD), horizontal LCD
(HLCD) and BMO-MRW were measured using a customized
ImageJ plugin. Eyes with severe peripapillary atrophy, optic
disc tilt or torsion were excluded from the analysis. HVF were
classified by two masked observers (LRP, LQS) into 4 categories:
no loss or pre-perimetric, isolated paracentral defect, isolated
peripheral defect and combined paracentral-peripheral damage.
Only one eye per patient was analyzed. Descriptive data were
presented as mean ± standard deviation. One-way analysis of
variance and independent t-test were used for group comparison.
Statistical significance for multiple comparison tests was adjusted
using Bonferroni correction.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
BMO-MRW measurements by SS-OCT in eyes with isolated
paracentral defect and combined paracentral-peripheral
damage were significantly lower than those in pre-perimetric
eyes (53.2±21.0, 72.1±46.2 and 169.3±37.8µm, respectively,
p<0.05 for all); whereas no significant difference was found
when comparing eyes with isolated peripheral defects from
pre-perimetric group. Eyes with isolated paracentral defect had
the thinnest BMO-MRW measurements, and the location of
BMO-MRW on the optic nerve corresponded anatomically to
the HVF defect in every eye. RNFLT was significantly thinner
in the isolated paracentral defect and combined paracentralperipheral damage groups compared to the pre-perimetric eyes
(45.5±7.14, 32.2±10.9, 60.2±8.9µm, respectively, p<0.05 for
all) and the thinnest measurements were found in eyes with
combined paracentral-peripheral damage. VLCD and HLCD
measurements were not statistically different among the HVF
categories.
Discussion
Both BMO-MRW and RNFLT, but not VLCD or HLCD, were
good predictors of paracentral loss on HVF.
Conclusion
Analysis of new imaging parameters with SS-OCT may refine the
assessment of glaucomatous optic nerve and provide evidence of
how structural damage leads to functional loss.
References
1. Chauhan BC, et al. Ophthalmology. 2013 Mar;120(3):535–543.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
153
Poster Abstracts
Friday, February 27 / Posters 38-84
Surgery
38 OAG Patients Uncontrolled on 1-3 Medications
Randomized to Implantation of One, Two,
or Three Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents:
Results Through 18 Months from Prospective,
Randomized Study
L. JAY KATZ
Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, United States
Purpose/Relevance
Multiple trabecular bypass for additive
intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering
is based on previous pre-clinical
work.1,2 More recent clinical work has
shown significant IOP and medication
reduction from micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) using
multiple trabecular micro-bypass stents with cataract surgery.3
In our study the MIGS study group compared IOP reduction
after 1, 2 or 3 stents implanted as a sole procedure in open angle
glaucoma (OAG) subjects previously not controlled on 1-3
ocular hypotensive medications.
Methods
Prospective, randomized study of subjects with OAG and IOP
18 - 30 mmHg on 1-3 medications. Following preoperative
medication washout, eligible subjects with unmedicated IOP
22 - 30 mmHg were to be randomized (1:1:1) to receive 1, 2 or
3 stents. Follow-up through 5 years is ongoing, and 119 subjects
have been followed 18 months.
Results
Mean preoperative medicated IOP was 19.8 mmHg (SD
1.3), 20.1 mmHg (SD 1.6) and 20.4 mmHg (SD 1.8) in 1, 2
and 3-stent eyes, respectively. Mean preoperative IOP after a
1-month medication washout was 25.0 mmHg (SD 1.1), 25.0
mmHg (SD 1.8) and 24.9 mmHg (SD 2.2) in 1, 2 and 3-stent
eyes, respectively. The three respective groups had Month 12
IOP ≤ 15 mmHg in 74%, 95% and 100%. At Month 18, the
three respective groups had mean unmedicated IOP of 15.6
mmHg (SD 1.4), 13.9 mmHg (SD 1.2) and 12.3 (1.1) mmHg.
Five eyes had BCVA loss due to cataract progression over the
18-month period.
Discussion
Higher proportions of multiple-stent eyes had IOP reduction ≥
40% and IOP ≤ 15 mmHg vs. single-stent eyes. Data through 18
months found incrementally greater IOP reduction in multiplestent eyes, with no significant safety events in any group.
Conclusion
In this series, results through 18 months showed significant IOP
reduction after implantation with a single stent, further IOP
reduction to ≤ 15 mmHg mmHg with multiple stents, reduction
in drug burden in all patients, and an overall favorable safety
profile in patients with OAG not controlled on preoperative
medication.
References
1. Zhou J, Smedley GT. A trabecular bypass flow hypothesis. J
Glaucoma 2005;14:74-83.
2. Bahler C, Smedley G, Zhou J, Johnson D. Trabecular bypass stents
decrease intraocular pressure in cultured human anterior segments.
Am J Ophthal 2004; 138:988-994.
3. Belovay G, Naqi A, Chan B, Rateb M, MD, Ahmed I. Using
multiple trabecular micro-bypass stents in cataract patients to treat
open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg 2012;38(11):19111917.
154
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
39 Prospective, Randomized Evaluation of MicroInvasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) with Two
Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents vs. Prostaglandin
in Open-Angle or Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma or
Ocular Hypertension Naïve to Therapy
STEVEN VOLD
Vold Vision, PLLC, Fayetteville, AR, United
States
Purpose/Relevance
Ocular hypotensive medical therapy has
been a conventional first-line therapy
for open-angle glaucoma (OAG),
patients with medication intolerance
or adherence limitations may benefit
from micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) as an alternative.
Previous studies have shown safe and effective outcomes
after multiple stents implanted either during cataract surgery
or as a sole procedure.1,2 The MIGS study group compared
2-stent therapy to medication therapy in patients with OAG,
pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEX) or ocular hypertension
(OHT) naïve to therapy.
Methods
Prospective, randomized study in 98 qualified phakic eyes with
IOP ≥ 21 mmHg and ≤ 40 mmHg, and CD ratio ≤ 0.9. Subjects
were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive two stents (Glaukos)
or prostaglandin, with post-therapy addition of medication to
either group if IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. Clinical parameters
through 60 months include IOP, medication use, fundus/optic
nerve exam, slit-lamp, gonioscopy, surgical/postoperative
complications and best corrected visual acuity. All subjects have
now been followed through 2 years. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Ninety-eight qualified eyes underwent stent implantation (n=50)
or received travoprost (n=48). Mean preoperative IOP was 25.7
± 2.5 mmHg in the stent group and 25.0 ± 4.6 mmHg in the
travoprost group. By Month 12, medication had been added to
3 subjects in each group; mean IOP was 13.8 ± 1.7 mmHg in the
stent group and 13.9 ± 1.5 mmHg in the travoprost group. By
Month 24, mean IOP was 13.9 ± 1.3 mmHg in the stent group
(0 eyes on medication) and 15.0 ± 1.4 mmHg in the travoprost
group (3 subjects on 1 additional medication), and 1 subject per
group had undergone cataract surgery. No other complications
were reported. Discussion
Significant postoperative decrease in IOP with favorable safety
was shown through two years after either implantation of 2
stents as the sole procedure or medical therapy in OAG, PEX or
OHT naïve to treatment. Conclusion
These data suggest 2 trabecular micro-bypass stents provide
efficacy and safety similar to medical therapy with a
prostaglandin in newly diagnosed OAG, PEX or OHT.
References
1. Ahmed II, Katz LJ, Chang DF, Donnenfeld ED, Solomon
KD, Voskanyan L, Samuelson TW. Prospective evaluation of
microinvasive glaucoma surgery with trabecular microbypass stents
and prostaglandin in open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg
2014; 40:1295–1300.
2. Belovay GW, Naqi A, Chan BJ, Rateb M, Ahmed II. Using multiple
trabecular micro-bypass stents in cataract patients to treat openangle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg 2012;38(11):1911-1917.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
40 Prospective Randomized Study of Two Different
Models of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Eyes
with Neovascular Glaucoma
FELIX GIL-CARRASCO, Cristina
Guadalupe Isida Llerandi1, Hector
Bello Lopez-Portillo1, Iqbal Ike
Ahmed 2, Mauricio Turati Acosta1
1
Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en
Mexico
2 University of Toronto
155
group reduced from 43.5 ± 11.8 mmHg to 18.9 ± 9.7 mmHg
at 1 year postoperative (p<0.0001), and from 42.3 +/- 12.84
mmHg to 16.4 ± 9.7 mmHg (p<0.0001) in the S2 group. There
was no statistical difference in postop IOP between both groups
(p=0.07). S2 group were on more postoperative glaucoma
medications than the M4 group (2.5 ± 1.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.8 average
medications, p=0.02). There was no difference in failure rates
between both groups (NS). Complications were rare and similar
in both groups.
Discussion
Evaluate IOP lowering and complications of the Ahmed
Glaucoma Valve (AGV) model M4 (High density porous
polyethylene plate; Medpor) compared with the model S2
(Polypropylene plate) in neovascular glaucoma.
A valved glaucoma drainage device such as AGV provides
moderate control of IOP with protection against hypotony in
the immediate postoperative period. Recently, a porous plate
design (M4) of the AGV was introduced as an alternative to
the polypropylene S2 model. In this study of the AGV models
in neovascular glaucoma, both designs provide significant IOP
lowering and similar failure rates. However, M4 eyes were on
less glaucoma medications postoperatively.
Methods
Conclusion
Prospective randomized comparative trial. Inclusion criteria
were patients with neovascular glaucoma with uncontrolled
IOP on maximal medical therapy. Patients were randomized to
receive either the M4 or the S2 AGV. No adjunctive procedures
or antimetabolites were used. Main outcome measure was
postoperative IOP; secondary measures being postoperative
glaucoma medication and complications. Follow-up was planned
for one year. Failure was defined as IOP >20 or progression to
NLP vision.
At one year follow-up, both M4 and S2 AGV were found to
provide significant IOP-lowering in neovascular glaucoma.
Patients with the S2 model were on more postoperative
glaucoma medications.
Purpose/Relevance
Results
42 eyes of 42 patients were enrolled; 21 randomized to the
M4 group and 21 to the S2 group. Preoperative IOP in the M4
References
1. Souza C, et al. Long-term Outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve
Implantation in Refractory Glaucomas. Am J Ophthalmol
2007;144:893-900.
2. Kim J, et al. Clinical experience with a novel glaucoma drainage
implant. J Glaucoma 2014 Feb;23(2):e91-7.
156
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
41 Gonioscopy-Assisted Transluminal
Trabeculotomy for the Treatment of Primary
Congenital Glaucoma and Juvenile Open-Angle
Glaucoma: A Preliminary Report
OLUWATOSIN U. SMITH1, Davinder
Grover1, David Godfrey1, Ronald
Fellman1
1
Glaucoma Associates of Texas
Purpose/Relevance
o introduce a novel ab interno
T
360-degree trabeculotomy for treating
primary congenital glaucoma (PCG)
and juvenile open angle glaucoma
(JOAG) and report preliminary results.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of 14 eyes of 10 consecutive
patients who presented to Glaucoma Associates of Texas
patients who underwent the Gonioscopy Assisted Transluminal
Trabeculotomy (GATT) by 4 of the authors (O.S.,D.S.G., R.L.F.,
D.G.G.) between October 2011 and October 2013 was done.
The surgery was performed in patients less than 30 years old
with a dysgenic anterior segment angle and uncontrolled PCG or
JOAG. All the patients had at least 12 months follow-up.The
main outcome measures obtained were Intraocular pressure
(IOP), glaucoma medications, visual acuity and intra-operative
as well as post-operative complications.
Results
Fourteen eyes of 10 patients underwent GATT with follow-up of
greater than 12 months (12-33 months; mean 20.4). Patients
ranged in age from 17 months to 30 years (mean=18.4 years)
and 5 (50%) were female. Post-operative hyphema occured in 5
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
(36%) of the eyes, and was all cleared by one month. The mean
IOP decreased from 27.3 mmHg to 14.8 mmHg and the mean
number of medications required decreased from 2.6 to 0.86. Five
eyes had a drop in IOP greater than or equal to 15mmHg (range
15-39). None of the operated eyes required subsequent pressure
lowering surgery.
Discussion
The use of circumferential suture or catheter assisited
trabeculotomy has largely replaced limited segmental metal
trabeculotomy and is now considered by some specialists to
be the gold standard for primary congenital glaucomas. The
GATT procedure improves upon conventional ab externo
trabeculotomy by avoiding conjunctival and scleral incisions.
Conclusion
The preliminary results and safety for GATT, a minimally
invasive conjunctival sparing circumferential trabeculotomy,
are promising and at least equivalent to previous results for ab
externo trabeculotomy for the treatment of PCG and JOAG. All
eyes in the study were considered a clinical success.
References
1. Grover DS, Godfrey DG, Smith O et al. “Gonioscopy-assisted
transluminal trabeculotomy, ab interno trabeculotomy:
technique report and preliminary results.” Ophthalmology. 2014
Apr;121(4):855-61.
2. Ikeda H, et al. Long-term outcome of trabeculotomy for the
treatment of developmental glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol
2004;122:1122-8.
3. Girkin CA,Circumferential trabeculotomy with an illuminated
microcatheter in congenital glaucomas. J Glaucoma 2012;21:1603.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
42 A Comparison of Topical Anesthesia and
Retrobulbar Block During Glaucoma Filtering
Surgery
ALEX THEVENTHIRAN1, Muhammad
Shabsigh1, C. Gustavo De Moraes1,
Mohammed Kamel1, George Cioffi1,
Dana Blumberg1, Lama Al-Aswad1
1
Columbia University Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
We compared intraoperative
supplemental anesthesia requirements
and post operative patient-reported
outcomes (including post operative pain scale and post operative
pain medication) between patients receiving retrobulbar block
(RB) versus topical (T) anesthesia during glaucoma filtering
surgery under monitored anesthesia care.
Methods
A retrospective, interventional, comparative cohort study. We
included 275 patients undergoing glaucoma and combined
glaucoma with cataract surgery under monitored anesthesia
care performed by two surgeons at a large academic center. The
main outcome measures were the difference in intraoperative
anesthesia supplements and the post-operative pain scale (1,
low, to 5, high) between eyes undergoing topical vs. retrobulbar
anesthesia. A secondary analysis was performed between
eyes undergoing combined glaucoma vs. cataract surgery and
glaucoma surgery alone. Ordered logistic regression analysis
was performed using pain score as dependent variable and
type of procedure as independent variables, also controlling for
confounders (e.g.: age, sex, race, length of procedure, amount
of IV anesthetics used intra-operatively, and medications used
postoperatively). 157
Results
The RB group reported a lower post-operative pain scale than
the T group (p=0.024). The amount of IV anesthetics used
intraoperatively was also greater in the T group (midazolam,
P=0.042; fentanyl, P<0.001; propofol, P<0.001). However, RB
patients took more post-operative pain medications (P<0.001).
There was no difference in pain scale between eyes undergoing
combined vs. glaucoma surgery alone (P=0.707) and also no
difference in the amount of IV anesthetics (all P>0.350). They
also did not differ in terms of post-operative pain medication
(P=0.673).
Discussion
Topical anesthesia was associated with a statistically significant
higher patient pain scale score average and greater need for
intraoperative IV anesthetics. The choice for combined glaucoma
surgery did not affect pain scale or intraoperative use of
anesthetics. Conclusion
Surgeons should be encouraged to discuss the pros and cons of
these procedures with regard to postoperative pain and use of
pain killers.
Reference
1. Ryu, JH, Kim, M, Bahk, JH, et al. A comparison of retrobulbar
block, sub-Tenon block, and topical anesthesia during cataract
surgery. European Journal of Ophthalmology 2009; 19: 240-246.
158
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
43 Risk Factors for Further Intervention After Initial
Angle Surgery for Developmental Glaucoma
WELCH1,2,
MARK
Mark Werner1
1
2
Nashay
Clemetson1,
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
Brooke Army Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
valuate known and unknown risk
E
factors for requiring further intervention
after initial angle surgery for infantile
developmental glaucoma.
Results
The mean age at surgery was 3.5 (2.7) months. Male/Female
ratio was 34/24. The ethnic mix was black (20), caucasian
(26), latino (9) and other (3). The diagnoses were primary
infantile (46) and secondary infantile (12). There were 52
trabeculotomies, 5 goniotomies, and 1 Trabectome procedure. In
the risk factor analysis, reversal of cupping and reversal of axial
length on follow-up exams and an initial 360-degree treatment
were all associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.05)
reduced risk for requiring reoperation and/or medication (both
criteria 1 and 2). A diagnosis of primary infantile glaucoma also
resulted in lower risk of some intervention (criterion 2), but not
reoperation alone (criterion 1).
Methods
Discussion
A retrospective chart review was conducted of 58 eyes from 58
patients undergoing initial angle surgery for infantile glaucoma
at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute from January 2005 until July
2012. In bilateral cases, the right eye was selected for analysis.
Patients that required glaucoma surgery other than angle
surgery (trabeculotomy, goniotomy, or Trabectome) as the
initial procedure, and those with non-developmental or aphakic
glaucoma were excluded. The main outcome measure was time
to failure, and failure was defined as either reoperation (criterion
1) or any intervention (medication or reoperation; criterion 2).
Risk factors analyzed included data from baseline examination
under anesthesia (EUA), procedural data, and initial followup
EUA, including diagnosis, age of presentation/surgery, baseline
corneal diameter, presence of corneal edema, extent of angle
treated, type of surgery, and intraocular pressures (IOP), axial
length (AL), and cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) both before and after
surgery. Paired t-tests were used to analyze risk factors for both
failure criteria 1 and 2. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of time to
failure were also constructed for several variables.
EUA is currently necessary for follow-up of infantile glaucoma
patients. In addition to the immediate risk, high cost and
inconvenience of EUA, there is growing concern about the long
term effects of repeat anesthesia. We have had little data to guide
us on the optimal frequency of EUA. In our patients that received
360-degree trabeculotomy, and those who exhibited reversal
of cupping or reduction in axial length after surgery, very few
required further intervention, and all within one year of initial
surgery. We hope this data may help guide clinicians in planning
EUAs for their patients.
Figure 1
Figure 2
Conclusion
An initial 360 trabeculotomy resulted in a lower rate of requiring
additional intervention for developmental infantile glaucoma.
Reversal of cupping and reversal of axial length after treatment
were associated with a reduced risk of further intervention. A
diagnosis of primary infantile glaucoma conferred reduced risk
of further intervention as a whole, but not reoperation alone.
This data may help guide clinicians in counseling patients and
planning frequency of EUA.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
References
1. Beck AD, Lynn MJ, Crandall J, Mobin-Uddin O. Surgical outcomes
with 360-degree suture trabeculotomy in poor-prognosis primary
congenital glaucoma and glaucoma associated with congenital
anomalies or cataract surgery. J AAPOS. 2011 Feb;15(1):54-8.
2. Mendicino ME, Lynch MG, Drack A, Beck AD, Harbin T, Pollard
Z, Vela MA, Lynn MJ. Long-term surgical and visual outcomes in
primary congenital glaucoma: 360 degrees trabeculotomy versus
goniotomy. J AAPOS. 2000 Aug;4(4):205-10.
3. DeLuise VP, Anderson DR. Primary infantile glaucoma (congenital
glaucoma). Surv Ophthalmol 1983;28:1-19.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
159
160
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
44 IOP Lowering Efficacy of Phacoemulsification
Cataract-Extraction with Intraocular Lens
Implantation Alone (Phaco) Versus Plus Excimer
Laser Trabeculotomy (Phaco-ELT) Versus Plus
Ab Interno Trabeculotomy with the Trabectome®
(Phaco-AIT) – 1 Year Results
MARC TOETEBERG-HARMS1, Lidija
Jozic2, Joachim Magner2, Jens Funk3
1
University Hospitals, Dept. of
Ophthalmology
2 Eye Clinic Ballindamm, Hamburg,
Germany
3 University Hospitals Zurich
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
included (P = 0.375; P = 0.045; P = 0.271; P = 0.004; P = 0.207
respectively). At 1 year, IOP was lowered by 1.5±4.0 mmHg
in the phaco alone group, by 4.3±5.6 mmHg in the phacoELT group, and by 5.3±4.5 mmHg in the phaco-AIT group,
respectively. AGD were lowered by 0.1±0.8 in the phaco alone
group, by 0.9±0.8 in the phaco-ELT group, and by 0.8±0.7 in
the phaco-AIT group, respectively. The difference in IOP and
AGD from baseline to 1 year was highly significant (P < 0.001)
when comparing the phaco-ELT or phaco-AIT group with the
phaco alone group, but not significant comparing the phaco-ELT
with the phaco-AIT group (P > 0.05). Mean time to failure was
13.2±0.4 months in the phaco alone, 20.6±1.0 months in the
phaco-ELT, and 12.9±0.6 months in the phaco-AIT group (P <
0.001).
Discussion
Purpose/Relevance
The aim of this study is to compare the IOP lowering efficacy
among the three procedures within a follow-up period of 1 year.
Methods
This is a prospective case-controlled comparative series.
Inclusion criterion was diagnosis of mild and moderate openangle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with a coexisting
and visual impairing cataract. Only one eye of each patient
was included, and if both eyes underwent the procedure, one
was randomly chosen. Eyes underwent either phaco alone or
combined phaco-ELT or phaco-AIT. Primary outcome measures
were IOP, number of hypotensive medications (AGD), and
Kaplan-Meier survival. Definition of failure was IOP >21mmHg
or <20% reduction of IOP below baseline, hypotony (IOP
≤5mmHg), or loss of light perception vision.
Results
38 eyes (16 OD = 42.1%; 17 males = 44.7%; mean age 76.0±7.4
years, preop IOP = 16.7±3.8 mmHg; preop AGD = 1.1±0.6) in
the phaco, 105 eyes (58 OD = 55.2%; 38 males = 36.2%; mean
age 74.8±6.0 years; preop IOP = 17.8±4.3 mmHg; preop AGD
= 1.4±0.7) in the phaco-ELT, and 102 eyes (54 OD = 52.9%; 25
males = 24.5%; mean age 74.3±4.9 years; preop IOP = 19.3±4.6
mmHg; preop AGD = 1.3±0.8) in the phaco-AIT group were
The phaco-ELT and phaco-AIT groups had significantly lower
mean IOP and required fewer AGD compared with the phaco
alone group. Mean IOP and AGD were not significantly different
in the phaco-ELT and phaco-AIT groups. However, mean time
to failure was significantly longer in the phaco-ELT group.
Conclusion
Phaco-ELT and phaco-AIT are reasonable considerations in mild
and moderate cases of glaucoma and ocular hypertension with a
coexisting cataract. Phaco-ELT seems to have better long-term
survival.
References
1. Gimbel HV, Meyer D, DeBroff BM, Roux CW, Ferensowicz M.
Intraocular pressure response to combined phacoemulsification
and trabeculotomy ab externo versus phacoemulsification alone
in primary open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1995
Nov;21(6):653-60.
2. Töteberg-Harms M, Hanson JV, Funk J. Cataract surgery
combined with excimer laser trabeculotomy to lower intraocular
pressure: effectiveness dependent on preoperative IOP. BMC
Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun 24;13:24.
3. Jea SY, Francis BA, Vakili G, Filippopoulos T, Rhee DJ. Ab interno
trabeculectomy versus trabeculectomy for open-angle glaucoma.
Ophthalmology. 2012 Jan;119(1):36-42.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
45 One-Year Results of an Ab-interno Gelatin
Stent in Combination with Mitomycin C for the
Treatment of Glaucoma
DAVINDER S. GROVER1, Juan Batlle2
1
2
Glaucoma Associates of Texas
Laser Center in Santo Domingo
Purpose/Relevance
To establish the safety and efficacy of
a minimally-invasive ab-interno gelatin
stent in combination with mitomycin
C in reducing IOP and glaucoma
medications in patients presenting with
glaucoma. Mean IOP, IOP change, reduction in medications, and
safety were recorded in 122 subjects through 12 months.
Methods
In this prospective, non-randomized, multi-center evaluation,
enrolled outside the US, safety and efficacy parameters
were evaluated using IOP, visual acuity, and assessment of
complications. Patients were diagnosed with moderate to severe
glaucoma. Types of Glaucoma included Primary Open Angle,
Pigmentary, and Pseudoexfoliative. In combination with cataract
surgery or as a standalone procedure, a trans-scleral gelatin stent
is placed through a self-sealing corneal incision using a preloaded
injector similar to those used in IOL procedures. Once in place,
the permanent implant is designed to connect the anterior
chamber to the non-dissected Tenon’s and subconjunctival space,
thereby creating diffuse dispersion of aqueous while bypassing
potential outflow obstructions. Effectiveness was assessed by
comparing baseline IOP and glaucomatous medications to
postoperative values through 12 months.
161
Results
No major adverse events were reported, and 3 patients
were converted to incisional glaucoma surgery (Tube (1)/
Trabeculectomy(2)) through 12 months. The mean preoperative
(best medicated) IOP was 22.2 mmHg. The mean postoperative
IOPs were: 14.9 at 6 months, 14.7 at 9 months, and 13.6 at 12
months. The mean decrease in IOP was -8.1 (-33% reduction)
at 6 months, -8.1 mmHg (-34% reduction) at 9 months, and
-9.6 (-38% reduction) at 12 months. At 6 and 9 month visits
anti-glaucomatous medications were reduced by 69% from the
preoperative mean of 3.1 (patients not washed out pre-surgery),
and by ~63% at 12 months. Figures 1 and 2 summarize the
clinical results.
Discussion
The preliminary results for this subconjunctival gelatin implant
are promising and seem to provide a relatively safe method for
controlling IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma with and
without concurrent cataract surgery. In eyes with longer follow
up, there appears to be a sustained IOP lowering effect of this
implant. Long term data to follow.
Conclusion
The clinically proven ab-interno subconjunctival pathway (i.e.
trabeculectomy and tube surgeries) combined with the minimally
invasive conjunctiva sparing approach of this broadly adoptable
implant procedure may provide a safe and effective approach
to controlling IOP and reducing medications in patients with
glaucoma. 162
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
Reference
1. Lewis RA. “Ab interno approach to the subconjunctival space
using a collagen glaucoma stent.” J Cataract Refract Surg. 2014
Aug;40(8):1301-6.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
46 Long-Term Outcomes and Complications of
Pars Plana Baerveldt Implantation in Children
with Glaucoma
KATEKI VINOD1, Joseph Panarelli1,
Ronald Gentile1, Paul Sidoti1
1
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary
Purpose/Relevance
To report long-term outcomes and
complications of Baerveldt glaucoma
implant surgery with pars plana tube
insertion (ppBGI) in children with
glaucoma.
Methods
The medical records of consecutive children (< 16 years) who
underwent ppBGI between 1990 and 2013 were retrospectively
reviewed. Main outcome measures were visual acuity, intraocular
pressure (IOP), and number of required glaucoma medications.
Associated anterior segment and posterior segment ocular
complications were also noted. Failure was defined as an IOP less
than 5 or greater than or equal to 21 mm Hg (with or without
glaucoma medications), loss of light perception, or need for
additional glaucoma surgery.
Results
Thirty-seven children were identified with a mean age 6.0 ±
4.7 years (range 4 months to 14.5 years). Mean follow-up after
ppBGI was 94.4 ± 46.6 months (range 6 months to 16.6 years).
The mean IOP for patients with successful IOP control was 12.7
163
± 4.0 mm Hg and the mean number of glaucoma medications
was 2.0 ± 1.4 at most recent follow-up. Life-table (survival)
analysis revealed 1, 5, and 7 year success rates of 97%, 70%,
and 43%, respectively. Complications included tube exposure
in 1 patient (2.7%), tube obstruction in 8 patients (21.6%), and
retinal detachment in 9 patients (24.3%). A total of 18 patients
(48.6%) were considered failures due to inadequate IOP control,
of whom 9 (24.3%) required additional glaucoma surgery.
Discussion
Despite high success rates during the first few years, ppBGI in
children appears to be associated with gradual elevation in IOP
in the presence of a functional shunt, consistent with progressive
capsular fibrosis. Twenty-four percent of children required a
second shunt to achieve IOP control. Long-term complications,
such as tube occlusion and retinal detachment, related to delayed
posterior hyaloid separation were not uncommon.
Conclusion
Although ppBGI minimizes complications related to anterior
chamber placement, such as tube-cornea touch, and is initially
safe and effective for managing uncontrolled glaucoma in
children in whom angle surgery has failed or is not feasible,
surgeons must be aware of the potential need for additional
glaucoma surgery and/or posterior segment complications longterm.
Reference
1. Budenz DL, Gedde SJ, Brandt JD, Kira D, Feuer W, Larson E.
Baerveldt glaucoma implant in the management of refractory
childhood glaucomas. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(12):2204-10.
164
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
47 Outcomes Two Years After MIGS with
Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents, One
Suprachoroidal Stent and Travoprost in Patients
with Refractory OAG and Prior Traeculectomy JONATHAN MYERS
Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA,
Purpose/Relevance
Trabecular bypass stent surgery has
been shown to be a titratable therapy
to manage intraocular pressure (IOP)
to ≤ 15 mmHg in OAG.1 While such
therapy can restore natural physiologic
outflow, suprachoroidal stents can use
the uveoscleral outflow pathway to improve aqueous outflow.
Use of trabecular bypass with either a suprachoroidal stent or a
topical glaucoma medication may be considered for additional
IOP reduction, when needed, such as in refractory open angle
glaucoma (OAG). In this study by the Micro-Invasive Glaucoma
Surgery (MIGS) Study Group, we reviewed outcomes through 2
years following implantation of 2 trabecular bypass stents and 1
suprachoroidal stent, with postoperatively prescribed travoprost,
in eyes with refractory OAG. Methods
This prospective study enrolled phakic or pseudophakic
OAG subjects with IOP >18 mmHg and <45 mmHg on 1-3
hypotensive medications and with prior trabeculectomy.
Additionally, unmedicated IOP, following 1-month washout
>21 mmHg and <45 mmHg. Subjects received 2 iStents and 1
iStent supra (Glaukos), and were then prescribed travoprost.
Postoperative IOP was measured both with medication, and
annually following 1-month medication washout periods.
Evaluation through 5 years includes BCVA, slit-lamp and optic
nerve evaluation, and adverse events (AEs). American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Eighty subjects underwent uncomplicated stent implantation,
and 34 subjects have reached Month 24. Mean preoperative
IOP was 22.0 ± 3.1 mmHg on a mean of 1.2 ± 0.4 medications,
and 26.4 ± 2.4 mmHg after medication washout. Mean IOP
was 13.6 ± 1.5 mmHg at Month 12 (n=78) and 12.7 ± 1.3
mmHg at Month 24 (n=33), with post-washout IOP of 17.1 at
both Months 13 and 25. Six eyes had BCVA loss ≥ 1 line from
baseline due to cataract progression, 1 of whom underwent
cataract surgery. Discussion
Data through 24 months show substantial IOP and medication
reduction with a low rate of adverse events. Conclusion
In this series, sustained reduction in IOP and drug burden
and an overall favorable safety profile was shown following
2 trabecular bypass stents, 1 suprachoroidal stent and 1
postoperative medication in subjects with refractory OAG and
prior trabeculectomy. Reference
1. Belovay G, et al. Using multiple trabecular micro-bypass stents in
cataract patients to treat open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract
Surg 2012;38(11):1911-1917. Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
48 The Efficacy of Cataract Surgery Combined with
Either Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation (ECP)
or Microbypass Stent, and Cataract Surgery
Alone in Open Angle Glaucoma Patients
AVNEET SODHI1, Bradley Hansen1,
Talisa De Carlo1, Susan Liang1, Cynthia
Mattox1
1
New England Eye Center/Tufts Medical
Center
Purpose/Relevance
o compare the effect on IOP and
T
medication use after phacoemulsification
alone or combined with 360 degree ECP
or single iStent.
165
and 15.8 ± 3.9 for ECP; and 15.0 ± 3.8 and 13.3 ± 2.5 for iStent.
The absolute IOP reductions from baseline (percent) at 6 months
were 3.0 (13.3%) for phaco alone, 0.8 (2.8%) for ECP, and 2.5
(13.5%) for iStent. Phaco alone and iStent has a statistically
significant decline in IOP; however, there was no difference in
the % IOP change when comparing the groups. Percent of eyes
on medication preop and postop 6 were for phaco alone 90.0%
and 71.0%; for iStent were 92.7% and 31.5%; and for ECP
were 98.0% and 51.3%, respectively. In the phaco alone group,
the mean number of medications reduced postop (-0.25 ± 0.13
at 6 months) was not statistically significant, while in both the
iStent and ECP groups, there was a similar statistically significant
reduction in mean number of meds and % of eyes on meds. Eyes
“controlled” preoperatively were more likely to have fewer or no
medications after surgery, while eyes that had poor control had a
greater % IOP reduction.
Methods
Discussion
Retrospective chart review of open angle glaucoma patients
undergoing cataract surgery between 2008 to 2014. Eyes with
similar preop characteristics were treated with either ECP or
iStent. Exclusion criteria were co-current filtering surgery,
complex surgery, intraop complication, or co-existing disease
influencing postop care. Only eyes with minimum 6-month
follow-up were included. Glaucoma type, glaucoma control,
visual acuity, IOP, number of medications were recorded pre and
post op.
Reducing medication burden is an important outcome for
patients. Preop level of glaucoma control may be able to predict
the postop effect on IOP and medication use after surgery.
Results
A total of 172 eyes of 111 patients were included. After
excluding NTG, the preop and 6 month postop mean IOP were
17.8 ± 4.3 and 14.9 ± 2.0 for the phaco alone group; 16.7 ± 3.9
Conclusion
iStent eyes had significantly decreased IOP and medication use
in the short term. Phaco alone reduced IOP but did not reduce
medication use.
Reference
1. Craven RE et al. Cataract surgery with trabecular micro-bypass
stent. J Cataract Refract Surg 2012; 38:1339–1345.
166
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
49 MicroPulse Trans-scleral Cyclophotocoagulation
(mTSCPC) for the Treatment of Glaucoma
Using the MicroPulse P3 Device
NATHAN RADCLIFFE1, Steven Vold 2,
Jeffrey Kammer 3, Iqbal Ike Ahmed 4,
Parag Parekh5, Robert Noecker 6, Anup
Khatana7
1
New York University
2 Vold Vision
3 Vanderbilt
4 University of Toronto
5 Laurel Eye Clinic
6 Yale School of Medicine
7 Cincinnati Eye Institute
Purpose/Relevance
Standard Trans-scleral Cyclophotocoagulation, performed with
the 810 nm diode laser, is an efficacious treatment for refractory
glaucoma, however concerns for adverse outcomes such as
macular edema, hypotony, and phthisis bulbi have limited
widespread adoption of this nonincisional glaucoma therapy.
This study evaluated a new glaucoma laser concept intended to
deliver MicroPulse laser energy transcerally. The system includes
a new laser and a device called the MicroPulse P3 (MP3, Iridex
Corporation, Mountain View, CA). In MicroPulse laser mode,
brief (e.g., 0.5 ms) laser bursts are followed by slightly longer
(e.g., 1 ms) rest periods repeatedly delivered over a longer
envelope of time (e.g., 50 sec). This laser application mode
theoretically inhibits thermal spread and collateral thermal
damage, may lead to enhanced unveoscleral outflow and may
be safer and more efficacious than continuous wave. Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation.1 In this retrospective case series,
we present outcomes of patients who have mTSCPC with an
810 nm laser (Iridex) and MicroPulse P3 device (MP3).
Methods
This retrospective series included patients who underwent
mTSCPC for glaucoma. Patients received retrobulbar anesthesia
followed by two 50-90 second treatments over the superior and
Figure 1
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
inferior hemispheres, sparing the temporal most clock hour. The
laser was set on MicroPulse mode with a duty cycle of 31.3%
(0.5ms laser bursts followed by 1.1ms rests, repeated throughout
the 50-90 second laser application per hemisphere). Topical
steroids were prescribed postoperatively and intraocular pressure
was monitored. Results
Forty-two eyes of 39 patients underwent mTSCPC procedure.
Mean preoperative IOP was 26.2 ± 11.1 mmHg (42 eyes).
Follow up IOP was 17.8±9.0 mmHg at week 1 (n=26, p<0.001),
17.9±6.4 mmHg at month 1(n=18, p<0.01) and 16.5±6.7 mmHg
at month 3 (n=15, p<0.05). IOP reduction ranged from 31.8%
at week 1 to 38.1% at month 3. Ocular hypotensive medication
usage was reduced from 3.2±1.7 pre-operatively to 2.5±1.6
by postoperative month three (p<0.001). No cases of visually
significant hypotony, macular edema or phthisis bulbi were
observed, however one patient experienced a > 2 line reduction
in visual acuity from worsening of a pre-existing cataract.
Discussion
In this retrospective series mTSCPC had an excellent safety
profile for the treatment of glaucoma. While treatment efficacy
is difficult to determine in single armed retrospective studies, the
effects seen in this series are in line with the pressure reduction
achieved from standard TSCPC with less observed post-operative
inflammation.
Conclusion
We conclude that the mTSCPC procedure is a new treatment
modality that may have promise as a safe treatment for glaucoma
and further study is warranted.
Reference
1. Aquino MC, Barton K, Tan AM, Sng C, Li X, Loon SC, Chew
PT. Micropulse versus continuous wave transscleral diode
cyclophotocoagulation in refractory glaucoma: a randomized
exploratory study. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2014 May 9.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
50 Meta-Analysis of Trabeculectomy Ab-Interno
Outcomes
LOEWEN1,
Kaplowitz2,
NILS A.
Kevin
Igor Bussel1, Joel Schuman1
1
2
University of Pittsburgh
Stony Brook University
Purpose/Relevance
To analyze all of the published
English language scientific literature
on trabeculectomy ab interno with
the Trabectome (Neomedix, Irvine,
CA). The primary goal was to determine the overall average
Intraocular Pressure (IOP) reduction following the procedure.
Secondary goals included calculating complication rates to
evaluate the rate of vision-threatening complications.
Methods
For the IOP results, PubMed was searched for “trabectome”
and “trabeculectomy ab interno”, and all available papers in any
language that had an English language abstract were reviewed
and references retrieved. Of the 42 manuscripts on trabectome,
only 19 contributed IOP data, and only 12 appeared to have
non-overlapping data sets and were included. We performed
a meta-analysis on IOP and medication reduction using a
random-effects model to achieve conservative estimates and
assess statistical heterogeneity. To investigate the rate of serious
complications, the expanded search also included all abstracts
from AGS, ASCRS and ARVO.
167
Results
The overall arithmetic mean baseline IOP in the literature for
standalone trabectome was 26.71 mmHg ± 1.34 mmHg and
decreased by 10.5 ± 1.9 mmHg (39% decrease) on 0.54 ± 0.99
fewer medications. For combined phacoemulsification and
trabectome, from an overall mean reported baseline IOP of
21 mmHg ± 1.31 mmHg, the mean decrease was 6.24 ± 1.98
mmHg (27% decrease) on 0.35 ± 0.76 fewer medications.
The weighted mean difference (WMD) in IOP from baseline
to study endpoint was 9.77 mmHg (95%CI: 8.90 - 10.64)
standalone and 6.04 mmHg (95%CI: 4.95 - 7.13) for combined
cases (figure). These estimates were statistically significant
with marked heterogeneity, likely due to clinical trial variation
in sample size, glaucoma subtype, duration of follow-up, and
baseline IOP. In terms of serious complications, there were 4
cases of aqueous misdirection (0.039% of all published cases),
6 cases of cyclodialysis cleft (0.058%) with only one noted to
require further treatment, 3 postoperative IOP spikes associated
with hyphema requiring surgical intervention (0.029%), one
choroidal hemorrhage (0.01%) and one case (0.01%) of
endophthalmitis after a combined phacoemulsification where the
culture grew Enterococcus faecalis.1,2
Discussion
Trabectome can be expected overall to lower the IOP by
approximately 31% to a final average IOP of approximately 15
mmHg, with a low rate of serious complications.
168
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
Conclusion
Trabeculectomy ab interno with the trabectome is a mature
surgical technique with an extensive body of experience since
2004. The rate of visually-threatening complications is <1%.
References
1. Vold, Steven D. “Ab interno trabeculotomy with the trabectome
system: what does the data tell us?.” International ophthalmology
clinics 51.3 (2011): 65-81.
2. K Kaplowitz, X Chen, NA Loewen. “Two year Results for 180°
Trabectome Ablation.” Poster, American Glaucoma Society,
February 2013.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
51 The Effect of No-Sponge vs. Sponge Placement
of Mitomycin C on Outcomes of Trabeculectomy
with Ex-PRESS Shunt: Interim Report
AMANDA KIELY1, Ninita Brown1,
Sandra Stinnett1, Leon W. Herndon, Jr.,
MD1
1
Duke Eye Center
Purpose/Relevance
o present interim results of an
T
investigation into the impact of
mitomycin-C (MMC) placement
technique on Ex-PRESS trabeculectomy
outcomes.
Methods
Only these are considered in this interim analysis. Average
ages at study entry are 70.6(±5.2) and 75.3(±3.6) years, preoperative IOPs 18.86(±6.12) and 14.44(±3.32) mmHg, and
MMC application times 2.3(±0.8) and 2.4(±0.9) minutes in
the no-sponge and sponge groups respectively; none of these
differences is statistically significant. Failure rates in the two
groups are not significantly different: 1/7 and 2/9 for no-sponge
and sponge cases. There is a trend towards greater IOP lowering
in the no-sponge group, with average IOP reduction 7.7(±2.3)
mmHg vs. 2.7(±5.1)mmHg at 3 months; this difference is
statistically significant at 2 months (p=0.048). 4/7 no-sponge
blebs have required suture lysis, compared to 3/9 sponge blebs;
this difference is not significant. Likewise, bleb morphology does
not differ significantly between the groups. Complications have
been uncommon and do not differ significantly between the
groups.
This is a prospective randomized study of 100 eyes undergoing
trabeculectomy with Ex-PRESS shunt. Sub-Tenon’s MMC
is applied by either infusion through a limbal peritomy or
placement of 4 soaked sponges; surgical technique is otherwise
uniform. Inclusion criteria are chronic open-angle or angleclosure glaucoma, phakia or pseudophakia, and suitability for
superonasal Ex-PRESS trabeculectomy. Patients are classified by
age, pre-operative intraocular pressure (IOP), and simultaneous
cataract extraction, and assessed 1 day, 2 & 4 weeks, and 2, 3
& 6 months post-operatively. The primary outcome is surgical
failure, defined as (a) anatomical bleb failure, (b) IOP >15, (c)
restarting IOP-lowering medications or (d) requiring needling.
Other outcomes are IOP, bleb morphology described with the
Indiana Bleb Morphology Grading Scale, need for laser suture
lysis, and complications.
Discussion
Results
3. Scott IU, et al. Archives of Ophthalmology 1998;116(3):286.
To date, 30 patients have enrolled, of whom 16 are ≥65y, with
pre-op IOP <28, undergoing concurrent cataract extraction.
169
The impact of MMC application technique on trabeculectomy
outcomes has not been well-characterized. In this interim
analysis, we find greater IOP lowering at 2 months with a
no-sponge technique and no difference in rates of failure or
complications.
Conclusion
Placing MMC via sub-Tenon’s infusion rather than sponges may
improve IOP reduction.
References
1. Dahan E, Carmichael TR. Journal of Glaucoma 2005;14(2):98102.
2. Lee E, et al. Acta Ophthalmologica 2008;86(8):866-870.
170
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
52 Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant Comparison Study
(250-mm2 vs 350-mm2)
ABRAHAM SUHR1, Charisma
Evangelista1
1
San Antonio Military Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
To compare surgical outcomes of two
differently sized glaucoma drainage
devices.
Methods
This retrospective study compared the outcomes of two
glaucoma drainage devices (Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant
(BGI) 250-mm2 vs 350-mm2, Abbott Medical Optics Inc.)
implanted by a single surgeon in adult patients from Jan
2007 – Nov 2013 at the San Antonio Military Medical Center.
Outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), visual
acuity, number of glaucoma medications and frequency of
postoperative complications. Surgical success was defined
as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 6 mm Hg and ≤ 21 mm Hg,
no further glaucoma surgery, and no loss of light perception
postoperatively. Complete success was defined as above without
glaucoma medications.
Results
105 eyes met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 57 received
the 250-mm2 implant, while 48 received the 350-mm2 implant.
The mean follow-up was 21.4 (SD ± 15.7) months. At one year
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
after surgery, there was no statistical difference in mean IOP in
both implants (13.5 ± 4.3 in the 250-mm2 group vs 13.5 ± 4.5
in the 350-mm2 group, p = 0.804). Cumulative success rates
were similar at one year (77.9% ± 5.7% in the 250-mm2 group
vs 78.2% ± 6.1% in the 350-mm2 group) as well as complete
success rates (17.5% in the 250-mm2 group and 14.5% in
the 350-mm2 group). Visual acuity, number of glaucoma
medications, and complications between implants were also not
statistically different (p>0.05).
Discussion
At one year after surgery, the postoperative outcomes of the 250mm2 and 350-mm2 implants were similar.
Conclusion
It has been suggested in the past that a larger end plate surface
area of a glaucoma drainage implant may result to more IOP
reduction.1 However, there appears to be an upper limit beyond
which an increase in surface area may not improve success
rates. We found that at one year after tube shunt surgery, the
smaller BGI (250-mm2) appeared to show similar postoperative
outcomes as the larger implant (350-mm2). This is the first study
directly comparing the outcomes of these two implant sizes in a
diverse population.
Reference
1. Britt MT, LaBree LD, Lloyd MA, et al. Randomized Clinical Trial
of the 350-mm2 versus the 500-mm2 baerveldt Implant: Longer
Term Results. Is Bigger Better? Ophthalmology 1999;106:23132318.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
53 The Interaction of Primary Human Trabecular
Meshwork Cells with Metal Alloy Candidates for
Micro-invasive Glaucoma Surgery
CINDY HUTNIK1, Kelsey Watson2,
Wendy (Wan) Wang2, Hong Liu2, Amin
Rizkalla2, S. Jeffrey Dixon2
1
Ivey Eye Institute
2 Western University
Purpose/Relevance
To determine the effect of candidate
metal alloys for ab-interno microstenting
on human trabecular meshwork cell
(HTMC) morphology, viability and function.
Methods
HTMCs were cultured on the surface of titanium and a titaniumnickel (nitinol) alloy, with glass as control substrata. Fluorescent
imaging studies were conducted to assess cell morphology
and spread. Additionally, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
cytotoxicity assay, cell death detection ELISA, Caspase 3 cellular
apoptosis assay, fibronectin ELISA, BrdU cell proliferation assay,
and MTT cell proliferation assay were conducted to assess cell
viability and function.
Results
Cells cultured on the sandblasted titanium surface had
significantly greater cell spreading (p=0.012) than the cells
cultured on other substrata. HTMCs on the nitinol and
HydrusTM Microstent surface showed little spread. Moreover,
HTMCs cultured on the machine polished titanium and nitinol
followed a parallel growth pattern along the surface grooves.
Cell death by both necrosis (p=0.0131) and apoptosis (0.0121)
was greater on the nitinol compared to titanium surfaces. Also,
171
less cellular metabolic activity (p = 0.0194) and proliferation
(p=0.0429) occurred on the nitinol surface than titanium or
glass. Finally, HTMCs on both titanium and nitinol produced
higher amounts of fibronectin than cells grown on the glass
control (p=0.0033).
Discussion
Small metallic stents are now being inserted into the
trabecular meshwork via an ab interno approach to increase
the drainage of aqueous humour. It has been predicted that
this microsurgical stent approach may become an important
option in glaucoma management due to its favourable side
effect profile. Remarkably, there have been no published studies
on the effect of the metal alloys used in the stents on human
trabecular meshwork cells (HTMCs). This study reports on the
biocompatibility of two common metal alloys with primary
cultures of human trabecular meshwork cells.
Conclusion
The elemental composition and texture of a metal surface impact
the functional and morphological properties of HTMCs and
identify cellular effects that may influence short- and long-term
function of micro-invasive glaucoma shunts. References
1. Grierson I, Saheb H, Kahook MY, Johnstone MA, Ahmed II,
Schieber AT, et al. A novel schlemm’s canal scaffold: Histologic
observations. J Glaucoma. 2013 Nov 2.
2. Park YJ, Song YH, An JH, Song HJ, Anusavice KJ.
Cytocompatibility of pure metals and experimental binary titanium
alloys for implant materials. J Dent. 2013 Sep.
3. Saheb H, Ahmed II. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery: Current
perspectives and future directions. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012
Mar;23(2):96-104.
172
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
54 Comparison of Surgical Outcomes of the
Molteno 185mm2 Shunt and the Baerveldt
250mm2 Shunt: Is There a Difference?
SACHI R. PATEL1, Anna Silverman1,
Shamil Patel, George Reiss1
1
No photo was
submitted
George R. Reiss, MD PC
Purpose/Relevance
To compare the surgical outcomes of
the Baerveldt 250mm2 shunt and the
Molteno185 mm2 shunt. American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Comparison analysis by Tukey-HSD and T- test demonstrated
no significant difference in mean intraocular pressure, change
from baseline intraocular pressure, adjunctive use of glaucoma
medications, complication rates, or surgical success rates at
current follow-up duration. When stratified based on race and
age, 2 significant differences were found between the two groups.
The Molteno shunt significantly reduced medication dependence
in the “Other” ethnicity group in comparison with the Baerveldt
shunt. The Baerveldt shunt had a statistically significant greater
percent reduction in IOP for patients over the age of 65 in
comparison to the Molteno group. There was no difference in
comfort or diplopia rates between the groups.
Discussion
Methods
Retrospective, dual surgeon comparative case series of 223
eyes that underwent glaucoma shunt surgery for uncontrolled
glaucoma (all diagnoses included). 128 eyes underwent
placement of a Molteno 185 mm2shunt, and 95 eyes underwent
placement of a Baerveldt 250 mm2 shunt. The primary outcomes
measured were change in intraocular pressure, change in
postoperative medications, complication rates, and surgical
success. Surgical success was defined by an IOP between 5mmHg
and 21mmHg and a reduction in medications greater than
20%, without additional surgical intervention or loss of light
perception vision.
Results
Average follow up was 13.23 ± 9.50 months for the Baerveldt
250 mm2 group and 7.27 ± 5.25 for the Molteno 185 mm2
group. The mean IOP reduction was 44.81% ± 30.23 for the
Baerveldt group and 36.57% ± 46.59 for the Molteno group.
The mean medication reduction was 54.27% ± 54.27 for the
Baerveldt group and 51.34% ± 50.27 for the Molteno group.
Surgical outcomes after insertion of the Molteno 185 mm2 and
Baerveldt 250 mm2 are not statistically different in regards to
mean IOP reduction, medication reduction, and complication
rates at this follow up interval. Conclusion
The Baerveldt 250 mm2 and Molteno 185 mm2 shunts offer
similar success rates. Given the ease of insertion and lack of
muscle manipulation, Molteno 185 mm2 may be used without
concern of reduced success in the short-term in comparison to
the Baerveldt 250 mm2. The Baerveldt 250 mm2 did achieve
statistically greater IOP reduction in patients above 65. Further,
long-term follow up will help further stratify patients that may
respond better to a particular shunt model. Long-term follow up
will be continued to determine stability of success rate.
Reference
1. Minckler D, Vedula SS, Li T, Mathew M, Ayyala R, Francis B.
Aqueous shunts for glaucoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004918. Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
55 Supra-Tenon Capsule Placement of Baerveldt
Implant
AILEEN SY1, George Tanaka1
1
California Pacific Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
Placement of glaucoma drainage
devices (GDD) has traditionally been
beneath the Tenon capsule. Freedman
and associates have reported that
supra-Tenon placement of the Molteno
glaucoma implant reduces fibrotic
reaction from the Tenon tissue at the filter site and is effective
in patients with previously failed implants, with improved
intraocular pressure control and more effective bleb formation.
No studies have investigated supra-Tenon versus infra-Tenon
placement of the more widely used Baerveldt GDD. The aim of
this study was to compare the efficacy of supra-Tenon capsule
placement of the 250 sq mm Baerveldt implant to traditional
infra-Tenon capsule placement of the 350 sq mm Baerveldt in the
management of refractory glaucoma patients.
Methods
A retrospective chart review was performed on patients having
Baerveldt GDD surgery by a single surgeon (G. Tanaka). Results
Thirty-one cases of infra-Tenon (IT) Baerveldt GDD placement
were identified from June 2012 to June 2013. Twenty-nine cases
of supra-Tenon (ST) placement were identified from March
173
2013 to March 2014. There were no statistical differences in
pre-operative age, gender, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual
acuity (VA), number of IOP lowering medications, or follow-up
time between the two groups. Mean post-operative IOP was
12.2 (median 12) in the ST group and 13.6 (median 13) in the IT
group (p=0.32), and mean number of postoperative medications
required was 0.86 (median 0) in the ST group and 1.45 (median
1) in the IT group (p=0.11). A 0.22 logMAR improvement in VA
was seen post-operatively in ST group, whereas a 0.23 logMAR
worsening in VA was seen post-operatively in IT group (p=0.04).
Discussion
The preliminary results demonstrate supra-Tenon capsule
placement of the Baerveldt implant not only adequately controls
IOP, but may result in improved VA outcomes with a trend
towards lower IOP and fewer IOP lowering medications postoperatively.
Conclusion
The results of this study suggest supra-Tenon capsule placement
of the Baerveldt implant may be superior to traditional infraTenon capsule placement.
References
1. Freedman J and Chamnongvongse P. Supra-Tenon’s capsule
placement of a single-plate Molteno implant. Br J Ophthalmol
2008;92:669-672.
2. Freedman J and Bhandari R. Supra-Tenon capsule placement of
Original Molteno vs Molteno 3 Tube implants in Black patients
with Refractory Glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2011;129(8):993997.
174
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
56 Treatment Outcomes of Micropulse Transscleral
Cyclophotocoagulation in Advanced Glaucoma
SARAH KUCHAR1, Marlene Moster1,
Michael Waisbourd1
1
Wills Eye Hospital
Purpose/Relevance
To describe our experience
with micropulse transscleral
cyclophotocoagulation (MP-TSCPC).
Methods
A pilot case series of 11 consecutive patients with advanced
glaucoma who underwent MP-TSCPC. Laser settings were
2000mW of 810nm infrared diode laser on micropulse delivery
mode (IRIDEX IQ810 Laser Systems, CA). The laser was
delivered over 360° for 100-160s. The duty cycle was 31.3%,
which translated to 0.5ms of “on time” and 1.1ms of “off time”.
Total energy delivered to each eye ranged from 62.6-100.2J.
The last four patients in the series had a paracentesis for shortterm intraocular pressure (IOP) control. IOP, pain, number of
glaucoma medications, visual acuity (VA) and complications
were assessed at postoperative visits. Results
Eleven patients ranging from 59 to 86 yeas underwent
MP-TSCPC with 1 to 4 months follow up. Mean IOP dropped
from 38.9mmHg preoperatively to 15mmHg at last follow up,
representing a 61.4% decrease. Mean number of glaucoma
medications decreased from 2.64 preoperatively to 1.55
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
postoperatively. No patient reported pain. No patient lost vision.
One patient had persistently elevated pressures and required
subsequent tube shunt surgery. One patient had hypotony
without associated complications.
Discussion
Traditionally TSCPC is reserved for end-stage glaucoma due to
the higher rate of serious complications. Micropulse delivery
allows energy to build up to the coagulative threshold in
targeted pigmented tissues during the “on” cycles. Adjacent nonpigmented tissue cools during the “off” cycle and does not reach
the coagulative threshold. Collateral tissue damage is minimized,
resulting in fewer complications without sacrificing efficacy.1,2
Our series is limited by small sample size and short follow up,
however our preliminary results are favorable and agree with the
results of Tan et al.1
Conclusion
Preliminary experience with MP-TSCPC for advanced glaucoma
is encouraging and warrants further long-term evaluation and
comparison to the traditional continuous mode. References
1. Tan AM, Chockalingam M, Aquino MC, et al. Micropulse
transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in the
treatment of refractory glaucoma. Clin Experiment
Ophthalmol;2010;38:266-72.
2. Aquino MC, Barton K, Tan AM, et al. Micropulse versus
continuous wave transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation in
refractory glaucoma: a randomized exploratory study. Clin
Experiment Ophthalmol;2014;10:1-7.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
57 Intermediate-term Results of the GATT
Procedure in Eyes with Prior Incisional
Glaucoma Surgery
58 Trabeculotomy Ab-Interno (Trabectome)
in Patients with Very High Pre-operative
Intraocular Pressure
DAVID GODFREY1, Davinder Grover1,
Ronald Fellman1, Oluwatosin Smith1,
Michelle Butler1, Matthew Emanuel1
BRIAN FRANCIS, Ramya Swamy1
1
Purpose/Relevance
1
Glaucoma Associates of Texas
Methods
This retrospective, IRB-approved chart review at Glaucoma
Associates of Texas analyzed data of 35 eyes that underwent
a GATT procedure for the treatment of refractory glaucomas,
including eyes with prior trabeculectomy (n=17), prior tube
(n=13), prior Trabectome (n=4), Express Shunt (n=4), and prior
ECP (n=5). Intraocular pressure (IOP), number of IOP lowering
medications, visual acuity, complications, and secondary
procedures were recorded at baseline, 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6,
12, 18, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. UCLA
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of
Trabectome procedure in patients with
pre-operative IOP of 30 mmHg or
higher. Purpose/Relevance
To describe results of the GATT
procedure in eyes with prior incisional
glaucoma surgery. Additionally, to
investigate the IOP lowering effect, risk
profile, and postoperative complications in this group.
175
Methods
All patients that had undergone Trabectome stand alone or
Trabectome combined with phacoemulsification were included.
Those that had pre-operative IOP of less than 30mmHg or less
than 6 months of follow-up were excluded. Main outcome
measure included IOP, number of glaucoma medications and
secondary glaucoma surgery, if any. Survival analysis was
performed by using Kaplan-Meier and success was defined as
IOP≤21mmHg, 20% or more IOP reduction from baseline for
any two consecutive visits after 3 months and no secondary
glaucoma surgery. Results
Results
The pre-operative mean (SD) IOP was 25.7 (6.5) mmHg on
3.2 (1.0) medications, which decreased to 15.9 (4.0) mmHg
[p=0.001] on 2.3 (1.5) medications [p=0.004] at 18 months.
Mean follow-up time is 21.2 (range 6-31) months. At postoperative week one, 12 (34%) eyes had a transient layered
hyphema (the most common complication), and one eye had
a vitreous hemorrhage at 1 month. There was no difference
between pre- and post-operative visual acuity. Eyes with prior
cataract extraction were at higher risk for failure (p=0.051).
Cumulative proportions of failure (with either reoperation and
IOP not lowered by 20%) were 6, 20, and 30% at 6,12, and 18
months respectively. Discussion
The GATT procedure, a minimally invasive conjunctival sparing
circumferential trabeculotomy, is effective in lowering IOP in
primary glaucomas. Options for eyes that fail external filtration
surgery include further trabeculectomy or drainage implants, or
cyclodestruction. Eyes having the GATT procedure after prior
incisional glaucoma surgery fared well with good IOP control
and low complications, offering a minimally invasive alternative
for refractory glaucomas. A total of 49 cases were included with an average age of 66
(Range: 13-91). Majority were Caucasians (63%) diagnosed
with POAG (49%). 28 cases had Trabectome stand-alone and
21 cases had Trabectome combined with phaco. Mean IOP
was reduced from a baseline of 35.6±6.3 mmHg to 16.8±3.8
mmHg (53% reduction) at 12 months (p<0.01*), while number
of medications were reduced from 3.1±1.3 to 1.8±1.4 (42%
reduction; p<0.01*). Survival rate at 12 months was 80%. 9
cases required secondary glaucoma surgery and 1 case was
reported with hypotony at day one, but resolved within one
week. Discussion
The reduction in IOP and number of glaucoma medications were
found to be statistically significantly different. IOP on average
was reduced by 53% after 12 months and number of glaucoma
medications was reduced by 42%. Other than secondary
glaucoma surgery and hypotony at post-operative day one, no
serious complications was reported.
Conclusion
Conclusion
Trabectome appears to be safe and effective in patients with
pre-operative IOP of 30 mmHg or greater. Even in this cohort
with high pre-operative IOP, the end result is a mean IOP in the
physiologic range. The GATT procedure is effective in reducing IOP in patients
with refractory glaucomas, with an excellent safety profile. Reference
References
1. Grover D, Godfrey DG, Smith O, Feuer MS, Montes de Oca,
Fellman RL. Gonioscopy assisted transluminal trabeculotomy: a
novel ab interno trabeculotomy—technique report and preliminary
results. Ophthalmology 2014; 121(4):855-61.
2. Godfrey DG, Fellman RL, Neelakantan A. Canal surgery in adult
glaucomas. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2009 Mar;20(2):116-21.
1. Minckler D, Baerveldt G, Francis B et al. Clinical results with
the Trabectome, a novel surgical device for treatment of open-angle
glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:40-50.
176
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
59 Safety and Efficacy of Trabectome in Uveitic
Glaucoma
RAMYA SWAMY1, Lama Al-Aswad2,
Brian Francis1
1
2
Doheny Eye Institute- UCLA
Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute
Purpose/Relevance
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
underwent Trabectome alone (77%). IOP was reduced from
30.2±7.1 mmHg to 18.4±6.2 mmHg at 12 months (p<0.01*),
while number of glaucoma medications were reduced from
3.9±0.9 to 3.0±1.5 (p=0.1). Survival rate at 12 months was
71%. 8 cases required secondary glaucoma surgery and no other
serious complication was reported.
Discussion
Glaucoma secondary to uveitis is a
serious complication of intraocular
inflammation and consequent chronic
steroid use. Uveitic glaucoma is a
challenge to manage clinically and surgically. The study provides
evidence about the use of a minimally invasive procedure that is
effective at lowering intraocular pressure. Uveitic glaucoma is a complex condition that is often difficult
to manage. Additionally traditional surgical procedures such
as trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C and aqueous drainage
implants have lower rates of success in cases of uveitic glaucoma
when compared to other forms of glaucoma such as primary
open angle glaucoma. Trabectome offers a minimally invasive
method for controlling IOP in this population with additional
benefit of lowering number of IOP lowering topical medications. Methods
Conclusion
All patients diagnosed with uveitic glaucoma and with at
least 12 months follow-up were included in the study. All
patients have received Trabectome alone or combined with
phacoemulsification. Major outcomes include intraocular
pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications and need
for secondary glaucoma surgery. Kaplan-Meier was used for
survival analysis and success was defined as IOP ≤ 21mmHg, at
least 20% IOP reduction from baseline for any two consecutive
visits after 3 months and no secondary glaucoma surgery and no
additional glaucoma medication.
The Trabectome procedure appears to be effective in reducing
IOP in uveitic glaucoma patients since IOP was significantly
reduced from prior. Additionally a trend was noted towards
decreased glaucoma medications in the group that underwent
treatment.
Results
2. Siddique SS, Suelves AM, Baheti U, Foster CS. Glaucoma and
Uveitis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2013;58(1):1-10.
A total of 31 cases with an average age of 52 (Range 30-74)
were included in the study. Majority were Hispanics (48%) and
References
1. Iwao K, Inatani M, et. al. Long-term outcomes and prognostic
factors for trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in eyes with uveitic
glaucoma: a retrospective cohort study. J Glaucoma. 2014;23(2):
88-94.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
60 Phaco-iStent No Steroids Study: How Does
Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Affect The Early
Postoperative IOP Profile of Patients Undergoing
Combined Cataract Surgery and Trabecular
Micro-bypass Surgery?
AARON WINTER1, Cody Li2, Paul
Harasymowycz3, Hady Saheb4
1
Dalhousie University
Queen’s University
3 University of Montreal
4 McGill University
2
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate and compare the early
postoperative outcomes of trabecular
micro-bypass stents and concomitant cataract surgery with and
without postoperative corticosteroid therapy.
Methods
Retrospective interventional matched comparative case series
comparing outcomes of open angle glaucoma patients that
underwent trabecular micro-bypass stents and concomitant
cataract surgery with and without postoperative corticosteroid
therapy. Subjects were matched for preoperative intraocular
pressure (IOP) at a 1:1 ratio, within prespecified 3mmHg
intervals. Primary endpoint: IOP changes up to 6 months
postoperatively. Secondary endpoints: number of postoperative
medications, IOP spikes, peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) and
visual acuity (VA) improvements. Results
104 patients (52 per group) were analyzed. Mean IOP in mmHg
at baseline, 1 week, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months were
177
16.1 ± 3.9, 16.8 ± 7.0, 16.3 ± 6.5, 14.5 ± 3.1, 13.5 ± 2.9 in nonsteroid group and 16.4 ± 5.1, 17.4 ± 8.1, 16.1 ± 5.1, 14.3 ± 5.3,
14.1 ± 4.3 in the steroid group; no significant difference was
found at individual time points between groups. IOP at 6 months
decreased significantly from baseline (P<0.01 for both). Steroid
group had higher number of IOP spikes (n=9) compared to nonsteroid group (n=3,P=0.05). There was no significant difference
in postoperative PAS; steroid group (n=9) vs. non-steroid group
(n=11,P=0.3). Mean number of medications decreased from
2.5 ± 1.3 at baseline to 0.5 ± 1.0 at 6 months in the non-steroid
group and from 2.4 ± 1.3 to 0.8 ± 1.0 in the steroid group
(P<0.01 for both). VA in logMar improved from 0.27 ± 0.28 to
0.14 ± 0.10 in the non-steroid group (P <0.01) and from 0.21 ±
0.23 to 0.16 ± 0.26 in the steroid group (P=0.02).
Discussion
Trabecular micro-bypass stents and concomitant cataract
surgery appears to decrease IOP and number of glaucoma
medications. The use of steroid therapy in the early postoperative
period may predispose to more IOP spikes; however it does
not appear to cause significant differences in IOP or number of
glaucoma medications.
Conclusion
Use of steroids for postoperative control of inflammation does
not appear to lead to negative IOP and medication use outcomes
following combined cataract and trabecular micro-bypass
surgery. Reference
1. Saheb H, Ahmed II. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery: current
perspectives and future directions. Curr Opin Ophthalmol.
2012;23:96–104.
178
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
61 Comparison of Post-operative Intraocular
Pressure Spikes in Femtosecond Laser-assisted
Cataract Surgery to Phacoemulsification Alone
in Glaucomatous and Non-glaucomatous Eyes
PHILIP NILES1, Charles Niles2
1
2
University of Iowa
State University of New York at Buffalo
Purpose/Relevance
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP)
is the most frequent postoperative
complication demanding treatment
following phacoemulsification.
Our study compares the risk of IOP
spikes on the post-operative day 1 between glaucomatous
and non-glaucomatous eyes that underwent femtosecond
laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLCS) to those that underwent
phacoemulsification cataract extraction alone.
Methods
100 consecutive eyes that underwent FLCS and 100 consecutive
eyes that underwent phacoemulsification alone were monitored
for post-operative changes in IOP. IOP was measured within the
month preceding surgery and on post-operative day 1. An IOP
spike was defined as an increase of ≥ 10 mmHg.
Results
23 glaucomatous eyes and 77 eyes without glaucoma underwent
FLCS. 22 glaucomatous eyes and 78 eyes without glaucoma
underwent phacoemulsification alone. The average IOP
increases were: 0.21 mmHg in eyes without glaucoma and
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
phacoemulsification alone, 0.04 mmHg in eyes without glaucoma
that underwent FLCS, 0.41 mmHg in eyes with glaucoma
and phacoemulsification alone and 2.43 mmHg in eyes with
glaucoma and that underwent FLCS (p > 0.05). The incidences of
IOP spikes were: 1.3% in non-glaucomatous eyes that underwent
phacoemulsification alone, 2.6% in non-glaucomatous eyes that
underwent FLCS, 13.6% in glaucomatous eyes that underwent
phacoemulsification alone and 17.4% of glaucomatous eyes that
underwent FLCS (p > 0.05).
Discussion
Though our data did not reach statistical significance, our data
suggests that glaucomatous eyes that underwent FLCS may have
an increased risk of experiencing a post-operative IOP spike
compared to eyes that underwent phacoemulsification alone.
Conclusion
Our study suggests that there may be a greater risk of
experiencing a spike in IOP with FLCS compared to
phacoemulsification alone in glaucomatous patients. Further
investigation with a larger sample size may be warranted to
determine if there is a greater risk of experiencing a spike in IOP
with FLCS, and whether this should affect patient selection.
References
1. Hildebrand, Göran Darius, et al. “Efficacy of anterior chamber
decompression in controlling early intraocular pressure spikes after
uneventful phacoemulsification.” Journal of Cataract & Refractive
Surgery 29.6 (2003): 1087-1092.
2. Tranos, P., G. Bhar, and B. Little. “Postoperative intraocular
pressure spikes: the need to treat.” Eye 18.7 (2004): 673-679.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
62 Use of Subconjunctival 5-Fluorouracil Injections
to Rescue a Failing Ahmed KEVIN KAPLOWITZ1, Sarah
Khodadadeh2, Samantha Wang3,
Daniel Lee3, James Tsai4
1
Stony Brook University
2 Center for Advanced Eye Care Vero
Beach
3 Yale
4 NY Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount
Sinai
Purpose/Relevance
Unlike for trabeculectomy, intraoperative antimetabolite use
did not improve long-term Intraocular Pressure (IOP) outcomes
for aqueous shunts in at least 2 major studies.1,2 Although
needling with antimetabolites has been demonstrated to improve
the IOP with a failing aqueous shunt,3 previous studies have
been relatively small with short follow-up. Once an aqueous
shunt begins to fail, common options include revising the plate
or reoperating. The purpose of this study is to determine if
subconjunctival 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) injections over an Ahmed
plate can prolong survival and rescue a failing Ahmed.
Methods
This retrospective chart review included all patients with an
Ahmed FP-7 implantation by a single surgeon (JCT) from
2007-2013. Exclusion criteria included usage of another type of
aqueous shunt or <3 months of follow-up. The control group
received Ahmed FP-7 without 5-FU or needling. The indication
for 5-FU was determined on a case-by-case basis but usually
done for an IOP>21 on >2 medications. The standardized 5-FU
Figure 1
179
injections consisted of 0.75mg injected over the plate with a
30-gauge ½" needle. The main outcome measure was IOP.
Success was defined as final IOP >=20% below baseline and < 21
mmHg, while avoiding reoperation.
Results
The mean age of the control group (n=45) was 72.5±16.6
years and 63.7±18.8 in the 5-FU group (n=44), p=0.04.
Mean preoperative IOP with 5-FU was 31.9±9.0 on 3.3±0.9
medications and 31.5±11 mmHg on 3.1±1 medications in the
control group, p=0.86. The mean time between surgery and first
5-FU injection was 137 days. Five years following aqueous shunt
implantation, the control group IOP averaged 12.9±7.1 mmHg
(53% decrease from preoperative IOP) on 1.4±1.1 medications
while the 5-FU group averaged 17.2±4.9 mmHg (46% decrease
from preoperative IOP, 32% decrease from pre 5-FU IOP) on
2.7±0.8 medications (Table). The IOP at 5 years in the 2 groups
was statistically similar, p=0.23. Kaplan-Meier survival curves at
5 years trended higher with 5-FU (77% vs 67%, p=0.38).
Discussion
Subconjunctival 5-FU injections were able to rescue a failing
Ahmed shunt, sustaining a 32% IOP decrease from pre 5-FU IOP
and a 46% decrease from preoperative IOP after 5 years.
Conclusion
Subconjunctival 5-FU injections were able to rescue a failing
Ahmed shunt with a 77% success rate at the end of 5 years, and
represent a viable alternative to tube revision or reoperation.
180
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
References
1. Cantor L,Burgoyne J,Sanders S, et al. The effect of mitomycin
C on Molteno implant surgery: a 1-year randomized, masked,
prospective study. J Glaucoma. 1998 Aug;7(4):240-6.
2. Irak I, Moster MR, Fontanarosa J. Intermediate-term results of
Baerveldt tube shunt surgery with mitomycin C use. Ophthalmic
Surg Lasers Imaging. 2004 May-Jun;35(3):189-96.
3. Lam D, J Lai, J Chua, D Fan. Needling Revision of Glaucoma
Drainage Device Filtering Blebs. Ophthalmology. 1998
Jul;105(7):1127-8.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
63 The Effect of Mitomycin C and 5-Fluorouracil
Adjuvant Therapy on the Outcomes of Ahmed
Valve Implantation
adjuvant treatment with anti-fibrotic agents whereas all valves
implanted after 2011 received injections of MMC and/or 5-FU.
IOP, BCVA, and the number of glaucoma medications were
recorded and compared between groups at the pre-operative
visit, and at post-operative time points of one month, 3 months,
6 months, and one year. The number and types of early
(occurring ≤ one month post-operation) and late (occurring >
one month post-operation) complications were also recorded.
The rates of treatment failure, defined as reoperation for
glaucoma, or as two consecutive visits after 3 months in which
the patient had inadequately reduced IOP (IOP > 21 mm Hg or
< 20% reduction below pre-operative baseline), were calculated
for each group.
QI CUI1, Yen-Cheng Hsia1, Nitisha
Mehta1, Ayman Naseri1, Ying Han1
1
181
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
University of California, San Francisco
Purpose/Relevance
o examine the effect of adjunctive
T
mitomycin c (MMC) and/or
5-flurouracil (5-FU) on intraocular
pressure (IOP) control and treatment
outcomes following Ahmed valve
implantation. Results
The +injection group included 38 patients and 44 eyes, and
the -injection group included 21 patient and 22 eyes (Table 1).
Pre-operative IOP and the number of glaucoma medications
were comparable between groups (Table 2). At post-operative
month one, IOP and the number of glaucoma medications were
significantly lower in the +injection group (p=0.04 and 0.002,
Methods
Electronic medical records from patients who received Ahmed
valve implantation from 1999–2014 in the San Francisco
Veteran’s Administration hospital were reviewed. None of
the Ahmed valves implanted before and during 2011 received
Table 1
Group MMC or 5-­‐FU (+ Injection) None (-­‐ Injection) Age Previous Number of (Mean ± Sex Laterality Diagnosis Glaucoma subjects/Number SD; (Male/Female) (OD/OS) (POAG/MMG/CACG/PXG/Other) surgery of eyes years) (eyes) Number of MMC/5-­‐FU injections (Mean ± SD) 38/44 70.8 ± 10.3 38/0 25/19 28/3/2/3/8 10 4.5 ± 2.0 21/22 70.6 ± 13.7 20/1 14/8 13/2/2/1/4 8 N/A Table 2
Time points Pre-­‐
operation 1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months MMC and/or 5-­‐FU (+injection) Number of eyes Average IOP SD IOP 44 28.23 10.04 44 41 38 30 13.62 14.11 13.28 13.53 Average logMAR 6.12 5.83 3.25 3.92 SD logMAR 0.62 0.62 0.66 0.58 0.55 0.52 0.53 0.57 0.56 0.50 Average number of glaucoma drops SD number of glaucoma drops 3 0.92 0.36 0.73 1.05 1.2 0.61 1.03 1.00 0.81 Pre-­‐
operation 1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months Pre-­‐
operation 1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months None (-­‐injection) Number of eyes p-­‐
Value Average IOP SD IOP 22 27.18 7.85 0.67 22 19 20 17 17.41 16.97 15.15 14.91 Average logMAR 7.80 6.34 5.94 4.99 SD logMAR 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.39 1.10 0.71 0.008 1.20 1.23 1.18 1.22 0.64 0.63 0.70 0.67 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Average number of glaucoma drops SD number of glaucoma drops 2.45 1.10 0.397 1.05 1.37 1.55 1.78 1.21 1.30 1.15 1.22 0.002 0.104 0.157 0.091 182
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
respectively). IOP and the number of glaucoma medications
were comparable between groups at all other post-operative
times points. The rates of early complications were comparable,
with 16 (36%) and 10 (45%) eyes in the +injection and
-injection groups, respectively. While 5 eyes (12%) experienced
late complications in the +injection group, a single (5%) late
complication was noted in the -injection group (p<0.05). For
eyes with follow-up duration of 12 months, treatment failure
occurred in 7 eyes in both groups (20% for +injection and 37%
for -injection; p<0.05).
Discussion
Compared to patients who did not receive either MMC or 5-FU
injections, the use of anti-fibrotics was associated with blunting
of the hypertensive phase and fewer treatment failures but more
late complications during a follow-up duration of 12 months.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Conclusion
This study suggests that anti-fibrotics may have a role in Ahmed
valve implant surgery.
References
1. Alvarado JA, Hollander DA, Juster RP, Lee LC. Ahmed valve
implantation with adjunctive mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil: longterm outcomes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;146(2):276-284.
2. Gedde SJ, Schiffman JC, Feuer WJ, Herndon LW, Brandt JD,
Budenz DL; Tube Versus Trabeculectomy Study Group. Threeyear follow-up of the tube versus trabeculectomy study. Am J
Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov;148(5):670-84.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
64 Ahmed Valve Revision in Pediatric Glaucoma
ALOMAIRI1,
Al-ameri1,
AHMED
Aliah
Sami Al Shahwan1, Arif Khan1, Ibrahim
Al Jadan1, Ahmed Mousa2, Deepak
Edward1
1 King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital
(KKESH)
2 King Saud University
Purpose/Relevance
Encapsulation of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) plate is
a common cause for postoperative elevation of intraocular
pressure. Many reports describe the outcomes of AGV revision
in adults by the outcomes of revision in children are poorly
documented. The study was designed to determine the shortterm outcomes of AGV revision in children.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of patients less than 15 years in age
who underwent AGV revision with a minimum postoperative
follow-up of six months. Outcomes measures included reduction
in intraocular pressure from baseline and reduction in the
number of glaucoma medications. Postoperative complications
were also noted. Complete success was defined as an IOP of 21
mmHg or less without medications, and qualified success was
defined as an IOP of 21 mmHg or less with medications.
Results
A total of 44 eyes which met the inclusion criteria with the
diagnosis of congenital Glaucoma (35 eyes; 79.5%), Aphakic
183
Glaucoma (4 eyes; 9.1%), and Peter’s anomaly associated
Glaucoma (1 eye; 2.3%). The mean number of previous surgery
was 1.4, and the mean age was 6.7 years (range 1.9 – 13 years)
with a median follow up 12 month, ranges from 6 to 24 months.
The IOP was reduced from a preoperative mean of 30.4 ± 10.3
to 24.9 ± 10.6 mmHg at 6 months postoperatively, with an
overall success rate of 55 %; qualified success rate of 50% and
complete success in 5% at the last visit. The most common
complication was reformation of encapsulated cyst with
elevated IOP (15.9%). Other complications included Hyphema
(n=3), Endophthalmitis (n=1) wound leak (n=1) and Choroidal
detachment (n=2).
Discussion
Through the complete success rate of AGV revision in children
was not encouraging, a modest qualified success was noted short
term considering the complex surgical history in these eyes. A
study by Tsai et al. in adults showed that shunt revision was
useful in patients with malposision or extrusion, but was less
effective in patients with encapsulation.
Conclusion
AGV revision in pediatric Glaucoma appears to be a safe
procedure. Though the success rate of AGV revision may not be
high, it may be an effective and safe method to lower intraocular
pressure in conjunction with medications at least for a short term
in these complex eyes.
Reference
1. Tsai JC, Grajewski AL, Parrish RK. Surgical Revision of Glaucoma
Shunt Implants. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1999; 30: 41-46.
184
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
65 Comparison of Surgical Outcome of Nonperforating Deep Sclerectomy Between
Pseudoexfoliative and Open-Angle Glaucoma
Patients
MOHAMMAD HAMID1, Paul
Harasymowycz1
1
Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the outcome of non
perforating deep sclerectomy surgery
(NPDS) between pseudoexfolative
glaucoma (PXG) and open angle
glaucoma (OAG) patients.
Methods
A case control study reviewing of 154 cases of non-perforating
deep sclerectomy surgery in PXG and OAG patients. Change
in intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications (Meds),
rate of goniopuncture (GP), time of goniopuncture, rate of
suturolysis, rate of glaucoma reoperation, rate of subconjunctival
bevacizumab and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections were analyzed
and compared between both groups.
Results
Overall, the PXG group and the OAG included 77 cases. All
the pre operative (PREOP) and baseline characteristics of each
group were similar. The average rate of IOP reduction was lower
in the PXG group at post-operative (POSTOP) day 1 and week
1 with a p value of <0.001 for both. However IOP reduction at
postop 1month, 3months and 6months were similar between
both groups with a p value >0.05. At 6months, the rate of GP
was 9.1% higher in the PXG group and was performed on
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
average 15 days earlier. Reduction in meds at 6months was
lower in the PXG with a p value of 0.001. However the rate of
subconjunctival injections of bevacizumab and 5-FU, the rate
of reoperation, needling were all-similar in both groups with p
value >0.05.
Discussion
Clinicopathology studies have demonstrated that
pseudoexfoliation material can be found in descemet’s
membrane and trabecular meshwork in PXG patients. Thus
infringing on the filtration of NPDS. Our results support
this finding because the PXG group initially had lower IOP
reduction. However the IOP reduction between both groups
was similar at 1 month, which is around the period where we
performed a GP. Our study also demonstrated that the PXG
group required more GP (9.1%) and were performed earlier
(15days) then the OAG group. Although this difference is
clinically significant, the p value remained >0.05 because of our
sample size.
Conclusion
NPDS performed on PXG have initially lower IOP reduction,
requiring a higher rate of GP, which are performed earlier, than
OAG patients. However a larger sample size would have been
necessary to obtain statistically significant results.
References
1. Naumann GO, Schlotzer-Schrehardt U. Keratopathy in
pseudoexfoliation syndrome as a cause of corneal endothelial
decompensation: a clinicopathologic study. Ophthalmology.
2000;107(6):1111-24.
2. Rasmussen CA, Kaufman PL. The trabecular meshwork in normal
eyes and in exfoliation glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma. 2014:S159.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
66 Pressure Reduction Following Cataract Surgery
with a Trabecular Micro-Bypass Device
BROWN1,
REAY
Mary
Gibson1, Elma Chang1
1
2
Lynch2,
Results
The average IOP reduction in all patients was 3.18 ± 3.74 mmHg
(p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the
magnitude of pressure reduction and preoperative pressure (r
= 0.7002, p<0.001). In patients with IOP >15 mmHg and ≤ 18
mmHg, the IOP reduction was 1.96 ± 2.91 mmHg (p < 0.001).
If the IOP was >18 mmHg and ≤ 21mmHg, the IOP reduction
was 3.08 ± 1.12mmHg (p < 0.001). In patients with IOP greater
than 21 mmHg, the IOP reduction was 7.53 ± 4.04 mmHg (p <
0.001). Overall, 81% of patients had a decreased pressure after
surgery. If the IOP was ≥ 19 mmHg, 100% had an improved
IOP.
Zack
None
Emory University School of Medicine
Purpose/Relevance
o evaluate the intraocular pressure
T
(IOP) reduction achieved by cataract
surgery with implantation of a
trabecular micro-bypass device in
patients with open angle glaucoma.
Discussion
Methods
Forty-seven eyes with open angle glaucoma underwent cataract
surgery with implantation of a trabecular bypass device (iStent,
Glaukos Corp.). All eyes had at least 6 months of follow-up.
Data recorded included preoperative and postoperative IOP
and the glaucoma medication requirement. The pre-operative
IOP was the mean of the 2 IOP readings before surgery. The
post-operative IOP was the mean of the last 3 IOP readings. The
preoperative pressure was used to stratify the patients into four
groups: IOP ≤ 15 mmHg, IOP > 15mmHg and ≤ 18mmHg, IOP
>18mmHg and ≤ 21mmHg and IOP > 21mmHg.
This study stratified patients by the pre-operative IOP. There
was a strong correlation between the pre-operative IOP and how
much pressure reduction was achieved by the surgery.
Conclusion
Cataract surgery with implantation of a trabecular microbypass device reduced the IOP in patients with open angle
glaucoma. The pressure-lowering effect was greater in eyes with
higher pre-operative IOP.
iStent Pressure Changes (6 months follow-­‐up) 7.53 -­‐ Change in IOP (mmHg) 8 7 6 5 4 3.083 3 1.962 2 1 0 -­‐ Change in IOP 0.085 ≤ 15 mmHg > 15 and < 19 mmHg 185
≥ 19 and ≤ 21 mmHg > 21 mmHg Preopera4ve Pressure Groups 186
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
iStent Pressure Changes (6 months follow-­‐up) 18 16 14 -­‐ Change in IOP (mmHg) 12 10 8 -­‐ Change in IOP Linear (-­‐ Change in IOP) 6 4 2 0 -­‐2 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Preopera4ve Pressure (mmHg) References
1. Samuelson TW, Katz LJ, Wells JM, Duh,YJ, Giamporcaro JE,
Randomized evaluation of the trabecular micro-bypass stent with
phacoemulsification in patients with glaucoma and cataract. J
Ophthalmology 2010;118:459-67.
2. Mansberber SL, Gordon MO, Jampel H, Bhorade A, Brandt
JD, Wilson B, Kass MA. Reduction in intraocular pressure after
cataract extraction: the ocular hypertension treatment group.
Ophthalmology 2012;119 (19): 1826-1831.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
67 Is There an Optimal Timeframe for YAG
Goniopuncture After Canaloplasty?
SACHIN KALARN1, Anna Silverman1,
Shamil Patel1, George Reiss1
1
George R. Reiss, MD PC
Purpose/Relevance
To determine if there is an optimal
timing to YAG Goniopuncture (GP)
following Canaloplasty. Methods
Retrospective chart review of patients undergoing Canaloplasty
only and those who had Canaloplasty with subsequent
adjunctive YAG Goniopuncture. Patients included those with
primary open angle, secondary open angle, low-tension, and
pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Primary outcome measures include
IOP pre and post YAG Goniopuncture, weeks to YAG GP –
within 4 weeks, 4-8 weeks, and > 8 weeks, and their respective
success (IOP < 21 mm Hg). Secondary outcome measures
included success (last follow up IOP < 21 mm Hg) based on age,
% IOP reduction, % medication reduction, cannulation rate, and
subsequent surgeries.
Results
Of the 131 eyes in the study, 57 eyes underwent YAG GP. PreYAG GP mean IOP was 23.39 ± 8.98 mm Hg and post-YAG GP
mean IOP was 14.80 ± 7.27 mm Hg. Success of YAG GP based
on timing: < 4 weeks – 88.46% (N=26), 4-8 weeks – 94.44%
(N=17), and > 8 weeks – 75% (N=6). Analysis of Variance
187
(ANOVA) resulted in no statistical difference between YAG GP
timing at these three time intervals (p>0.05). All eyes in the study
(N=131) had an average IOP reduction of 9.84 ± 9.10 mm Hg
at last follow up. Mean age of success for YAG GP was 70.1 ±
12.85 years. Patients who had a > 20% medications reduction
was 85.5% with average medication reduction of 68.5% ± 35.09
(2-3 medications). Cannulation rate was 96.18%. Subsequent
surgeries included AC restoration (N=9), tube shunt placement
(N=6), and iridoplasty (N=5).
Discussion
At this time, our data does not support a statistically optimal
timing of YAG GP following canaloplasty. Data suggests better
IOP response if YAG GP is completed within 2 months post
canaloplasty.
Conclusion
YAG GP following canaloplasty does statistically lower IOP
succesfully. However, there is not an optimal timing for the
completion of YAG GP. Long-term follow up and continued
data collection will help ensure stability of findings and success
rate and may help us better understanding the timing of YAG
GP. References
1. Diamond Tam MD, Howard Barnebey MD, et al. Nd:YAG
Laser Goniopuncture: Indications and Procedure. J Glaucoma.
2013;22:620-625.
2. Richard Lewis MD, Kurt von Wolff MD, et al. Canaloplasty:
Three-year results of circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of
Schlemm canal. J Cataract Refract Surg 2011:27:682-690.
188
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
68 Three Year Follow-up of Intraoperative
Subconjunctival Mitomycin C Injection with
Lidocaine in Conjunction with Placement of
Express Minishunts for Treatment of Glaucoma
DANIEL LEE1, Michael Pokabla2,
Robert Noecker3
1
Yale School of Medicine
Albany Medical College
3 Ophthalmic Consultants of Connecticut
2
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the operative efficiency,
and long term safety and efficacy of
subconjunctival mitomycin C with
lidocaine injection as a surgical adjunct for placement of Express
minishunt devices for the treatment of glaucoma.
Methods
A retrospective chart and video review was performed on cases
of glaucoma Express minishunts performed using this technique
with at least three years of post-operative follow-up. This
technique used subconunctival mitomcyin 0.2 mg/cc diluted in
a 50:50 dilution with lidocaine 2% with epinephrine. In this
technique, the subconjunctival injection of a mean volume of
0.2 cc was performed superiorly 10 mm posterior to the limbus
at the beginning of the case. Following the injection, the case
proceeded normally with a conjunctival incision with no other
additional maneuvers. Post-operative visual acuity, medication
use, and complications were evaluated.
Results
Eighty two cases were identified that had at least three years
of post-operative follow-up. The average case time was 16.5
minutes. The mean pre-op IOP was 22.3 mm Hg. At last
follow-up, the mean post-op IOP was 13.4 mm Hg. There were
two cases of limbal wound leaks in the immediate post-operative
period which resolved with conservative management. There
were two cases of long term post-operative hypotony (IOP < 5
mm Hg). Needling and suture lysis were performed on 10 cases.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Discussion
Anti-proliferative agents such as mitomycin C have been used
in conjunction with trabeculectomy to inhibit fibroblastic
activity and modulate wound healing at the bleb site.1 Prior
studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in success
rates with decreased post-operative scarring at the bleb site and
improved IOP values with the use of mitomycin C.2, 3 Various
methods of delivery have been described previously including
the application of sponges soaked in anti-metabolite applied
to the subconjunctival, sub-Tenon’s and underneath the scleral
flap.4, 5 Recently, intraoperative injection of mitomycin C has
been described.6 Our study demonstrates that subconjunctival
injection of mitomycin C and lidocaine to augment Express
minishunt surgery is efficient, safe and effective.
Conclusion
This surgical technique of applying mitomycin C and lidocaine
appears to be efficient, safe and effective.
References
1. Matlach J, Panidou E, Grehn F, Klink T. Large-area versus smallarea application of mitomycin C during trabeculectomy. Eur J
Ophthalmol. 2013;23: 670-677.
2. Cheng JW, Cai JP, Li Y, Wei RL. Intraoperative mitomycin C for
nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery: a systematic review and metaanalysis. J Glaucoma. 2011;20: 322-326.
3. Cheng JW, Xi GL, Wei RL, Cai JP, Li Y. Efficacy and tolerability
of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery augmented with mitomycin
C in treatment of open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Can J
Ophthalmol. 2009;44: 76-82.
4. Skuta GL, Beeson CC, Higginbotham EJ, et al. Intraoperative
mitomycin versus postoperative 5-fluorouracil in high-risk
glaucoma filtering surgery. Ophthalmology. 1992;99: 438-444.
5. Beatty S, Potamitis T, Kheterpal S, O’Neill EC. Trabeculectomy
augmented with mitomycin C application under the scleral flap. Br
J Ophthalmol. 1998;82: 397-403.
6. Lee E, Doyle E, Jenkins C. Trabeculectomy surgery augmented with
intra-Tenon injection of mitomycin C. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:
866-870.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
69 Three-year Follow-up of a One-Suture Technique
for Placement of Glaucoma Drainage Devices
MICHAEL
Noecker2
1
2
No photo was
submitted
POKABLA1,
Robert
Albany Medical College
Yale Medical School
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the operative efficiency, and
long term safety and efficacy of a novel
surgical technique for placement of
glaucoma-drainage devices.
Methods
A retrospective chart and video review was performed on cases
of glaucoma drainage device surgeries using the one suture
technique with at least three years of clinical follow-up. This
technique was used to implant Molteno, Baerveldt, and Ahmed
valve devices. This technique used no sutures on the device plate,
patch graft or conjunctiva. A single vicryl suture was used to
cinch the tube when indicated and vent and secure the anterior
tube to the sclera to prevent migration of the device. Fibrin glue
was used to adhere other tissues. IOP, visual acuity, medication
use, and complications were evaluated.
189
Results
Sixty cases were identified that had at least three years of
follow-up. The average case time was 15.5 minutes. The mean
pre-op IOP was 29.3 mm Hg. At last follow-up, the mean
post-op IOP was 18.7 mm Hg. There were no cases of plate
migration. There were two cases of post-operative diplopia.
There was one case of patch graft exposure, which required
suturing.
Discussion
This technique demonstates an alternative way for surgeons
to place glaucoma drainage devices safely and efficiently. The
technique can be easily adapted by surgeons.
Conclusion
This surgical technique of implanting glaucoma drainage devices
appears to be efficient, safe and effective.
Reference
1. Pokabla MJ, Noecker RJ. The Placement of Baerveldt Glaucoma
Drainage Device without the use of Plate-to-Sclera Stabilizing
Sutures. American Glaucoma Society Abstract. February 2010,
Naples, FL.
190
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
70 A Pilot Case Series of Consecutive Patients
Undergoing Ab Interno Trabeculotomy
NOELLE L. PRUZAN1, Bilal Shaukat2,
Michael Waisbourd1, Marlene Moster1
1
2
Wills Eye Hospital
Drexel University, College of Medicine
Purpose/Relevance
o describe our experience with
T
a recently introduced ab interno
trabeculotomy technique termed
gonioscopy-assisted transluminal
trabeculotomy (GATT).1
Methods
A pilot case series of 11 consecutive patients with primary
or secondary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who underwent
GATT. The technique involves a conjunctiva-sparing, sutureless
circumferential trabeculotomy performed with a flexible
illuminated microcatheter (iScience Interventional Corp, Menlo
Park, CA) via a clear corneal incision. Intraocular pressure
(IOP), number of glaucoma medications, visual acuity (VA), and
complications were assessed at postoperative visits.
Results
Eleven patients with an age range of 25 to 85 years underwent
GATT with a mean follow up of 2 months (range 1 to 3
months). Mean IOP preoperatively was 29 mmHg (range 16
to 49 mmHg), and mean IOP at last follow up was 16 mmHg
(range 10 to 33 mmHg), representing a 45% decrease in IOP.
Mean number of glaucoma medications decreased from 3.3
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
preoperatively to 1.2 postoperatively. Mean visual acuity
decreased by 0.4 Snellen lines. At last follow up, no patients
had required further glaucoma surgery. The most common
complications were transient hyphema, which occurred in 90%
of patients, and transient IOP spike above 30 mmHg, which
occurred in 64% of patients.
Discussion
Though adult trabeculotomies have previously shown poor longterm outcomes, results have improved with newer techniques,
perhaps due to 360-degree, more accurate anatomical cleavage
through the trabecular meshwork.1,2 The procedure preserves the
conjunctiva for future glaucoma surgeries if necessary and avoids
many potential problems of filtering procedures, such as blebrelated complications. Our case series is limited by small sample
size and short follow up, though our preliminary results have
been promising and agree with the results of Grover et al.1
Conclusion
GATT effectively reduced IOP in patients with OAG. Hyphema
and IOP spikes occurred in most patients and resolved within the
early post-operative period. Further long-term evaluation of the
procedure is warranted.
References
1. Grover DS, Godfrey DG, Smith O, et al. Gonioscopy-assisted
transluminal trabeculotomy, ab interno trabeculotomy: Technique
report and preliminary results. Ophthalmology 2014;121:855-61.
2. Chin S, Nitta T, Shinmei Y, et al. Reduction of intraocular pressure
using a modified 360-degree suture trabeculotomy technique in
primary and secondary open-angle glaucoma: A pilot study. J
Glaucoma;2012:21: 401-7.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
71 Trabeculodialysis for Uveitic Glaucoma
CHEN1,
Radhakrishnan1,
LIAN
Sunita
Dmitry Yarovoy1, Terri-Diann
Pickering2, Andrew Iwach1
1
Glaucoma Research & Education
Group, San Francisco
2 Glaucoma Center of San Francisco
Purpose/Relevance
To describe outcomes of
trabeculodialysis in uveitic glaucoma.
Methods
Retrospective review of patients with uncontrolled uveitic
glaucoma who underwent trabeculodialysis. Patients with less
than 6 months follow-up were excluded unless failure occurred
earlier. Success was defined as complete when intraocular
pressure (IOP) was 5-21 mmHg, with at least 30% reduction
from baseline and with no further surgery and no major
complications. Success was defined as qualified when IOP
lowering medications were required to achieve the IOP reduction
criteria. Outcomes were also analyzed with alternative upper
IOP limits of 18 and 15 mm Hg.
191
years). Mean IOP decreased from a preoperative level of 25.9 ±
3.1 to 14.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg at the last follow-up (p=0.005) and the
mean number of glaucoma medications decreased from 3.0 ±
1.3 to 1.9 ± 1.7 (p=0.047). At last follow-up, 7 eyes (70%) were
successful, 3 eyes (30%) achieved complete success and 4 eyes
(40%) achieved qualified success. Three eyes (30%) failed due to
further glaucoma surgery. Success rates were unchanged when
analyzed using alternative upper IOP limits of 18 and 15 mm Hg.
Five eyes (50%) had self-limiting hyphema, 1 eye required a
2-staged trabeculodialysis due to bleeding. No late complications
were observed.
Discussion
See below.
Conclusion
Trabeculodialysis was successful in 70% of eyes in this small
series with relatively short follow-up. Given the favorable safety
profile of this minimally invasive and conjunctiva-sparing
procedure, it may be considered prior to traditional glaucoma
surgeries such as filtering procedures and aqueous drainage
devices. Longer follow-up in a larger series is required to
clarify the role of this procedure in the management of uveitic
glaucoma.
Results
References
10 eyes of 8 patients were included. Mean age was 33.9 ±
22.3 years (range 6.9 to 76.1 years). Cause of uveitis was
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (40%), herpetic disease (20%) and
idiopathic (40%). Mean defect on Humphrey visual field was
-5.81 ± 3.43 dB. Two eyes had active uveitis prior to surgery.
Mean follow-up was 5.4 ± 5.9 years (range 1.1 months to 20.3
1. Kanski JJ, McAllister JA. Trabeculodialysis for
inflammatory glaucoma in children and young adults.
Ophthalmology.1985;92:927-30.
2. Williams RD, Hoskins HD, Shaffer RN. Trabeculodialysis for
inflammatory glaucoma: a review of 25 cases. Ophthalmic Surg.
1992;23:36-7.
192
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
72 Outcomes of Bleb Needling with Mitosol After
Ex-PRESS Shunt Surgery
MOTWANI1,
ANITA
Mahmoud
Khaimi2, Evan Allan2, Justin Dvorak3,
Kai Ding3
1
University of Oklahoma College of
Medicine
2 Dean McGee Eye Institute
3 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences
Center, Dept. of Biostatistics and
Epidemiology
Purpose/Relevance
Investigate efficacy and safety of bleb needling using mitosol in
comparison to mitomycin C after Ex-PRESS shunt surgery. Methods
We performed chart reviews of 41 consecutive eyes from 40
patients with previous Ex-PRESS shunt surgery who underwent
subsequent bleb needling with Mitosol. The mean follow-up
time was 7.32 months. The primary outcome measure was
surgical success. Secondary outcomes included visual acuity
(VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications, and
complications.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Thirty-nine eyes had open angle glaucoma (95.1%). Overall
success for the post-operative period was 73.2%. At six months,
average visual acuity was 0.55 and average IOP was 12.9 on
an average of 0.67 medications. No major complications were
reported. Discussion
The surgical outcomes are comparable to those outcomes
reported in literature with mitomycin C.
Conclusion
Mitosol for use in bleb needling in eyes with an Ex-PRESS shunt
is as safe and efficacious as Mitomycin C. Further research with
larger sample size and longer follow-up is needed to confirm
these results.
References
1. Anand N, Khan A. Long-term outcomes of needle revision of
trabeculectomy blebs with mitomycin C and 5- fluorouracil: a
comparative safety and efficacy report. Journal of Glaucoma. Sep
2009;18(7):513-520.
2. Rotchford AP, King AJ. Needling revision of trabeculectomies
bleb morphology and long-term survival. Ophthalmology. Jul
2008;115(7):1148-1153 e1144.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
73 Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Primary
Congenital Glaucoma
ANGELES RAMOS-CADENA1,
Alejandra Hernandez-Oteyza1, Antonio
Remolina1, Cristina Guadalupe Isida
Llerandi1, Hector Bello Lopez-Portillo1,
Mauricio Turati Acosta1, Jesús JiménezRomán1
1
Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en
México
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the surgical results of Primary Congenital Glaucoma
at our hospital and to identify how many procedures are needed
to control this disease’s progression.
Methods
We reviewed the files of all patients with Primary Congenital
Glaucoma that attended the Glaucoma Service at the Asociación
para Evitar la Ceguera en México, from January 1st, 1997 and
December 31, 2013; and identified which surgical procedures
were performed, how many surgeries were needed, and the
results of each technique, as reflected in the IOP control.
Results
We reviewed the files of 80 patients (132 eyes); Forty nine (61%)
were males and 31 (39%) females, with a mean age at diagnosis
of 17.45 ± 24.82 months (range, 0.46 – 129.51 months). At the
time of diagnosis the mean IOP was 26.25 ± 7.3 mmHg (range,
9.4–50.6 mmHg) on an average of 0.96 ± 1.06 medications
(range, 0–4). One hundred and twenty three eyes required
surgical management. Median age at the initial surgery was 6.79
months. Goniotomy was the most common initial procedure
(66 eyes) followed by trabeculectomy (35 eyes), Ahmed Valve
implant (14 eyes) and trabeculo-trabeculectomy (2 eyes). In total,
293 procedures were done (2.37 ± 1.65 surgeries per eye). The
mean follow-up period was 4.20 ± 4.17 years (range, 3 days–
16.79 years, median 2.87 years). The mean final IOP was 13.92
± 5.56 mmHg on an average of 1.30 ±1.29 medications.
Discussion
Goniotomy was the most common procedure performed in
patients with Primary Congenital Glaucoma. Most patients
required more than one surgical procedure to obtain an adequate
IOP and attempt to control the disease’s progression.
Conclusion
Primary congenital glaucoma is a challenging disease that
often requires more than one surgery to achieve IOP control;
but the glaucoma specialist’s job must not stop at this, it must
also address issues like ametropia and amblyopia and facilitate
visual rehabilitation to achieve the best possible visual outcomes
for these children. Inter-institutional efforts must be made to
carry out multicenter clinical trials with long term follow-ups to
identify the best surgical procedure for treating this condition.
References
1. Grehn, F. Congenital glaucoma surgery: a neglected field in
ophthalmology? Br J Ophthalmol 2008; 92 (1) : 1-2.
2. Ben-Zion, I, Tomkins , O, Moore, DB, and Helveston, EM.
Surgical results in the management of advanced primary congenital
glaucoma in a rural pediatric population. Ophthalmology 2011;
118 (2) : 231-5.
3. Fung, DS, Roensch, MA, Kooner, KS, Cavanagh, HD, and
Whitson, JT. Epidemiology and characteristics of childhood
glaucoma: results from the Dallas Glaucoma Registry. Clin
Ophthalmol 2013; 7 : 1739-46.
4. de Silva, DJ, Khaw, PT, and Brookes, JL. Long-term outcome of
primary congenital glaucoma. J AAPOS 2011; 15 (2) : 148-52.
Figure 2
Figure 1
193
194
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
74 Challenges in Tube Surgery Technique in
Patients with PROSE Scleral Lenses
DASTIRIDOU1,
ANNA
Anhtuan
Nguyen1, Gloria Chiu2, Brian Francis1,
Olivia Lee1, Vikas Chopra1
1
2
University of California Los Angeles
University of Southern California
Purpose/Relevance
Management of concurrent ocular
surface disease and glaucoma can
be challenging, especially in patients
requiring surgical treatment for glaucoma. The aim of this
study was to describe the difficulties of fitting the Prosthetic
Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) device in
patients with glaucoma drainage implants (GDI) and the surgical
management of patients where both GDI and PROSE lens fitting
are indicated.
Methods
Six cases that required PROSE lens wear and Baerveldt glaucoma
implant surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Group A
consisted of 2 patients where PROSE lens wear was problematic
due to scleral surface irregularities following tube shunt
placement. Group B consisted of 2 patients where previously
placed GDI led to challenging lens fittings. In Group C, 2
patients already fitted with the PROSE lens were able to continue
lens wear after placement of the GDI in the pars plana and
insertion of the tube through a tract formed with a 23-G needle,
3.0 to 3.5mm from the limbus.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
In group A, the PROSE lens could not be fitted due to changes in
ocular surface morphology caused by the elevated scleral patch
graft tissue adjacent to the corneal limbus in one patient and the
presence of two anteriorly located shunts in the other. In group
B, the lens fit was compromised due to the proximity of the lens
edge to the scleral patch graft. In Group C, the posterior location
of the tube allowed for a good fit of the lens.
Discussion
Surface irregularities introduced by the presence of an anterior
chamber tube shunt and an anteriorly located elevated scleral
patch graft can prevent the PROSE lens from achieving
a complete seal with the ocular surface. A poor lens fit is
associated with persistent air bubble formation, decreased vision,
discomfort and increased risk of tube erosion and infection. The
pars plana approach for aqueous shunt implantation allows for
better PROSE scleral lens positioning and fitting.
Conclusion
Placement of a tube shunt in the anterior chamber tube can
interfere with scleral lens wear. Pars plana GDI with posterior
placed scleral patch graft should be considered for PROSE scleral
lens dependent patients.
Reference
1. Minckler DS, Francis BA, Hodapp EA, et al. Aqueous shunts in
glaucoma: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Ophthalmology 2008;115:1089-98.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
75 Which is Better? (1) Pre- or (2) Post-Cataract
iStent Implantation
76 Ex-PRESS Shunt Surgery Following Failed
Canaloplasty: An Update
MORGAN RENNER1, Shakeel Shareef1
1
195
EVAN ALLAN1, Mahmoud Khaimi1,
Justin Dvorak2, Kai Ding2
University of Rochester Medical Center
1
Dean McGee Eye Institute
University of Oklahoma Health
Sciences C
2
Purpose/Relevance
The iStent (Glaukos, Laguna Hills,
CA) was FDA approved in 2012 for
treatment of mild to moderate openangle glaucoma in combination with
cataract surgery. Implantation timing
has been recommended following
successful cataract surgery. Yet in complex cases (white
or brunescent cataracts, small pupil, floppy iris syndrome
pseudoexfoliation glaucoma), the authors have considered iStent
placement preceding cataract surgery. The objective of this study
is to describe the surgical experience with iStent placement either
pre- or post-cataract extraction/IOL implantation.
Purpose/Relevance
Some surgeons do not utilize canaloplasty
given its use of conjunctiva and
potentially higher risk for failure of
subsequent filtering surgery. Our goal was to expand and
investigate our previous cohort of patients undergoing Ex-PRESS
shunt surgery after failed canaloplasty. Methods
Retrospective medical chart review (n=46) of patients (n=43)
undergoing cataract surgery combined with iStent implantation
from April 2013 – October 2014. Surgical videos were also
reviewed.
A retrospective review was performed of 42 consecutive eyes
requiring filtration surgery after failed canaloplasty (13.2%,
42/318). All patients had open angles at time of canaloplasty.
The primary outcome measure was surgical success. Laser suture
lysis and bleb needling were not considered surgical failure.
Secondary outcomes included visual acuity, intraocular pressure
(IOP), number of medications, and complications.
Results
Results
Pre-Cataract implantation (Group 1; n=21). Post-Cataract
implantation (Group 2; n=25). Group 1 (n=8) and Group 2 (n=3)
were classified as complex (i.e. Capsular Tension, Malyugin ring;
sulcus or ACIOL). Implantation success rate: Group 1 (25/25);
Group 2 (22/25). The iStent was aborted (n=3) in Group 2 due to
poor angle visibility: corneal edema: s/p femtosecond laser (n=1);
diffuse corneal edema following prolonged cataract extraction
(n=2). Mean follow-up time post-Ex-PRESS was 562 ± 302 days. Mean
time from canaloplasty to Ex-PRESS shunt surgery was 321 ±
190 days. Pre-operative IOP and number of medications were
29.4 ± 9.6 and 2.6 ± 1.4, respectively. Surgical success at final
follow-up was 71.4%. Bleb needling was performed in 23.8%
patients. 23.8% required further glaucoma surgical intervention
for uncontrolled IOP and 4.8% required intervention for
prolonged hypotony. At final follow-up, mean IOP and number
of medications were 12.9 ± 7.6 and 0.8 ± 1.1. No major
complications were reported.
Methods
Discussion
Based on the risk of corneal decompensation noted in Group
2, Implantation of iStent before cataract extraction has several
potential advantages: 1) optimal corneal clarity of the angle
and trabecular meshwork; 2) optimization of both topical and
intra-cameral anesthetics with i.v. sedation at the initiation of
surgery to facilitate patient tolerability of safe and deliberate
iStent implantation while manipulating the eye with the surgical
goniolens; 3) unaltered ocular integrity to facilitate ease of iStent
implantation; and 4) ability to implant the device in complex
cases or before potential complicated cataract surgery that may
compromise subsequent implantation difficult due to corneal
decompensation.
Conclusion
In this series of patients, Group 2 had a 100% success rate in
iStent implantation vs. Group 1. Consideration should be given
in placing the iStent prior to cataract surgery.
Reference
1. Craven R, Katz J, Wells J et al. Cataract surgery with trabecular
micro-bypass stent implantation in patients with mild-to-moderate
open-angle glaucoma and cataract: Two-year follow-up. JCRS
2012; 38 (8): 1339-1345.
Discussion
Canaloplasty offers a lower risk profile in managing IOP than
filtration surgery but does utilize conjuntiva. Fortunately, our
study suggests that surgical success of Ex-PRESS shunt surgery
after failed canaloplasty is similar to tube versus trabeculectomy
data.1,2 Additionally, Ex-PRESS shunt surgery after failed
canaloplasty is safe and efficacious. Conclusion
Glaucoma specialists need not fear that good canaloplasty
candidates will have worse IOP control should a filter be needed.
Further prospective research with longer follow-up would aid in
investigating this matter.
References
1. Gedde SJ, Schiffman JC, Feuer WJ, et al. Three-Year Follow-up
of the Tube Versus Trabeculectomy Study. Am J Ophthalmol
2009; 148:670–684. 2. Gedde SJ, Schiffman JC, Feuer WJ, et al. Treatment out- comes in
the Tube Versus Trabeculectomy Study after one year of follow-up.
Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143:9–22.
196
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
77 Efficacy of Combined Phacoemulsification
and iStent Implantation
KEVIN GAMETT1, Leonard Seibold 2,
Malik Kahook2, Mina Pantcheva2,
Jeffrey SooHoo2
1
2
University of Colorado Denver
University of Colorado
Purpose/Relevance
o evaluate the efficacy of combined
T
phacoemulsification cataract extraction
(phaco) and iStent (Glaukos, Laguna
Hills, CA) implantation.
Methods
This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent
combined phaco/iStent at the University of Colorado
from November 2012 through August 2014. Outcomes were
reviewed up to 12 months postoperatively, including visual
acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and use of IOP-lowering
medications. Patients with less than three months follow-up
were excluded from analysis. Failure was defined as IOP ≥ 21
mmHg or ≤ 5 mmHg, IOP not decreased ≥ 20% from baseline
on two consecutive visits and no reduction in IOP-lowering
medications, loss of light perception vision, or re-operation for
glaucoma within one year.
Results
Seventy patients with visually significant cataracts and glaucoma
underwent phaco/iStent surgery during the study period. Of
these, 6 were excluded due to inadequate follow-up. The mean
age of the 64 patients included in the analysis was 67.6 ± 8.8
years old. The preoperative mean IOP was 14.7 ± 3.2 mmHg on
a mean of 1.8 ± 1.1 IOP-lowering medications (range
0-4). Success was achieved in 87.5% of patients. One patient
failed due to IOP >21 mmHg and 7 patients failed due lack
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
of reduction in IOP or medication usage. Over the course of
follow-up, mean IOP was 14.6 ± 3.7 (p=0.96) at 1 month, 14.3
± 3.5 (p=0.22) at 3 months, 14.6 ± 3.5 (p=0.29) at 6 months,
and 13.7 ± 3.1 mmHg (p=0.09) at 1 year. Mean number of IOP
lowering medications was 1.2 ± 1.2 (p<0.01) at 1 month, 1.0
± 1.2 (p<0.01) at 3 months, 1.2 ± 1.5 (p<0.01) at 6 months,
and 1.6 ± 1.6 (p= 0.06) at 1 year of follow-up.
Discussion
This study investigates the outcomes of combined phaco/
iStent implantation at our tertiary care center. The iStent device
is a trabecular micro-bypass stent that is implanted at the
time of phacoemulsification in patients with glaucoma. In our
study, the majority of patients achieved either a ≥ 20% IOP
reduction or decline in medication use. However, the mean IOP
was not significantly lower at any studied time point, while mean
medication use was reduced up to 6 months post-operatively.
Limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, absence
of control group, and the lack of standardized treatment
protocols. Conclusion
Combined phaco/iStent surgery demonstrates a modest decrease
in IOP and medication burden in many patients with coexisting
cataract and glaucoma. The reduction in medication usage
appears to dissipate with longer follow-up. Additional studies
are needed to determine the efficacy over a longer period
of follow-up and further subgroup analysis may help identify
patient characteristics most likely to benefit from phaco/
iStent surgery. Reference
1. Samuelson TW1, Katz LJ, Wells JM, Duh YJ, Giamporcaro JE; US
iStent Study Group. Randomized evaluation of the trabecular
micro-bypass stent with phacoemulsification in patients with
glaucoma and cataract. Ophthalmology. 2011 Mar;118(3):459-67.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
78 Two-Year Outcome of Trabectome Procedure
by Single Surgeon
MICHAEL STILES
Stiles Eyecare Excellence & Glaucoma
Institute PA, Overland Park, Kansas,
197
79 The Effect of Proper Anatomic Placement of an
iStent on Intraocular Pressure and Medications
During Cataract Surgery in Patients with Open
Angle Glaucoma and Cataract
SHAKEEL SHAREEF
Flaum Eye Institute, Rochester, NY,
Purpose/Relevance
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate safety and efficacy of
Trabectome procedure by single
surgeon.
To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)
lowering and medication reduction
following confirmatory anatomic
placement of 1 iStent during cataract
surgery in patients with mild to
moderate glaucoma.
Methods
A total of 297 cases were included in the study. Patients without
pre-operative IOP or having less than 3 months of follow-up
were excluded. All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon
(MCS). Outcome measures include IOP, number of medications
and secondary glaucoma surgery, if any. Kaplan-Meier was used
for survival analysis and success was defined as IOP ≤ 21mmHg,
IOP reduced by 20% or more from baseline on any two
consecutive visits after 3 months and no secondary glaucoma
surgery.
Results
Mean age of the study group was 71 years old. Majority
were Caucasians (85%) diagnosed with primary open angle
glaucoma (68%). Average baseline IOP was 22.1±6.3 mmHg
with 2.4±1.2 glaucoma medications. At 12 months, the IOP was
reduced to 15.8±3.6mmHg (p<0.01) and number of medications
was 1.3±1.1 (p<0.01). At 24 months, the average IOP was
16.3±3.4 mmHg (p<0.01) and average number of medications
was 1.5±1.0 (p<0.01). Survival at 24 months was 83%. 23
cases (8%) required additional glaucoma surgery. One case of
hypotony was noted on post-op day one, but it was quickly
resolved. In POAG cases (n=203), the IOP was reduced from
20.2±5.4 to 16.6±3.7mmHg (p<0.01) at 24 months and the
number of medications was reduced from 2.3±1.1 to 1.5±1.1.
In pseudoexfoliative glaucoma cases (PEX, n=50), the IOP was
reduced from 22.0±6.3 to 15.2±2.4mmHg and the number of
medications remained about the same (1.6±1.2 to 1.5±1.0 at 24
months). The survival rate at 24 months was 85% and 88% for
POAG and PEX cases respectively.
Methods
Consecutive iStent cases combined with cataract surgery (n=43)
were reviewed. Data from the last pre-op visit was assessed
for medication use and IOP. One iStent (Glaukos, Laguna
Hills, CA) was implanted in each eye during cataract surgery.
Post-op gonio-photomicrographs were reviewed to evaluate
angle placement as an inclusion criterion prior to conducting
data analysis. To assess the IOP lowering effect of the iStent,
a washout was initiated by discontinuing all pre-op glaucoma
meds after surgery. Medications were restarted if IOP ≥ 21
mm Hg. Data for patients taking ≥1 pre-op medication with a
minimum 3-month to 1-year follow up (n=16) was analyzed.
Results
All subjects had photomicrograph confirmation of stent
placement in Schlemm’s Canal (SC). Mean (SD) age: 72 (8.1)
years; male (n=20); female (n=23); Caucasian (n=34), AfricanAmerican (n=8) and Hispanic (n=1). Pre-op mean (SD) IOP in 46
patients: 17 (6.1) mmHg; Pre-op mean (SD) number of 2 (0.9)
medications. For n=16 eyes, the pre-op IOP was > 14 mmHg.
Mean (SD) IOP decreased 6.2 (7.0) mmHg [24%]; mean (SD)
number of meds decreased 0.2 (0.4) [92% reduction]. Pre-Op
Meds (1-3): n=7 (1); 6 (2); 3 (3). Post-Op Meds on last visit: 13
(0); 3 (1). Discussion
Patients showed statistically significant reduction in IOP and
number of glaucoma medications. No serious complication was
observed. The low risk profile also makes Trabectome a viable
alternative to traditional glaucoma surgery.
It is critical to anatomically confirm proper iStent placement
within SC. This could be achieved using goniophotography. This
location serves as an indirect measure of post-trabecular aqueous
flow to the collector channels. This interim study is an attempt to
provide meaningful evidence based data analysis. Consideration
should be given to establish a standardized documentation of
angle based procedures when interpreting post-surgical data.
Conclusion
Conclusion
Trabectome appears to be safe and effective for glaucoma
patients.
In this series of eyes, following gonio-photographic confirmation
of proper iStent placement, there was a substantial drop in IOP,
medications or both.
Discussion
Reference
1. BA Francis, D Minckler, G Baerveldt et al. Clinical Results
with the Trabectome for Treatment of Open-Angle Glaucoma.
Ophthalmology 2005;112:962-967.
Reference
1. Craven R, Katz J, Wells J et al. Cataract surgery with trabecular
micro-bypass stent implantation in patients with mild-to-moderate
open-angle glaucoma and cataract: Two-year follow-up. JCRS
2012; 38 (8): 1339-1345.
198
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
80 Injection of Perfluoropropane Gas and
Viscoelastic as Rescue Therapy for Ocular
Hypotony Following Glaucoma Filtering Surgery
MEGAN CHAMBERS1, Doug Baker2
1
2
University of Iowa
Columubs Eye Center
Purpose/Relevance
To explain an innovative technique
involving injection of a non-expansive
concentration of perfluoropropane gas,
octafluoropropane 14% (C3F8), with
viscoelastic material into the anterior
chamber to treat hypotony and shallow anterior chamber
following glaucoma fistulizing surgery.
Methods
This is a retrospective chart review of thirteen patients who
underwent glaucoma drainage surgery with subsequent
hypotony and shallow anterior chamber. The parameters
measured were the pre and postoperative intraocular
pressures (IOP), the frequency of repeat injection, the rate of
cataract formation in the phakic patients, and postoperative
complications. Success was defined as maintenance of IOP five or
above without the need for further surgical intervention.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Discussion
The advantage of the combination of viscoelastic material with
the gas is that it decreases the amount of the gas needed and
thereby reducing the theoretical risk of lens contact and cataract
formation. Furthermore, the addition of the gas decreases the
need for large quantities of viscoelastic material to maintain the
chamber reducing the risk for IOP spikes and increases the time
the chamber is formed. In our case series, C3F8 with viscoelastic
injection used to reform the anterior chamber helped to improve
hypotony in twelve of the thirteen eyes, a 92% success rate. The
advantage of this technique is that it is a simple method that can
be performed in the office setting. If hypotony should reoccur,
this procedure can be easily repeated as it was in four of the
patients in this study.
Conclusion
In patients who experience hypotony and shallow anterior
chamber due to overfiltration following recent glaucoma filtering
surgery, the injection of 14% C3F8 with viscoelastic can be a safe
and effective method of treatment.
References
1. Stewart WC, Shields MB. Management of anterior chamber depth
after trabeculectomy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1988;
106:41-4.
Results
2. Blok MD, Kok JH, van Mil C, et al. Use of the megasoft bandage
contact lens for treatment of complications after trabeculectomy.
Am J Ophthalmol 1990; 110:264-8.
The placement of a 14% C3F8 gas bubble with viscoelastic in the
anterior chamber was 92% successful in treating hypotony in the
postoperative period without causing significant complications.
3. Wise JB. Treatment of chronic postfiltration hypotony by intrableb
injection of autologous blood. Arch Ophtohalmol 1993; 111:82730.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
81 Glaucoma Mini-Shunt Implantation After
Keratoplasty
GIL1,
199
Discussion
Gurria1,
JASBETH LEDESMA
Lani
Enrique Graue-Hernandez1, Alejandro
Navas1
1 Institute of Ophthalmology Conde de
Valenciana
Purpose/Relevance
o report the outcomes of patients who
T
underwent miniature glaucoma shunt
implantation after secondary glaucoma
due to keratoplasty. Methods
A retrospective, non-comparative study of clinical consecutive
cases who underwent mini-glaucoma shunt (Ex-PRESS device,
Alcon Laboratories, TX) following keratoplasty were included.
Briefly, a fornix based conjuntival flap was performed,
approximately 50% thickness scleral flap. Mitomycin-C 0.2%
placed under Tenon’s capsule. A 25-gauge needle creates entry
for mini-shunt. Ex-PRESS model P-50 was inserted. Scleral flap
and conjunctiva were closed with 10-0 Nylon. STATA 8.0 and
paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results
15 eyes of 15 patients with a mean age of 40.13 years (SD: 19.20,
range: 18 to 76). Nine cases after penetrating keratoplasty,
3 cases after triple procedure, 2 after deep anterior lamellar
keratoplasty, and 1 following endothelial keratoplasty. Most of
the keratoplasty indications were keratoconus (53.33%), 3 cases
of herpetic keratitis (20%), 3 due to endothelial failure (20%)
and one case of post-LASIK ectasia (6.66%). Mean preoperative
IOP was 37.46 mmHg (SD: 9.94, range: 18-55) decreasing
to 11.73 mmHg postoperatively (SD1: 3.32, range 6-20) [P =
0.001] with or without antiglaucomatous medications. Mean
follow-up after mini-glaucoma shunt implantation was 10.66
months (SD: 7.40). UDVA, CDVA and endothelial cell count
did not presented statistically significant differences during
follow-up.
Glaucoma after keratoplasty is found in around 10% to 53%
following keratoplasty. Mini-shunt implantation could offer
adequate intraocular pressure control and lower corneal tissue
damage. Few studies using these implants after keratoplasty have
shown promising results. In our study, we found a significant
intraocular pressure reduction and minor complications with this
technique.
Conclusion
Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma shunt could be an alternative
treatment in post-keratoplasty glaucoma resistant to medical
treatment. This technique may be helpful, in trying to avoid
corneal damage produced by conventional glaucoma procedures.
References
1. Ates H, Palamar M, Yagci A, Egrilmez S. Evaluation of Ex-PRESS
mini glaucoma shunt implantation in refractory postpenetrating
keratoplasty glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010 Oct-Nov;19(8):556-60.
doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e3181ca76d9.
2. Yildirim N, Gursoy H, Sahin A, Ozer A, Colak E. Glaucoma after
penetrating keratoplasty: incidence, risk factors, and management.
J Ophthalmol. 2011;2011:951294. doi: 10.1155/2011/951294.
Epub 2011 Nov 30.
3. Alvarenga LS, Mannis MJ, Brandt JD, Lee WB, Schwab IR, Lim
MC. The long-term results of keratoplasty in eyes with a glaucoma
drainage device. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Aug;138(2):200-5.
4. Karadag O, Kugu S, Erdogan G, Kandemir B, Eraslan Ozdil
S, Dogan OK. Incidence of and risk factors for increased
intraocular pressure after penetrating keratoplasty. Cornea. 2010
Mar;29(3):278-82. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181b6eb9e.
5. Hollander DA, Giaconi JA, Holland GN, Yu F, Caprioli J,
Aldave AJ, Coleman AL, Casey R, Law SK, Mondino BJ. Graft
failure after penetrating keratoplasty in eyes with Ahmed valves.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug;150(2):169-78. doi: 10.1016/j.
ajo.2010.02.014.
200
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
82 Staying Away from the Optic Nerve: A Formula
for Modifying Glaucoma Drainage Device
Surgery in Pediatric and Other Small Eyes
MILICA MARGETA1, Alan Proia2,
Sharon Freedman1
1
2
Duke University Eye Center
Duke University Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
A previous study1 of adult autopsy eyes
has provided guidelines for optimal
placement of glaucoma drainage devices
(GDDs) to avoid contact between
the optic nerve (ON) and posterior edge of the GDD plate. It
is unclear to what extent these findings are utilized in clinical
practice, and established guidelines for safe implantation of
GDDs in small eyes are currently lacking.
Methods
We conducted an anonymous survey of GDD positioning
practices among glaucoma attendings at Duke. We have
developed a simple formula to estimate limbus-to-ON distance in
small eyes, which one of the authors (SFF) has used extensively
for modifying GDD surgery in pediatric glaucoma. We are
currently validating the formula in pediatric autopsy eyes. Results
The GDD Positioning Survey was completed by 9 Duke
glaucoma faculty. 4/9 (44%) did not alter GDD placement
in small eyes; 5/9 (56%) used a variety of GDD surgical
modifications, but only 1/9 (11%) had a systematic approach
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
for adjusting GDD size depending on eye axial length. Here we
present a formula that calculates the limbus-to-ON distance
based on eye axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal
diameter, and GDD quadrant, thus estimating the available
“real estate” for GDD placement in small eyes. We are currently
validating the formula in pediatric autopsy eyes (axial lengths
15 to 19 mm), with preliminary data showing good agreement
between measured and predicted values.
Discussion
Our survey results and published reports confirm a paucity of
quantitative algorithms for modifying GDD surgery in small
eyes, even in a university-based, multi-faculty glaucoma group.
We developed a formula for adjusting GDD size/position in
small eyes in order to prevent contact between the posterior edge
of the GDD and the optic nerve. Given the multiple anatomic
assumptions needed for its derivation, this formula should be
considered as heuristic rather than exact. Nonetheless, we hope
this method provides helpful guidance for clinicians needing to
implant GDDs in a small eye, be it pediatric, highly hyperopic or
nanophthalmic.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first set of guidelines
developed to promote safe implantation of GDDs in small eyes. Reference
1. Kahook MY, Noecket RJ, Pantcheva MB, Schuman JS. Location
of glaucoma drainage devices relative to the optic nerve. Br J
Ophthalmol 2006;90:1010-1013.
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
83 Long-term Bleb-related Infections: Incidence,
Risk Factors and Influence of Bleb Revision
KIM1,
Lee1,
EUN AH
Ji Woong
Anne
Coleman1, Simon Law1, Kouros NouriMahdavi1, JoAnn Giaconi1, Fei Yu1,
Esteban Morales1, Joseph Caprioli1
1 UCLA
Purpose/Relevance
To report the long-term incidence of
late-onset bleb-related infections, to
calculate the hazard ratios of potential
risk factors, and to evaluate the influence of surgical bleb
revision on the risks of bleb-related infections.
Methods
Bleb related infections (BRI) were defined as either blebitis,
endophthalmitis, or blebitis with endophthalmitis. A total of
1959 eyes of 1423 patients who underwent trabeculectomy
with either intraoperative mitomycin-C or intraoperative
5-fluorouracil and who were followed for ≥ 1 year were
included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (10 years), a
generalized estimating equation, and Cox proportional hazard
models were used. The influence of surgical bleb revision was
evaluated by calculating hazard ratios among 3 groups (Group
1: eyes without risk factors; Group 2: eyes with risk factors who
had surgical revision; and Group 3: eyes with risk factors with no
revision having been performed). Risks included a history of late
leak prior to the diagnosis of bleb-related infection, hypotony
accompanied by either hypotony maculopathy or chronic
choroidal detachment, and large or high blebs.
201
Results
Twenty-four eyes were diagnosed with BRI; 15 eyes were
presented with blebitis and 9 eyes presented with endophthalmitis.
Among 15 eyes with blebitis, 2 eyes developed endophthalmitis
under treatment. The Kaplan-Meier estimated incidence of
bleb-related infections was 2.0% at 10 years and the cumulative
incidence of bleb-related infections increased linearly. Significantly
high hazard ratios were demonstrated in eyes with pigmentary
glaucoma, juvenile glaucoma, history of bleb leakage, eyes with
sustained intraocular pressure below the target pressure, chronic
blepharitis and punctal plugs. The hazard ratio of Group 2 to
Group 3 was 0.0 (95% confidence interval: 0.0-0.2, P<0.01).
Discussion
This large case series with long-term follow-up demonstrates
the incidence of bleb-related infections to be less than 2%, and
describes the risk factors associated with bleb-related infections,
which include pigmentary glaucoma, juvenile glaucoma, history
of bleb leakage, low intraocular pressure, chronic blepharitis,
and punctal plugs. We also report a probable protective effect of
surgical bleb revision.
Conclusion
Clinicians should be continuously vigilant for, and patients
made aware of, the possibility of bleb-related infections long
after trabeculectomy, especially in the presence of identified risk
factors.
Reference
1. Bitrian E, Song BJ, Caprioli J. Bleb revision for resolution of
hypotony maculopathy following primary trabeculectomy. Am J
Ophthalmol. 2014;158(3):597-604.
202
Poster Abstracts: Surgery
84 The Economic Burden of Glaucoma Over a FiveYear Period
GABRIEL LAZCANO-GOMEZ1, Jesús
Jiménez-Román1, Mauricio Turati
Acosta1, Malik Kahook2, Félix GilCarrasco1, Alejandra HernandezOteyza1, Carlos HernandezGarciadiego3
1
Asociacion Para Evitar la Ceguera en
Mexico IAP
2 University of Colorado
3 UNAM
Purpose/Relevance
To determine the economic burden on patients diagnosed with
open-angle glaucoma over a 5 years period.
Methods
Open angle glaucoma patients with at least 5 years of follow up
were included in this retrospective review. Data on glaucoma
treatment, number of hospital visits, diagnostic studies, and
laser or surgical treatments for each patient were collected and
analyzed, as well as current employment status, monthly income
and monthly cost of glaucoma drops. Direct and indirect costs
for each patient were calculated over the 5 years period.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
most common class used at the end of 5-year period. Total cost
of glaucoma care per patient over the 5 years period, including
direct and indirect costs (transportation cost) was $6,634.13 ±
$2,744.28. The income of each patient over a 5 years period was
$15,959.20 ± $233.76. Only 245 patients (53%) surveyed were
unemployed and 51 patients (11%) were disabled and unable to
work directly due to visual dysfunction from glaucoma. The cost
of drops and surgeries represents 47.78% and 36% of all costs
respectively over the 5 years period.
Discussion
About 41% of the total income of patients with glaucoma in this
study was spent on treatment of this single disease over a 5 year
period. The economic burden on the glaucoma patient should
be considered when counseling patients on the use of their
medications.
Conclusion
Laser trabeculoplasty and utilization of early surgical intervention
should be explored as potential methods to decrease the overall
cost of care.
References
1. Traverso CE, Walt JG, Kelly SP, et al. Direct costs of glaucoma and
severity of the disease: a multinational longterm study of resource
utilization in Europe. Br J Ophthalmol 2005; 89:1245–1249.
Results
2. Vold SD, Wiggins DA, Jackimiec J. Cost analysis of glaucoma
medications. J Glaucoma 2000; 9:150 –153.
Data from 462 patients were included in this study. The total
cost of glaucoma drops per patient over 5 years was $2,899.69 ±
$1,771.15. Prostaglandins analogues were the most commonly
prescribed therapy at diagnosis and fixed combinations were
3. Fiscella RG, Geller JL, Gryz LL, et al. Cost considerations of
medical therapy for glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1999; 128:426–
433.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
203
Poster Abstracts
Saturday, February 28 / Posters 85-124
Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
85 Prospective Study of Flavonoid Intake and Risk of
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
LOUIS R. PASQUALE1, Walter Willett2,
Jae Kang3
1
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Harvard School of Public Health
3 Channing Division of Network Medicine
2
Purpose/Relevance
Flavonoids may improve nitric oxide
mediated endothelial function,1 which
has been hypothesized to be impaired in
glaucoma.2 We prospectively examined the association between
dietary intake of total flavonoid intake and five subclasses
of flavonoids (flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, flavonols,
flavan-3-ols) in relation to the risk of primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG).
Methods
We followed 79,789 women from the Nurses’ Health Study and
41,816 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who
were at least 40 years of age, did not have glaucoma at baseline,
and reported undergoing eye examinations from 1980 (NHS) /
1986 (HPFS) to 2010. Information on consumption of dietary
flavonoids and various confounders was repeatedly ascertained
using validated follow-up food-frequency questionnaires.
Cases of incident POAG were confirmed with supplementary
questionnaire and medical record review of self-reported
diagnoses. Multivariate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence
intervals (CIs) for the risk of POAG were calculated in each
cohort and then meta-analyzed.
Results
During 24+ years of follow-up, a total of 1590 incident POAG
cases were identified. In multivariable analyses, higher intake
of total flavonoids was associated with lower risk of POAG,
although trends were not significant (p for trend [p-trend]=0.08;
the RR for lowest [<171 mg/day] to highest quintile [>455
mg/day] was 0.87 [95% CI=0.73,1.03]). We did not observe
associations with intake of the flavonoid subclasses of
flavonols (p-trend=0.15), flavanones (p-trend=0.21), flavones
(p-trend=0.31) or anthocyanins (p-trend=0.44). We observed
that higher intake of flavan-3-ols was associated with a lower
risk of POAG (p-trend=0.04; the RR for lowest [<14.3 mg/
day] to highest quintile [>63.7 mg/day] was 0.86 [95%
CI=0.72,1.02]). The food that contributed most to the variation
in flavan-3-ols was tea; we observed that with every one cup
increase in tea consumption, the risk of POAG decreased by 9%
(p-trend=0.05).
Discussion
Tea-derived bioflavonoids attenuate retinal ischemia /
reperfusion injury in animal models. There is evidence that oral
bioflavonoids lower IOP and stabilize retinal function.
Conclusion
Greater consumption of flavonoids, particularly flavan-3-ols that
are found in teas, may be associated with lower risk of POAG;
these results need confirmation.
References
1. Grassi D et al. Tea, flavonoids, and cardiovascular health:
endothelial protection. Am J Clin Nutr 2013:981 (6 Suppl):1660S1666S.
2. Fadini GP, et al. Reduced endothelial progenitor cells and brachial
artery flow-mediated dilation as evidence of endothelial dysfunction
and ocular hypertension and primary open angle glaucoma. Acta
Ophthalmol 2010;88:135-41.
204
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
86 Evaluation of PG324, a Fixed Dose Combination
of AR-13324 and Latanoprost, in Patients with
Elevated Intraocular Pressure in a DoubleMasked, Randomized, Controlled Study
JASON BACHARACH1, Brian Levy2,
Nancy Ramirez2, Casey Kopczynski2,
Gary Novack3, PG324-CS201 Levy2
1
North Bay Eye Associates
Aerie Pharmaceuticals
3 PharmaLogic Development, Inc.
2
Purpose/Relevance
To evaluate the safety and ocular
hypotensive efficacy of PG324
Ophthalmic Solution, 0.01% and 0.02% relative to the active
components AR-13324 Ophthalmic Solution, 0.02% and
Latanoprost Ophthalmic Solution 0.005%, all dosed q.d., in the
evening. Methods
After washout of ocular hypotensive medication (if required),
patients received a baseline eye examination that included
measurement of IOP. Qualified patients (unmedicated IOP ≥
24 mm Hg at 08:00 hours) were randomized to one of four
treatments, which they instilled for 28 days. Results
Enrolled were 298 patients from 23 centers. Mean unmedicated
diurnal IOP (average of all measurements on Day 1, prior to
study medication) was 25.1, 25.1, 26.0 and 25.4 in the PG324
0.01%, PG324 0.02%, latanoprost and AR-13324 0.02%
groups, respectively. On Day 29, PG324 0.01% and PG324
0.02% demonstrated statistical superiority in mean diurnal IOP
relative to latanoprost (p=0.0071 and p <0.0001, respectively)
and AR-13324 0.02% (p=0.0002 and p < 0.0001), with mean
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
diurnal IOP decreased to 17.3, 16.5, 18.4, and 19.1 mm Hg,
respectively. PG324 0.02% also demonstrated superiority in
mean IOP relative to latanoprost and AR-13324 0.02% at each
of the 9 post-dose timepoints, with PG324 achieving IOPs that
were 1.6-3.2 mm Hg lower than latanoprost (p <0.05). The most
frequently reported adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia
with an incidence of 41% (30/73), 40% (29/73), 14% (10/73)
and 40% (31/78), respectively.
Discussion
PG324 Ophthalmic Solution combines AR-13324, a new
ocular hypotensive drug that inhibits both Rho kinase and the
norepinephrine transporter, with latanoprost, a prostaglandin FP
receptor agonist. This study demonstrates that co-administration
of AR-13324 with latanoprost produces statistically significantly
greater IOP lowering than latanoprost alone. Both concentrations
of PG324 were well tolerated. For the most part, the events
were mild and transient. Note that the addition of latanoprost
to AR-13324 in PG324 did not seem to increase the incidence of
conjunctival hyperemia beyond that of AR-13324 alone. Conclusion
The fixed-dose combination of AR-13324 0.02% and
latanoprost 0.005% in PG324 Ophthalmic Solution provides
clinically and statistically superior ocular hypotensive efficacy
relative to its individual active components. The only safety
finding of note was transient, self-limiting conjunctival
hyperemia, which for the majority of patients was of trace or
mild severity.
Reference
1. Bacharach J, Dubiner HB, Levy B, et al. Double-masked,
randomized, dose-response study of AR-13324 vs. latanoprost
in patients with elevated intraocular pressure. Ophthalmology In
press.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
87 Proportion of Non-responders to Beta-Blockers
and Prostaglandin Analogs in OHTS, CIGTS, and
Enrollees in a United States Managed Care Plan ANDREW LEWIS1, Matthew Trese1,
David Reed1, Taylor Blachley1, Michael
Kass2, Mae Gordon2, David Musch1,
Joshua Stein1, Sayoko Moroi1
1
University of Michigan
2 Washington University
Purpose/Relevance
To estimate the proportion of patients
diagnosed with ocular hypertension or
open angle glaucoma who do/do not respond following initial
treatment with either topical beta-blockers (BB) or prostaglandin
analogs (PGA).
Methods
We analyzed three datasets - the Ocular Hypertension
Treatment Study (OHTS), (1994-1996)1, the Collaborative
Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS), (1993-1997)2, and
the i3 InVision Data Mart Database (2001-2009). For OHTS
and CIGTS, percent intraocular pressure change (%∆IOP) was
calculated by [(treated IOP – baseline IOP)/baseline IOP]*100.
Non-response was defined as %∆IOP less than -15%. For the
InVision dataset, patients were identified by ICD 9 codes and an
initial prescription for BB or PGA. Non-response was defined as
the addition of ocular hypotensive medication, incisional or laser
surgery, or cessation of treatment within 1 year. Results
The initial treatment for most of the OHTS and CIGTS subjects
was BB. In the 741 OHTS subjects started on BB, 27% were
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
205
non-responders at the 6-month visit. Among the 286 CIGTS
subjects started on BB, 17% were non-responders at the first
follow up visit. In the InVision dataset, 39% of the 1,392
patients started on a BB were classified as “non-responders.”
Of the 12,154 patients started on PGA, 29% were “nonresponders.”
Discussion
Despite differences in OHTS, CIGTS and InVision patient
samples and differences in “non-responder” definition, the
proportion of non-responders to BB were surprisingly in a
similar range (17-39%) that correlates with clinical experience.
Analysis is underway to assess the economic impact of the
non-responder compared to the responder in the first year of
treatment.
Conclusion
Understanding the causes for non-responders to BB and PGA will
enable an individualized treatment approach for each patient.
Given the success of quantitative trait analysis of IOP, studies are
in progress to identify genetic causes for BB and PGA IOP-based
drug response variations.
References
1. Mansberger, S. L., Hughes, B. A., et al. (2007). Comparison of
initial intraocular pressure response with topical beta-adrenergic
antagonists and prostaglandin analogues in African American and
white individuals in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study.
Archives of Ophthalmology, 125(4), 454–459.
2. Musch, D. C., Gillespie, B. W., Niziol, L. M., Lichter, P. R., Varma,
R., CIGTS Study Group. (2011). Intraocular pressure control and
long-term visual field loss in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma
Treatment Study. Ophthalmology, 118(9), 1766–1773.
206
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
88 Lens Position Parameters as Predictors
of Intraocular Pressure Reduction After
Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery
CHI-HSIN HSU1, Shuai-Chun Lin2,
Caitlin Kakigi1, Shan Lin1
1
2
University of California, San Francisco
Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
IOP reduction was significantly greater in more anteriorly
positioned lenses; LP (Spearman’s correlation coefficient; Rho
= 0.397; p= 0.018) and RLP (Rho= 0.407, p= 0.024) both
showed statistically significant correlation with IOP reduction.
In multivariate linear regression analysis, higher preoperative
IOP was significantly associated with IOP decrease (p < 0.001);
shallower ACD (p= 0.09) and smaller AD (p= 0.075) showed
moderate, but not statistically significant association.
Purpose/Relevance
Discussion
To evaluate the relationship of lens
position parameters with intraocular
pressure (IOP) reduction after cataract
surgery in non-glaucomatous eyes.
Our findings of significant associations between lens
position parameters (LP, RLP) and IOP reduction after
phacoemulsification cataract surgery suggests that lens
position might be a predictor of the amount of post-op
IOP decrease. LENSTAR uses the precision of optical lowcoherence reflectometry, may provide a convenient, non-contact
measurement of these parameters.
Methods
In this prospective study, non-glaucomatous eyes underwent
phacoemulsification and lens implantation. IOP was measured
preoperatively and 1.5 months after surgery. Change in IOP and
its relation to lens biometric parameters, which were measured
by LENSTAR LS 900 (Haag-Streit, Inc., Koeniz, Switzerland)
preoperatively, including lens position (LP; defined as anterior
chamber depth [ACD] +1/2 lens thickness [LT]) and relative lens
position (RLP; defined as LP/axial length[AXL]) were evaluated.
In addition, preoperative IOP, lens thickness, AXL, ACD, and
anterior depth (AD) were assessed as predictors. The main
outcome measure was IOP change after phacoemulsification.
Results
Among the 60 consecutively enrolled patients (23 male, 37
female), 76 eyes were included in the analysis and the overall
mean age was 72.8 ±9.0 years. The average IOP reduction was
2.75±2.28 mmHg, from a preoperative mean of 15.49 ±3.26
mmHg, at 1.5 months after cataract surgery. The amount of
Conclusion
The amount of IOP reduction after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes is significantly greater in more anteriorly
positioned lenses. Future studies will show whether similar
relationships exist in glaucomatous eyes undergoing cataract
surgery.
References
1. Dooley I, Charalampidou S, Malik A, Loughman J, at el. Changes
in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after
uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Eye (Lond). 2010
Apr; 24(4):519-26.
2. Nongpiur ME, He M, Amerasinghe N, Friedman DS, Tay WT at el.
Lens vault, thickness, and position in Chinese subjects with angle
closure. Ophthalmology. 2011 Mar; 118(3):474-9.
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
89 Relationship of Structural and Functional Rates
of Change as a Function of Glaucoma Severity
LEE1,
Morales1,
JI WOONG
Esteban
Fei Yu1, Abdelmonem Afifi1, Eun Ah
Kim1, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi1, Joseph
Caprioli1
1
UCLA
Purpose/Relevance
To investigate the longitudinal
relationship between structural and
functional rates of change in patients
with different stages of glaucoma severity.
Methods
This study included 360 eyes of 278 patients. All patients had 3
or more good-quality confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopic
(CSLO) examinations and 4 or more reliable visual field (VF)
examinations. A pointwise exponential regression was used to
perform trend analysis on thresholds at each VF test location.
The test locations were ranked according to their decay rates and
were partitioned into slow and fast clusters. The mean rates of
change of the slow (SR) and fast clusters (FR) were measured.
Linear regressions of the mean deviation (MD), Visual Field
Index (VFI) and global rim area (RA) as measured with CSLO
were performed against time. The longitudinal relationship
between structure and function was assessed with two methods:
1) correlation between structural and functional rates of change
were calculated with bivariate correlation analyses, 2) a linear
mixed model was built to explore the adjusted associations of
structural change with the functional parameters.
207
Results
Seventy one eyes of glaucoma suspect, 90 eyes of preperimetric
glaucoma, 134 eyes of early glaucoma and 63 eyes of moderate
to advanced glaucoma were included. RA rate was positively
correlated with MD rate, VFI rate, and FR in preperimetric
and early glaucoma (all P<0.05); the highest correlations were
observed between the RA rate and FR. However, RA rate was
not correlated with SR in any of the severity groups. Change in
RA was directly associated with MD and VFI in preperimetric
and early glaucoma (all P<0.05). Change in RA was directly
associated with visual sensitivities of FR cluster regardless of
baseline severity of glaucoma (all P≤0.019). Visual sensitivities in
SR cluster were not associated with change in RA in any groups.
Discussion
Change in global rim area was significantly associated with FR
cluster regardless of baseline severity of glaucoma. The global
indices MD and VFI were associated with change in global rim
area in certain stages of glaucoma.
Conclusion
We conclude that the identification of FR cluster can help
clinicians measure and predict rates of glaucoma progression,
and is a more robust measure of change than are the global
indices MD and VFI.
Reference
1. Caprioli J, Mock D, Bitrian E, Afifi AA, Yu F, Nouri-Mahdavi K,
Coleman AL. A method to measure and predict rates of regional
visual field decay in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
2011;52:4765-73.
208
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
90 A Randomized, Prospective Comparison of 360
Degree Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) vs.
577 nm Micropulse Laser Trabeculoplasty (MLT)
in Eyes with Open-Angle Glaucoma
NISHA CHADHA1, David Belyea2,
Tania Lamba2, Benjamin Abramowitz2
1
2
Yale University
The George Washington University
Purpose/Relevance
The purpose of this study was to
compare the efficacy, safety, and patient
comfort with SLT vs. MLT treatment
(tx). Methods
48 Patients with open angle glaucoma and need for additional
intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction were enrolled and randomly
assigned to either SLT (n=23) or MLT (n=25). Patients with
angle closure, neovascular, or end-stage glaucoma were
excluded. All patients were surveyed on procedure and postoperative pain. Results
The average pre-tx IOP for SLT and MLT groups were 16.7
mmHg and 18.3 mmHg respectively. The average IOP 1 hour, 1
week, 4-6 weeks, and 8-16 weeks post-tx was 15.6, 15.2, 12.9,
and 13.1 mmHg for the SLT group and 14.3, 16.4, 15.6, and
15.7 mmHg for the MLT group. 3 patients in the SLT group and
1 patient in the MLT group had a post procedure IOP elevation
(IOP rise >6 mmHg) but all post procedure IOPs were ≤20
mmHg. Average IOP reduction at 4-6 weeks post-tx was 3.2
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
mmHg for the SLT group and 3.1 mmHg for the MLT group
(p=0.86). Average IOP reduction at 8-16 weeks post treatment
was 2.5 mmHg for the SLT group and 3.0 mmHg for the MLT
group (p=0.71). No adverse reactions occurred in either group.
Average pain reported during the procedure was 3/10 for SLT
group and 1.2/10 for MLT group (p=0.0063).
Discussion
There was no statistically significant difference in IOP reduction
between the SLT and MLT groups at both 4-6 weeks and 8-16
weeks post treatment. Both lasers were safe but MLT was more
comfortable for most patients. Additionally, there was a trend
towards earlier IOP reduction at post-tx week 1 in the MLT
group but this was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
MLT is as effective in lowering IOP as SLT with an equivalent
safety profile. It also offers more patient comfort both during
and after the procedure. Given these results, further investigation
of this unique form of laser therapy is warranted.
References
1. Detry-Morel M, Muschart F, Pourjavan S. Micropulse diode laser
(810 nm) versus argon laser trabeculoplasty in the treatment of
open-angle glaucoma: comparative short-term safety and efficacy
profile. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 2008;(308):21-8.
2. Fea AM, Bosone A, Rolle T, Brogliatti B, Grignolo FM. Micropulse
diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT): A phase II clinical study with
12 months follow-up. Clin Ophthalmol. 2008 Jun;2(2):247-52.
3. Greninger DA. Lowry EA. Porco TC. Naseri A. Stamper RL.
Han Y. Resident-performed selective laser trabeculoplasty in
patients with open-angle glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2014
Apr;132(4):403-8.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
91 Fellow Eye Treatment Refusal in CIGTS
Participants Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
92 Change in Vision-Related Quality of Life in
Patients with Early and Suspected Glaucoma
DIVAKAR GUPTA1, David Musch2,
Leslie Niziol2, Philip Chen1
1
2
209
SHIVALI MENDA1, Steven
Mansberger1, Gordon Barker1, Stuart
Gardiner1, Shaban Demirel1
University of Washington
University of Michigan
1
Devers Eye Institute
Purpose/Relevance
Purpose/Relevance
To examine refusal of fellow eye
(FE) treatment among participants in
the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma
Treatment Study (CIGTS). To determine whether changes in visual
field sensitivity are related to visionrelated quality of life over time.
Methods
Methods
CIGTS participants who were randomized to initial medication
or initial surgery and whose FE (better eye) was eligible for
treatment were studied. Demographic data and characteristics,
surgical data from the study eye (SE) trabeculectomy, and
reported quality of life were compared between groups that
refused and received treatment in their FE.
Participants in the Portland Progression Project, a longitudinal
study of patients with early or suspected glaucoma, performed
biannual visual field testing (SITA 24-2) and completed at
least two 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function
Questionnaires (VFQ-25) during the course of the study. We
compared the association of mean deviation (MD) to VFQ-25
composite score.
Results
Results
FEs eligible for treatment at baseline included 39.3% (118/300)
in the group randomized to trabeculectomy and 39.7%
(122/307) in the group randomized to medical treatment. Refusal
of FE treatment occurred in 14.4% (17/118) of participants
within the surgery group and 0.8% (1/122) of participants
within the medicine group (Fisher’s exact test p<0.0001). FEs
initially eligible for treatment in those that refused (n=17) and
received (n=74) surgery did not differ on demographic data,
visual field data, post-operative complications, symptoms, or
Visual Activities Questionnaire results. Baseline intraocular
pressure (IOP) in the SE and FE were lower in those subjects
refusing FE surgery vs. those receiving surgery (SE: 25.5 vs.
29.7 mmHg, t-test p=0.0134; FE: 24.4 vs. 28.1 mmHg, t-test
p=0.0015).
We included 161 participants with a mean interval of 3.35 years
(2.53 to 3.94, median= 3.43) between the first and last testing
time points. The VFQ composite score decreased by 0.58 points
(-24.37 to 18.49, median = -0.38). The MD declined by an
average of 0.09 dB (-3.83 to 3.55, median= -0.02). VFQ-25 was
associated with MD at first and last testing time points (p<0.05).
However, we found no significant association between the
change in VFQ and the change in MD (P = 0.29).
Discussion
Refusal of FE treatment was far more common in participants
randomized to the surgical arm of the CIGTS. There were no
differences in post-operative complications, symptoms, or
other quality of life survey results between surgery-randomized
participants who refused trabeculectomy in their initially eligible
FEs and those who received trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure
was lower in participants who refused surgery, suggesting
elevated IOP influenced the decision to have FE surgery.
Conclusion
CIGTS participants were more likely to refuse bilateral surgical
treatment than medical treatment. Lower IOP may be associated
with refusal of fellow eye surgery.
Reference
1. Musch DC, Lichter PR, Guire KE, Standardi CL. The Collaborative
Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study: study design, methods, and
baseline characteristics of enrolled patients. Ophthalmology. 1999
Apr;106(4):653-62.
Discussion
Visual field changes affect quality of life in patients with
glaucoma1,2 but few studies examine longitudinal changes in
these measures. The cross-sectional analysis showed significant
associations of vision-related quality of life to visual field
sensitivity. However, the longitudinal analysis did not show
a relationship to mean deviation over a short-term period in
patients with early or suspected glaucoma. This may have
occurred because of small changes in both MD and VFQ-25
composite score over time, and/or poor sensitivity of VFQ-25
composite score to small changes in visual field.
Conclusion
Visual field sensitivity is associated with vision-related quality
of life. Longer follow-up may be required to detect changes
in vision-related quality of life as assessed by the VFQ-25
composite score with declines in visual field sensitivity.
References
1. Nassiri N, Mehravaran S, Nouri-Mahdavi K, et al. National eye
institute visual function questions: usefulness in glaucoma. Optom
Vis Sci 2013;90:745-753.
2. Kulkarni KM, Mayer JR, Lorenzana LL, Myers JS, et al. Visual
field staging systems in glaucoma and the activities of daily living.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2012; 15:445-451.
210
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
93 The Association Between Serum Manganese
Level and the Prevalence of Glaucoma in the
South Korean Population
SHUAI-CHUN LIN1, Shan Lin1
1
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
94 Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare
Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Pattern
Scanning Laser Trabeculoplasty (PSLT) to
Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT)
KAWEH MANSOURI1, Tarek
Shaarawy2
University of California, San Francisco
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva
University Hos
2 Geneva University Hospitals
Purpose/Relevance
We investigated the association between
serum manganese level and glaucoma
diagnosis.
Methods
We included right eyes from 2556
participants with serum manganese level data in the 2008-2009
Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,
a cross-sectional population study. Serum manganese levels
and demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior
information were assessed. The definition of glaucoma was
based upon criteria established by the International Society for
Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO).
Results
Serum manganese level is negatively associated with the odds
of having glaucoma after adjustment for potential confounders
(mean level 1.23ug/dl and 1.35ug/dl in glaucoma and nonglaucoma group, respectively; odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95%
confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.83). Discussion
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal present in all tissues
and is required for the maintenance of proper cell function. It
is a cofactor of many enzymes such as superoxide dismutase
(SOD), which inhibits neuronal death presumably by interfering
with a superoxide signal for apoptosis. An animal study revealed
retinal Mn levels were significantly deficient in 10-month old
glaucomatous DBA/2J mice compared to aged-matched C57BL/6J
mice and 5-month old DBA/2J mice. Another previous study
has also demonstrated neuroprotective effects and superoxide
scavenging activity of Mn-corrole in vitro and in vivo. While
high Mn-induced toxicity seems more prevalent, the alteration of
normal physiological function from Mn deficiency shouldn’t be
overlooked. Purpose/Relevance
To compare safety, tolerability, and
efficacy of a new computer-guided
treatment modality, pattern scanning
laser trabeculoplasty (PSLT), to standard selective laser
trabeculoplasty.
Methods
Twenty-three patients with untreated open angle glaucoma
were randomized to undergo SLT in one eye and PSLT in the
contralateral eye. The Streamline 577 (Topcon Medical Systems,
Japan) device was used for PSLT and the Ellex Tango (Ellex,
Australia) for SLT. All 4 quadrants were treated in a single
session. The comfort level of each laser procedure was evaluated
immediately following the intervention using the visual analogue
scale (VAS). Efficacy of laser treatment was evaluated at 2
months. Complete success was defined as an IOP reduction of ≥
20% without medications.
Results
No serious adverse events were recorded. One patient in
each group experienced a transient IOP spike of ≥ 10 mmHg
immediately after laser intervention. Comfort was rated as
superior with PSLT (25±21 mm) compared to SLT (49±27
mm; p<0.0001). IOP was from a baseline of 20.3±5.5mmHg
to 15.4±5.2 (-24%) with PSLT and from 20.9±6.4 mmHg to
14.9±4.4 mmHg with SLT (-28%) (p=0.163) at 2 months.
Discussion
Laser trabeculoplasty is a valid treatment open for glaucoma.
PSLT may be a valid treatment option with potential advantages
over standard SLT.
Conclusion
Conclusion
A lower serum manganese level was associated with greater odds
of glaucoma in a representative sample of the South Korean
population. Future studies are needed to further explore its
potential neuroprotective effects.
PSLT provided a similar safety and efficacy profile to SLT in
glaucoma patients. It was perceived as more tolerable compared
to SLT.
Reference
References
1. Kanamori A, Catrinescu MM, Mahammed A, Gross Z, Levin
LA. Neuroprotection against superoxide anion radical by
metallocorroles in cellular and murine models of optic neuropathy.
J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(2):488-98.
2. DeToma AS, Dengler-Crish CM, Deb A, Braymer JJ, Penner-Hahn
JE, van der Schyf CJ, Lim MH, Crish SD. Abnormal metal levels in
the primary visual pathway of the DBA/2J mouse model of
glaucoma. Biometals. 2014 Sep 5. [Epub ahead of print]
3. Greger JL. Dietary standards for manganese: overlap between
nutritional and toxicological studies. J Nutr. 1998 Feb;128.
1. Turati M1, Gil-Carrasco F, Morales A,et al. Patterned
laser trabeculoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2010 SepOct;41(5):538-45. doi: 10.3928/15428877-20100910-02.
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
95 Analysis of a Novel Physician-Led Team-Based
Care Model for the Treatment of Glaucoma
WINKLER1,
Damento1,
NELSON
Gena
David Hodge1, Sunil Khanna1, Cheryl
Khanna1
1
Mayo Clinic
Purpose/Relevance
211
Results
The control site had no significant changes in testing completion
over the time period studied, and glaucoma type and severity
were similar between locations. The team care group at the
intervention site had a global improvement in testing completion,
with the largest improvement in fundus photos (29% increase),
gonioscopy (27% increase) and recording target IOP (24%
increase).
A novel physician-led team-based
care model was implemented at our
institution for the treatment of patients
with glaucoma. Our purpose was to
retrospectively study the efficacy of this model for improving
compliance with the American Academy of Ophthalmology
Preferred Practice Patterns for glaucoma management.
Discussion
Methods
This is the largest study of this type to date, and our protocol has
the potential for widespread adoption to improve glaucoma care.
A total of 600 patients with a new diagnosis of glaucoma
based on ICD-9 codes were studied before and after protocol
implementation from 2005-2010 and this data was compared
to a control site without a glaucoma care process model over
the same time period. Charts were divided into sub-groups for
analysis based on provider type including optometry, general
ophthalmology, and glaucoma specialists. Outcomes included
completion of testing and recording of a specific diagnosis.
Glaucoma severity at time of diagnosis was also analyzed by subgroup.
Study IOP Albrecht, et al1 100% Visual Field 92% Hertzog, et al2 100% Fremont, et al3 96% 66% MCR Team Care 100% 90% 90% Implementation of a physician-led care model at our institution
resulted in significant improvement in compliance with the
American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice
Patterns for glaucoma treatment.
Conclusion
References
1. Albrecht KG, Lee PP. Conformance with preferred practice
patterns in caring for patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmology
1994;101(10): 1668-1671.
2. Hertzog LH, Albrecht KG, LaBree L, Lee PP. Glaucoma care and
conformance with preferred practice patterns. Examination of
the private, community-based ophthalmologist. Ophthalmology
1996;103(7): 1009-13.
3. Fremont AM, Lee PP, Mangione CM, Kapur K, Adams JL,
Wickstrom SL, Escarce JJ. Patterns of care for open-angle glaucoma
in managed care. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121(6): 777-783.
Gonioscopy 46% 85% 51% 93% Academic glaucoma clinic in LA Community based clinics in LA HMO patients across US Post-­‐protocol Table
1. Comparison
of Mayo
Rochester
post-protocol
care) to previous
compliance
Table 1. Comparison of Clinic
Mayo Clinic R(MCR)
ochester (MCR) p(team
ost-­‐protocol (team care) to previous compliance 212
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
96 Concentration Accuracy of Compounded
Mitomycin C for Ophthalmic Surgery
ROBERT M. KINAST1, Kiran Akula1,
Steve Mansberger1, Gordon Barker1,
Stuart Gardiner1, Emily Whitson1,
Andrea DeBarber2
1
2
Legacy Health
Oregon Health & Science University
Purpose/Relevance
To determine if the measured
concentration differs from the expected
concentration of 0.4 mg/ml mitomycin C (MMC) used in
ophthalmic surgery. We rely on accurate concentrations of
MMC to titrate intraocular pressure control with trabeculectomy
surgery.1
Methods
We acquired 60 samples of 0.4 mg/ml MMC from a wide
spectrum of common compounding and storage techniques
(refrigeration, freezing, and immediately compounded dry
powder) and a variety of pharmacies (academic hospital,
community hospital, and independent PCAB-accredited
pharmacy). We used C18 reversed-phase high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure the absolute MMC
concentration of all samples. We used pure MMC (Medisca
Inc., Montreal, Canada) to generate a calibration curve and
sulfanilamide as an internal standard. We calculated MMC
concentration using a calibration curve by dividing MMC peak
area by internal standard peak area and plotting the area ratio
against the calibrant concentrations. We separately retested 6
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
MMC samples at 4 different time-points over 24 hours to verify
satisfactory precision of MMC quantification. We compared
the measured concentration against the expected 0.4 mg/ml
concentration for all samples.
Results
The measured concentration of expected compounded 0.4 mg/
ml MMC was 0.35 ± 0.04 mg/ml (p < .001, t-test) with a wide
range between 0.26 to 0.46 mg/ml. Calibration curves for MMC
(normalized to internal standard) demonstrated acceptable
linearity and a mean correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.99. Repeat
measurements of 6 separate MMC samples also showed little
variability in measured concentration (mean coefficient of
variation 1.4%, range 0.7% - 2.6%), also indicating good
precision for measurements associated with the HPLC method.
Discussion
The concentration of MMC used in ophthalmic surgery has
lower accuracy and a wider range than expected.
Conclusion
Surgeons should consider these inaccuracies when titrating
MMC concentration for their patients. These differences in
concentration may result from compounding technique and
MMC degradation.
Reference
1. Robin AL, Ramakrishnan R, Krishnadas R, et al. A long-term doseresponse study of mitomycin in glaucoma filtration surgery. Arch
Ophthalmol. 1997;115:969-974.
Figure. Box plots of measured concentrations of expected 0.4 mg/ml MMC using a variety of storage techniques and sources. Shaded box
areas indicates 25th and 75th percentiles. Vertical lines show concentration ranges.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
97 The Association Between Visual Field
Abnormalities and the Use of Antihypertensive
Medications in the United States
CAITLIN KAKIGI1, Sophia Wang2,
Kuldev Singh3, Shan Lin1
1
University of California, San Francisco
University of Michigan
3 Stanford University
2
Purpose/Relevance
o investigate the relationship between
T
visual field defects and the use of
antihypertensive medications in a
nationally representative sample.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 5406 participants in the
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
between 2005 and 2008, age ≥ 40 years, who demonstrated
presence or absence of a visual field defect determined by the
NHANES 2-2-1 Algorithm for Frequency Doubling Technology
(FDT) N-30-5. Multiple blood pressure measurements were
obtained for participants who were interviewed regarding the use
of antihypertensive medications. Demographic, comorbidity, and
health-related behavior information was obtained via interview.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine
the association between the use of antihypertensive medications
and visual field defect prevalence among subpopulations
defined by systolic blood pressure (SBP) cut-offs ≤120mmHg,
≤110mmHg, and ≤100mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure
(DBP) cut-offs ≤80 mmHg, ≤70mmHg, and ≤60 mmHg. Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
213
Results
Participants who reported the use of antihypertensive
medications, regardless of blood pressure reading, had
significantly greater odds of having a visual field defect
compared to those who did not report use of antihypertensives
(unadjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.83-2.83; adjusted OR 1.33,
95% CI 1.07-1.65). Among participants with DBP ≤80mmHg,
those taking antihypertensives had significantly higher odds of
having visual field defects compared to participants not taking
antihypertensives (unadjusted OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.81-2.96;
adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.70).
Discussion
Our finding of significantly increased odds of a visual field defect
among participants who were being treated with medications
for hypertension within the subpopulation of participants with
a DBP ≤80mmHg suggests that a decrease in diastolic blood
pressure through the use of antihypertensives may be a risk
factor for the development of glaucomatous disease. Such an
effect can be hypothesized to be a consequence of decreased
ocular perfusion and resultant optic nerve injury.
Conclusion
The use of antihypertensive medications was associated with
increased prevalence of visual field defect adding support
to the theory that poor ocular perfusion is a risk factor for
glaucomatous disease.
Reference
1. Wang L, Cull GA, Fortune B. Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow
Response to Reduced Ocular Perfusion Pressure by Alteration of
Either the Blood Pressure or Intraocular Pressure. Curr. Eye Res.
2014:1-9. doi:10.3109/02713683.2014.924146.
214
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
98 Quantitative Trait Analysis of Timolol
Response—A Combined Analysis
TRESE1,
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Reed1,
MATTHEW
David
Diana Burnett1, Vikas Gulati2, Arash
Kazemi3, Jay McLaren3, David Musch1,
Carol Toris2, Sayoko Moroi1, Arthur
Sit3
1
University of Michigan
University of Nebraska Medical Center
3 Mayo Clinic
2
81 subjects (39.6+15.3 years, 42.5% males) were available for
analysis. Morning flow decreased from 2.6 ± 0.8 µl/min to 1.7 ±
0.4 µl/min (p<0.05) after timolol. ∆Flow decreased by ≥ 15% in
66/80 of subjects (82%) after treatment with timolol, therefore
there was a non-responder rate of 18%. In the second group,
there was a decrease in IOP from 13.4 ± 3.4 mmHg to 11.6 ±
3.9 mmHg (p<0.05) after timolol. ∆IOP decreased by ≥ 15% in
15/28 subjects (54%), the remaining 13/28 patients (46%) were
classified as non-responders.
Discussion
Purpose/Relevance
To quantitate the variations in timolol response based upon the
pharmacodynamic outcomes of aqueous humor flow, or “flow”,
and intraocular pressure (IOP).
Methods
This is an ongoing combined analysis of 2 groups of normal
subjects. One group (n=53) was studied in an inpatient setting
to determine timolol response.1,2 The second group (n=28)
is part of a prospective, multicenter quantitative trait study
of aqueous humor dynamic characteristics (ClinicalTrials.
gov NCT01677507). Morning flow was assessed by
fluorophotometry at baseline conditions (no treatment) and
after treatment with timolol 0.5%. In the second group, IOP
was measured by rebound tonometry. The primary outcome
measure is percent change flow (∆flow) in response to timolol.
The secondary outcome measure is percent change IOP (∆IOP)
in response to timolol. These outcomes were calculated as
[(baseline flow or IOP) – (treated flow or IOP)]/(baseline flow or
IOP). A treatment response, ∆flow and ∆IOP, of greater ≥ 15%
was considered clinically significant; conversely <15% response
was considered as a “non-responder”.
This combined analysis provides evidence of variation in timolol
treatment outcomes of ∆flow and ∆IOP. There were 18% ∆flow
non-responders and 46% ∆IOP non-responders to timolol. This
variation in response is not only influenced by the variables of
the Goldmann equation, but also by yet to be identified genetic
and environmental factors.
Conclusion
While past glaucoma pharmacology studies emphasized the
average IOP response, there is growing evidence that IOP is
a quantitative trait.3 Additional analyses will determine the
concordance between ∆flow and ∆IOP in response to timolol in
an individual, will examine covariates of drug response, and will
identify genetic factors that affect drug response.
References
1. Coakes RL, Brubaker RF. The mechanism of timolol in lowering
intraocular pressure. In the normal eye. Arch Ophthalmol [serial
online]. 1978;96:2045-2048.
2. Radenbaugh PA, Goyal A, McLaren NC, et al. Concordance
of aqueous humor flow in the morning and at night in normal
humans. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci [serial online]. 2006;47:48604864.
3. Ozel AB, Moroi SE, Reed DM, et al. Genome-wide association
study and meta-analysis of intraocular pressure. Hum Genet. 2014
Jan;133(1):41-57. doi: 10.1007/s00439-013-1349-5. Epub 2013
Sep 4.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
99 Costs of Glaucoma Care to Patients and Their
Families
EMILY SCHEHLEIN1, Alan Robin1, Lily
Im1, Osamah Saeedi1
1
University of Maryland School of
Medicine
Purpose/Relevance
Office visits required for routine
glaucoma care cost billions in direct
costs1, but the costs of these visits to the
patient and their companions (patient
cost) have not been assessed in the United States. Knowledge of
the patient cost of glaucoma monitoring is critical to assess the
cost-effectiveness of alternative models of glaucoma health care
delivery.
Methods
To evaluate the patient cost of glaucoma care, we designed and
distributed a cross-sectional survey to 300 patients in hospitalbased and community-based glaucoma subspecialty clinics. The
survey included demographic factors, disease severity, and all
patient and companion costs related to the visit including cost of
transportation, time, child care, and lost wages. We calculated
the mean cost per visit and yearly costs per patient. We collected
both demographic and clinical data. We determined predictors of
mean and yearly cost using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results
Of the 300 patients, 187 (62%) were female, 171 (57%) were
African American, and 114 (38%) were Caucasian. The mean
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
215
age was 65 ± 14 years. The mean patient cost of each visit was
$38.02 ± $73.15. The mean yearly cost of all visits was $176.09
± $327.23. The mean cost of the visit including leisure time
lost was $44.09 ± $72.67. The mean yearly cost of the visit
including leisure time lost was $210.41 ± $333.32. Patients with
companions paid significantly more ($51.42 ± $90.65 vs $26.60
± $51.58, P ≤ .001) and retired patients paid significantly less
($21.64 ± $25.67 vs $51.42 ± $93.89, P = .038). Mean cost
per visit did not vary with age (P = .340), gender, (P = .409)
or race (P = .274). Median household income (P = 0.005) and
presence of companion (P ≤ 0.001) were significant predictors
for increased yearly cost. No relationship between mean cost and
disease severity (P = .928) or education (P = .084) was noted.
Discussion
The cost of glaucoma care is significant to both the patient and
their companion. Our study is the first to comprehensively assess
these costs in the United States. We determined that patients with
companions and those currently employed paid significantly
more per visit. Conclusion
Patients spend a substantial amount to attend glaucoma-care
appointments. These results show the need to potentially
reevaluate the frequency of visits or perhaps utilize telemedicine
to reduce the patient cost.
Reference
1. Rein DB, Zhang P, Wirth KE, et al. The Economic Burden of Major
Adult Visual Disorders in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol.
2006;124(12):1754-1760. 216
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
100 Comparing Medication Possession Ratio
(MPR) Versus Electronic Monitors to Evaluate
Glaucoma Medication Non-adherence
JAYA KUMAR1, Kelly Muir1
1
Duke Eye Center, Durham VA
Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
Poor adherence to a prescribed
glaucoma medication regimen may lead
to preventable blindness. Medication
adherence can be quantified by various
methods but strengths, weaknesses and
relationships between these methods are poorly understood.
We compared MPR, a widely used1 adherence measure with
the advantage of easy accessibility in a closed pharmacy system,
to the proportion of prescribed doses taken according to an
electronic monitor.
Methods
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
ml by our count to calculate MPR. The average MPR for the
79 Veteran participants over ≥6 month ranged 0.1-5.3, mean
1.5, SD 0.8, median 1.5. The proportion of prescribed doses
taken according to the electronic monitor over the same period
ranged 7.8-104.9, mean 79.8, SD 24.4. MPR was not associated
with the proportion of prescribed doses taken according to the
monitor (p=0.052).We considered that participants in possession
of the greatest excess of medication may exhibit worse adherence
behavior, as evidenced in other chronic disease conditions 2 and
categorized the participants according to MPR.
Discussion
On average, participants possessed approximately 150% of the
amount of the glaucoma medication required according to their
prescribed regimen; MPR was not associated with the proportion
of doses taken according to the electronic monitor. The study
was conducted in a closed pharmacy system without access
to samples and no co-pay requirements for some participants,
which may have contributed to a higher MPR than reported
previously. Eligible patients from the VA hospital with medically-treated
glaucoma were given electronic medication monitors containing
of one the prescribed eye drops. Pharmacy records were queried
for refill requests for glaucoma medications over the study
period. The medical record was abstracted to determine the
prescribed dosing regimen including frequency and laterality.
The MPR was derived, defined as the number of prescribed doses
divided by the number of doses available to the participant over
the study period. To determine the number of doses in individual
bottles, we consulted the specific manufacturer, the local VA
pharmacy, and counted drops ourselves. Conclusion
Results
2. Thorpe CT, Bryson CL, Maciejewski ML, Bosworth HB.
Medication acquisition and self-reported adherence in veterans with
hypertension. Med Care. Apr 2009;47(4):474-481.
The number of drops available in a given bottle differed as
estimated by the pharmacy, the manufacturer, and our count.
Due to these discrepancies, we used the number of drops/
While MPR may be a reasonable outcome measure to capture
long-term persistence with prescribed medication, MPR may
not be the best outcome measure for quantifying glaucoma
medication adherence over a shorter time frame.
References
1. Glanz K, Beck AD, Bundy L, et al. Impact of a health
communication intervention to improve glaucoma treatment
adherence. Results of the interactive study to increase
glaucoma adherence to treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol. Oct
2012;130(10):1252-1258.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
101 Long-Term Outcomes of Combined Cataract
and Trabeculectomy Surgery
EDWARD J. ROCKWOOD
Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Shaker
Heights, Ohio (OH), United States
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
102 Accuracy of International Classification of
Diseases, Ninth Revision, Billing Code for
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Veterans
Affairs Administrave Databases: A Validation
Study
KRISTIN BIGGERSTAFF1, Jennifer
Kramer1, Donna White1
Purpose/Relevance
1
Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs
Medical Center
To report the long term outcomes of
combined cataract and trabeculectomy
surgeries.
Purpose/Relevance
o examine the accuracy of International
T
Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition,
(ICD-9) codes for primary open angle
glaucoma (POAG) in the Veterans
Affairs data.
Methods
Prospective, non-comparative database of 1741 combined
cataract and trabeculectomy surgeries performed in 1281
patients between 1987 and 2014. A survival analysis and a
multivariate regression analysis was performed for predictors of
the need for glaucoma surgical reoperation and visual acuity and
IOP outcomes.
Results
Mean visual acuity improved by 3 lines from a mean
preoperative 20/80 to 20/50. Mean IOP was reduced by 5.0 mm
Hg from 21.1 to 16.1 mm Hg and mean number of glaucoma
medications were reduced by 1.7 from 2.3 to 0.7 medications.
Cumulative glaucoma reoperation rate was 7.1%. Mean time
to reoperation was 47.9 months with a range of 0.03 to 284
months. The graph of cumulative surgical reoperation by time in
months fits a natural logarithmic plot, Y=a(Ln X). Some patients
eyes (135 of 1741=8%) with initial successful improvement
of visual acuity lost visual acuity months or years later from
disorders other than glaucoma or glaucoma surgical failure such
as wet or dry AMD, ERM, CRVO, and macular hole).
Discussion
Combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery improves visual
acuity, reduces IOP and reduces the need for postoperative
glaucoma medication. Glaucoma reoperation can be come
necessary anywhere from one day to decades after the combined
surgery. Many patients with sucessful improvement of visual
acuity after combined surgery may suffer visual acuity loss
months or years later from ocular diseases other than glaucoma.
Conclusion
Glaucoma surgical outcomes, whether after trabeculectomy,
glaucoma implant, MIGS or other glaucoma procedure, need to
be evaluated on a long term basis in view of the continuing early,
mid-term and late need for glaucoma reoperation.
References
1. Rockwood EJ, Larive B, Hahn J. Outcomes of combined cataract
extraction, lens implantation and trabeculectomy surgeries. Am J
Ophthalmol 2000; 130(6): 704-711.
217
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study comparing the Veterans
Affairs (VA) administrative data with abstracted data from the
Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center’s (MEDVAMC) medical
records. We randomly selected 200 patients examined at the Eye
Clinic between 2000 and 2013 and diagnosed with POAG, and
100 patients without any POAG codes. A single ophthalmologist
reviewed charts to determine presence of POAG based on cup-todisc ratio and Humphrey visual field changes.
Results
Of the first 158 randomly selected patients with at least one
POAG code, 63.9% were confirmed to have POAG, 27.2% were
found to be POAG suspects or have ocular hypertension. Only
5.7% received the code erroneously, and 3.2% lacked sufficient
documentation to determine POAG presence. We will present
the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive
values for our entire study sample.
Discussion
The VA is the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United
States, and as such is a valuable source for research. The accuracy
of ICD-9 coding in correctly identifying the actual presence
of POAG is a potentially limiting factor for studies that use
adminstrative databases. A study done recently at two academic
institutions with a review of 200 charts showed 98% accuracy
for the POAG ICD-9 code.1 A validation study is needed within
the VA system in order to be confident that the ICD-9 code for
POAG truly represents POAG for the purposes of further studies.
Conclusion
A single ICD-9 code for POAG is highly predictive of the
presence of either POAG, POAG suspect, or ocular hypertension
and can reliably be used for research on these conditions. It is
less useful for distinguishing between POAG suspect, ocular
hypertension, or the actual presence of POAG. Additional
research will be needed to determine search algorithms for
specifically identifying confirmed POAG.
Reference
1. Muir, K, Gupta C, Gill P, Stein J. Accuracy of International
Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification
Billing Codes for Common Ophthalmic Conditions. JAMA
Ophthalmology. 2013;131(1):119-120.
218
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
103 Ocular Surface Disease Signs and Symptoms in
Patients Using Glaucoma Drops
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
104 Effectiveness of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty
(SLT) Following Failed Trabeculectomy
ANDREW CAMP1, Yousef Alghamdi1,
Anat Galor2, Sarah Wellik1
1
2
LEYLA ALI ALJASIM1, Deepak
Edward1,2
1
University of Miami
Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital
2
Purpose/Relevance
Evaluate the frequency of symptoms and
signs of ocular surface disease (OSD) in
patients using versus not using glaucoma
medications. There is a high frequency
of dry eye symptoms in patients using glaucoma medications and
further elucidating the characteristics of this disease process may
aid in prevention and treatment.
Methods
The study is a cross-sectional survey of patients seen at the
Miami Veterans Affairs (VA) eye clinics. All patients seen at the
ophthalmology or optometry clinics were invited to take part
in the study. Interested patients were asked about subjective
OSD symptoms and completed the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5
(DEQ5). The patients were then evaluated for objective OSD
signs including anterior blepharitis, lid margin telangectasias,
meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and superficial punctate
keratitis (SPK). To date, 128 patients have responded to this
ongoing study.
Results
There is no significant difference in subjective dry eye symptoms
or severe DEQ5 scores (>11) between patients using and not
using glaucoma medications (43% vs 62%, p=0.07; 16% vs
19%, p=0.72). There is also no significant difference in the
presence of anterior blepharitis (>grade 1) and MGD (>grade
1) between patients using and not using glaucoma medications
(13% vs 22%, p=0.26; 59% vs 41%, p=0.08). Patients using
glaucoma medications are more likely to have SPK (50% vs 23%,
p=0.004). Patients not using glaucoma medications are more
likely to have lid margin telangectasias (24% vs 6%, p=0.03).
King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital
Wilmer Eye Institute, JH
Purpose/Relevance
I OP control options after failed MMCtrabeculectomy are limited.1 We sought
to determine the effectiveness of SLT in
lowering IOP after failed trabeculectomy
in a Middle Eastern population.
Methods
In this retrospective study we identified eyes with failed MMC
trabeculectomy that underwent SLT using a standard protocol.
The procedure was considered a success when IOP was reduced
by 20% from baseline, or one or more glaucoma medications
were discontinued and be able to achieve target IOP and
maintain control throughout the minimum follow up period of 6
months.
Results
Forty-one eyes of 37 patients underwent SLT. These eyes
included POAG (46%) & PXFG (34%) and the disease was
advanced in 56%. Previous procedures included MMCtrabeculectomy (66%) and combined phaco-trabeculectomy
(34%). The mean baseline IOP was 20±4.3 mm Hg on 3.2
medications. At 6 months success was recorded in 71%. A 24%
IOP reduction [20 to 15 mmHg (P=0.016)], and medication
reduction [3 to 2.5 (P=0.005)] was noted. Success was
significantly higher in eyes with blebs (P=0.04). Failure rates
increased in eyes on a greater number of medications prior to
SLT (P=0.02). IOP spike was noted in one eye. Twelve patients
had a greater than one year follow up. They maintained IOP
reduction (at 6 months (15.8 mm Hg ±3.8) and at 12 months
(14.2 mm Hg±2.7)(P=0.20).
Discussion
Discussion
Patients using glaucoma drops have more OSD signs but similar
symptoms to patients not using drops, as previously described.
There is more SPK and a trend toward increased MGD in
patients using glaucoma medications. Lid margin telangectasias
are greater in patients not using drops, but this may be
confounded by difficulty rating telangectasias in black patients.
Although corneal disease has been described in detail, there is
little data regarding lid margin disease.
SLT resulted in significant IOP lowering in 71% eyes following
failed trabeculectomy. This is in contrast to a previous study with
similar design which reported a 16% success and 19.5% IOP
lowering. Though the baseline patient profile was similar in both
studies, we had more PXFG patients. Our results demonstrated
that functioning blebs with poor IOP control may benefit from
SLT. In addition, multiple glaucoma surgical intervention was
not associated with failure. The non-availability of long term
followup was a study weakness.
Conclusion
Conclusion
Ongoing data collection may contribute to a better understanding
of lid margin disease in patients using glaucoma drops.
SLT appears to provide a safe alternative to incisional
surgery to control IOP over the short term in eyes with failed
trabeculectomies.
References
1. Fechtner RD, et al. Prevalence of ocular surface complaints in
patients with glaucoma using topical intraocular pressure-lowering
medications. Cornea 2010;29:618-21.
2. Lee S, et al. Comparative cross-sectional analysis of the effects
of topical antiglaucoma drugs on the ocular surface. Adv Ther
2013;30(4):420-9.
References
1. Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C: Outcomes and Risk Factors
for Failure in Phakic OAG. Ophthalmology. Volume 113, Issue 6:
2006, 930–936.
2. Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty after Failed Trabeculectomy in
OAG. Clinic Experiment Ophthalmol, 2011,2:176
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
105 Comparative Study of Intraocular Pressure
Fluctuations Between the 24-Hour Diurnal
Tensional Curve, Borrone Test and the Water
Drinking Test in Patients with Primary OpenAngle Glaucoma
CRISTINA GUADALUPE ISIDA
LLERANDI1, Félix Gil-Carrasco2, Jesús
Jiménez-Román2, Gabriel LazcanoGómez2, Jesús Jiménez-Arroyo2, Iqbal
Ike Ahmed3, Mauricio Turati Acosta2
1
Independent
Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en
México
3 University of Toronto
2
Purpose/Relevance
Evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations of the water
drinking test (WDT) and Borrone test (BT) in patients with
primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) compared to the 24 hour
diurnal tension curve (DTC).
Methods
Patients with mild POAG without any glaucoma surgery were
washed out and enrolled prospectively in this study. One eye
was randomly selected for inclusion. Each eye underwent a 24
hour DTC, the water drinking test (WDT), and the Borrone
test (BT). Goldmann tonometry in upright position during
daytime, and Perkins tonometry in supine position overnight
was used to measure IOP for the 24 hour DTC. Positive test was
defined as an increase of 4mmHg and/or a 30% increase in IOP
from baseline. The degree of IOP fluctuation for each test was
compared and correlated.
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
219
Results
Thirty eyes of 30 patients were included. The average (± SD) IOP
fluctuation was 4.05 ± 1.57 mmHg in the 24 hour DTC, 3.55
± 1.5 mmHg for the WDT, and 2.55 ± 2.83 mmHg for the BT.
The difference in IOP fluctuation between the DTC and BT was
significant (p=0.025), but not so between the DTC and WDT.
The DTC was found to be positive in 17 eyes (57%), while WDT
was positive in 17 eyes (57%) and BT was positive in 11 eyes
(37%). The correlations between WDT and DTC, and BT and
DTC were less than 50% respectively.
Discussion
Diurnal IOP fluctuations are associated with diagnosis and
progression in glaucoma patients. The 24 hour DTC is
considered the gold standard for IOP fluctuation assessment,
however it is tedious and difficult to perform in an ambulatory
setting. Alternatives include the water drinking test and the
Borrone test. In this study, we did not find a correlation between
WDT or BT with DTC.
Conclusion
The Borrone test and the water drinking test had poor
correlation with 24 hour diurnal IOP fluctuation. References
1. Borrone R. A new strategy for diurnal intraocular pressure curve.
Eur J Ophthalmol 2012 Jul 9;22(6):964-971.
2. Hatanaka M et al. Reproducibility of intraocular pressure peak
and fluctuation of the water drinking test. Clin Experiment
Ophthalmol. 203;41(4):355-9.
3. Asrani S, et al. Large diurnal fluctuations in intraocular pressure are
an independent tisk factor in patients with glaucoma. J Glaucoma
2000;9(2):134-42.
220
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
106 Family History(ies) of Glaucoma
PLUMMER1,
Eng1,
ANDREW
David
David Seamont1, Karanjit Kooner1,
Beverley Huet1, Xilong Li1
1
University of Texas Southwestern
Purpose/Relevance
To determine the prevalence of family
histories of glaucoma and other diseases
in patients with primary open angle
glaucoma (POAG) and to evaluate
overall influence of positive family history of glaucoma in this
cohort.
Methods
In an IRB-approved cross-sectional study, patients with POAG
were interviewed at a university-based clinic, a county hospital
and a VA hospital. The following data were collected: family
history (FHx) of glaucoma, cup/disc (C/D) ratio, intraocular
pressure (IOP), visual field defects, medications, refraction,
central corneal thickness (CCT), and average thickness of the
retinal nerve fiber layer (NFLA). FHx of other comorbidities
were grouped into several categories: cardiovascular,
Total +FHx Family History of: Patients POAG Asthma Breast Cancer Cardiomyopathies Cataract CHF Depression DM type 2 GERD Gynecological Tumors HTN Hypercholesterolemia Hypothyroidism Lung Cancer Macular Degeneration MI Myopia Osteoarthritis Prostate Cancer SLE Stroke Tumors of GI Valvular Heart Disease Table 1
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
hematology, oncology, renal, gastrointestinal, autoimmune,
metabolic, neurological, skin and psychiatric.
Results
Among 304 patients, 164 (53.9%) had FHx of glaucoma. Both
groups had a similar C/D ratio, CCT and NFLA. Significantly,
patients with FHx of glaucoma were diagnosed at a younger
age (54.09 vs. 59.37yrs. p=.001), and had higher rates of
laser surgery (62.92% vs. 37.08%, p=.05) as well as FHx of
type 2 diabetes (60% vs. 40% p=.03). Patients with FHx of
hypertension (HTN) had higher IOP than those without (16.00
vs. 15.00mmHg, p=.01). Among our most frequent FHx of
comorbidity (HTN, type-2 DM and breast cancer), females
predominated at rates of 60% or more. Our sample population
was 51.3% male.
Discussion
Higher rates of the above factors and younger age at diagnosis
among patients with FHx of glaucoma suggest a more severe
course of POAG. Correlation between FHx of glaucoma and
FHx of diabetes, as well as elevated IOP in patients with FHx
of HTN, may indicate an intricate association between these
diseases and the progression and severity of POAG.
164 3 48 7 17 11 1 92 1 7 96 7 4 6 % +FHx of % % POAG Female Male 100% 56.10% 43.90% 1.83% 33.33% 66.67% 29.27% 75.00% 25.00% 4.27% 85.71% 14.29% 10.37% 58.82% 41.18% 6.71% 72.73% 27.27% 0.61% 100% 0% 56.10% 61.96% 38.04% 0.61% 100% 0% 4.27% 71.43% 28.57% 58.54% 60.42% 39.58% 4.27% 100% 0% 2.44% 100% 0% 3.66% 66.67% 33.33% 4 17 6 5 7 1 15 16 2.44% 10.37% 3.66% 3.05% 4.27% 0.61% 9.15% 9.76% 100% 52.94% 33.33% 80.00% 28.57% 0% 53.33% 75.00% 0% 47.06% 66.67% 20.00% 71.43% 100% 46.67% 25.00% 5 3.05% 100% 0% Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Variable Age at Dx glaucoma ALT/SLT glaucoma Surgery C/D Ratio CCT IOP OCT Number of Glaucoma Meds VF Normal VF Mild VF Moderate VF Severe Astigmatism_EyeDx Cataract Hyperopia Myopia Macular Degeneration BMI Breast Cancer Shunt Trabeculotomy FHx Breast Cancer FHx Cataract FHx DM type 2 FHx HTN FHx Macular Degeneration FHx Myopia -­‐FHx +FHx Total Glaucoma Glaucoma Patients 59.37 ± 12.81 54.09 ± 14.99 139, 164 37.08% 62.92% 89 0.75 ± 0.19 0.75 ± 0.19 135, 162 539.65 ± 46.68 535.32 ± 45.86 115, 133 17.12 ± 5.48 16.38 ± 6.17 136, 163 68.43 ± 16.94 67.56 ± 20.01 81, 100 3 [0, 6] 2 [0, 5) 139, 164 42.86% 57.14% 28 43.82% 56.18% 89 52.94% 47.06% 51 43.69% 56.31% 103 44.74% 55.26% 38 49.46% 50.54% 93 35.71% 64.29% 14 42.86% 57.14% 98 31.25% 68.75% 16 28.33 ± 6.45 29.7 ± 6.67 126, 153 54.55% 45.45% 11 42.31% 57.69% 26 34.62% 65.38% 26 36% 64% 75 41.38% 58.62% 29 40% 60% 153 42.17% 57.83% 166 33% 67% 6 50% 50% 12 Table 2
Conclusion
Patients with FHx of glaucoma were diagnosed at an earlier age
and required more vigorous treatment. Females in this cohort
had a much higher frequency of other family histories, including
HTN, DM and Breast Cancer.
References
1. Barte, F.M., et al. Systemic illnesses in glaucoma: a possible link
between glaucoma and breast cancer? ARVO Meeting Abstracts,
2012. 53(6): p. 6386.
2. Paul A. Harris, Robert Taylor, Robert Thielke, Jonathon Payne,
Nathaniel Gonzalez, Jose G. Conde, Research electronic data
capture (REDCap) – A metadata-driven methodology and
workflow process for providing translational research informatics
support, J Biomed Inform. 2009 Apr; 42(2):377-81.
p Value 0.0012 0.0575 0.6965 0.4834 0.2781 0.758 0.0804 0.902 0.902 0.902 0.902 1 0.4537 0.5852 0.5379 0.3047 0.0838 0.7596 0.8375 0.3038 0.0611 0.6969 0.0383 0.1658 0.6909 0.777 221
222
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
107 Patient Attitudes Towards Novel Drug Delivery
for Treatment of Glaucoma
LISA COWAN1, Thuan Nguyen1,
Angela Turalba1
1
No photo was
submitted
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Purpose/Relevance
We investigated patients’ attitudes
towards different drug delivery methods
for the treatment of glaucoma.
Methods
We recruited 100 patients from Massachusetts Eye and
Ear Infirmary’s Glaucoma Clinic who were being treated
for glaucoma or being followed as glaucoma suspects.
Sociodemographic data and information regarding patients’
understanding of their disease, self-reported adherence, and
willingness to accept novel drug delivery methods (combination
eye drop, drug-eluting contact lens, subconjunctival insert, and
injectable implant) were assessed by a questionnaire. Clinical
data on patients’ diagnoses, current and prior treatment, and
stage of disease were assessed through a chart review.
Results
Of the 100 patients surveyed, 88 would accept a combination
eye drop, 31 a drug-eluting contact lens, 32 a subconjunctival
drug insert, and 24 an injectable drug implant. There was a
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
significant difference in acceptance of a contact lens between
self-identified Caucasians (40%) versus African Americans (5%),
(p=0.005). Patients currently on glaucoma medications were less
likely to accept a contact lens (25%) versus patients not using
drops (52%), (p=0.03). There was no significant difference in the
acceptance of drug delivery methods between men and women,
patients with advanced and less advanced glaucoma, and
patients who are working and those who are not.
Discussion
Understanding patients’ attitudes to glaucoma treatment and
their willingness to accept various drug delivery methods is
paramount in the clinical application of new technologies.
Evaluating demographic and disease burden pressures can help
guide development of novel drug delivery methods.
Conclusion
A combination drop is the most widely accepted drug delivery
method in our glaucoma patients. A significant proportion of
patients are willing to accept a drug-eluting contact lens and
subconjunctival insert for glaucoma treatment, suggesting that
these are reasonable options to explore in the development of
novel drug delivery for glaucoma.
Reference
1. Foo RCM, Lamoureux EL, Wong RCK, Ho S, Chiang PPC,
Rees G, Aung T, Wong TT. Acceptance, Attitudes, and Beliefs of
Singaporean Chinese Toward an Ocular Implant for Glaucoma
Drug Delivery. IOVS December 2012; 53: 8240-5.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
108 Effect of Lidocaine on the Cytotoxicity of
Mitomycin C
ABRAHAM PARK1, Valeriy Lyzogubov1,
Iqbal Ike Ahmed2, Nalini Bora1,
Richard Morshedi1
1
2
University of Arkansas Medical Sciences
University of Toronto
Purpose/Relevance
There has been recent interest in the
intraoperative application of mitomycin
C (MMC) during trabeculectomy
utilizing an intra-Tenon’s injection technique rather than sponge
application.1,2 However, it is currently unknown whether the
addition of lidocaine to the mitomycin solution augments or
diminishes its antiproliferative effect. The purpose of this study is
to evaluate whether the addition of lidocaine to a MMC solution
alters its in vitro cytotoxicity.
Methods
Cultured human conjunctival fibroblast cells were incubated
either with 0.1 mg/mL MMC, 1% lidocaine, or a mixture of 1%
lidocaine and MMC. Phosphate buffered solution (PBS) was
used as a control. Samples were taken at 2, 5, 10, 30, and 60
minutes, and an MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl
tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to determine cell viability.
Results
Taken across all time points, the PBS solution showed the lowest
cytotoxicity. MMC was more cytotoxic than PBS (p<0.001),
and both lidocaine and the lidocaine-MMC mixture were more
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
223
cytotoxic than MMC and PBS (respectively, p<0.01, p<0.001,
and p<0.001, p<0.001). There was no significant difference
in cytotoxicity between the lidocaine and lidocaine-MMC
solutions. The addition of lidocaine slightly lowered the pH of
the solutions (PBS=6.94, MMC=6.97, lidocaine-MMC=6.67,
lidocaine 6.32).
Discussion
The addition of 1% lidocaine without epinephrine to MMC
does not seem to diminish the in vitro cytotoxicity of MMC,
when measured using human conjunctival fibroblasts. In fact,
the addition of lidocaine appears to augment the cytotoxic effect,
which may be due to its well-documented intrinsic cytotoxic
activity. It is unknown whether the small pH differences seen in
this study impacted our findings, or whether larger differences in
pH would yield different results.
Conclusion
Based on this in vitro study, there should not be any decreased
efficacy of MMC with the addition of 1% lidocaine. More
studies are necessary to confirm this finding, including surgical
outcomes as well as various concentrations of lidocaine, both
with and without epinephrine.
References
1. Lee E, Doyle E, Jenkins C. Trabeculectomy surgery augmented
with intra-Tenon injection of mitomycin C. Acta Ophthalmol.
2008;86(8):866-70.
2. Lim MC, Paul T, Tong MG, et al. A comparison of trabeculectomy
surgery outcomes with mitomycin-C applied by intra-Tenon
injection versus sponge method. Paper presented at: The 23rd
Annual AGS Meeting; March 2, 2013; San Francisco, CA.
224
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
109 Automated Reminders and Technology Access
in Glaucoma Patients
DEREK MAI1, Paul Houghtaling1,
Travis Frazier1
1
Madigan Army Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
Adherence to treatment regimens is
a commonly encountered problem in
medicine. Multiple studies have shown
that patient compliance is typically
less than 70% in chronic diseases
(hypertension, diabetes). As glaucoma is both a chronic disease
and medical management is the mainstay of therapy, patient
compliance is an important factor in this disease. Many risk
factors for low patient compliance have been identified however;
the most commonly stated reason is patient forgetfulness.
Information technology, especially internet use and cell phones,
are increasingly being used by the general population. With this
growth, potential means of increasing patient compliance include
further patient education as well as automated reminders.
Methods
A questionnaire was given to patients seen at the Madigan Army
Medical Center Glaucoma clinic.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
46% would decline the service. Older patients were more likely
to decline the service (60% of patients older than 70 vs 21% ages
18-49).The most popular way to receive the reminders was via a
call to patient’s home phone with 34%of respondents preferring
this option and older patients more likely than younger to prefer
this option (45% of patients older than 70 vs 13% ages 18-49).
Younger patients were more likely to prefer a text to their cell
phone (75% of patients 18-49 vs 2% older than 70).
Discussion
As with other chronic medical diseases, compliance to medical
therapy is problematic in the treatment of glaucoma. Among
the most common reasons reported by patients for medication
non-compliance is forgetfulness. Boland et al reported improved
patient compliance from 54 to 73% in patients receiving
automated reminders to take once daily glaucoma medications1.
Our data shows that 41% of glaucoma patients completing our
survey would be interested in receiving automated reminders
to take their glaucoma medications, with the majority of
these patients reporting that such a service would be helpful.
Interestingly, younger patients were more likely to indicate
interest in such a service. Thus, as the glaucoma patient
population ages, the use of information technology has the
potential to play a significant role in improving glaucoma
medication compliance.
Conclusion
Results
182 surveys were completed. In regards to technology, 82% of
patients owned a cell phone and 42% owned a smart phone.
73% had access to the internet, and 50% used it daily. 66% of
patients used the internet to research medical information and
53% used it to learn about glaucoma. Most patients (79%)
found what they were looking for and most (81%) trusted the
information. Men were more likely to find what they were
looking for (93% vs. 63%) and were more trusting of the
information they found (94% vs. 64%). In regards to receiving
automated reminders, 41% would find it helpful all the time and
Glaucoma patients are using technology and using it to learn
about their disease. Automated reminders are a potential
means to increase patient compliance and can be tailored to the
patients’ preference.
Reference
1. Boland MV, Chang DS, Frazier TC, Plyler R, Jefferys JL, Friedman
DS. Automated Telecommunication-Based Reminders and
Adherence with Once-Daily Glaucoma Medication Dosing: The
Automated Dosing Reminder Study. JAMA Ophthalmology.
2014;132(7):845-850.
Figure 2
Figure 1
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
110 Laser Trabeculoplasty Practice Patterns in
Relation to Glaucoma Medication Adherence
RAO1,
Woolson2,
VEENA
Sandra
Ben
Whigham1, Cynthia Coffman2, Kelly
Muir1,2
1
2
Duke Eye Center
Durham VA Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
Laser trabeculoplasty (LT) may be a
useful treatment option in glaucoma
patients with poor medication
adherence. Here we investigate adherence in patients receiving
LT compared to those receiving medications alone to examine
if we are effectively utilizing LT in this setting. As some may
have concerns of worsening adherence post-LT, we also studied
adherence patterns following LT.
Methods
In this case control study, all patients with glaucoma on
medications undergoing LT at Durham VA Medical Center
between 1/1/05 and 1/1/11 were identified. Patients were
included if they required medication at least 6 months prior to
LT and filled medications at the VA pharmacy at least 3 times
pre-and post-LT. Controls without LT history were matched
on age and glaucoma severity. Medication possession ratio
(MPR=days of medication supplied/days of medication needed)
for each medication prescribed was calculated as a marker of
adherence1 for each subject at least 6 months pre- and post-LT
(for controls, pre- and post-clinic visit closest to their matched
subject’s LT). Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2.
225
Results
A total of 190 patients (95 subjects, 95 controls) were included.
Mean age was 65.0±11.1 years for subjects and 64.6±9.5 for
controls (p=0.84); 98% of subjects and 96% of controls were
male. There was no significant difference in age, glaucoma
severity, clinician note of non-adherence, or other demographics
between subjects and controls. Mean MPR pre-LT did not
differ between subjects and controls [MPR=1.04±0.6 vs
1.03±0.6,p=0.80], including when MPR was capped at 1 (no
credit for oversupply) [MPR=0.81±0.27 vs 0.83±0.32,p=0.53].
Subjects were on significantly more medications than controls
(2.2±0.8 vs 1.6±0.8,p<0.0001) prior to LT. Following LT, mean
MPR was not significantly changed (post-LT MPR=1.14±0.8 vs
pre-LT MPR=1.04±0.6,p=0.20).
Discussion
Patients undergoing LT have a greater medication burden than
those receiving medications alone; otherwise, they do not appear
to differ in clinician-perceived non-adherence or MPR. MPR
appeared adequate prior to LT and remained stable following
treatment.
Conclusion
LT may be underutilized in patients with poor medication
adherence. In the future, we may benefit from better using
adherence patterns to guide LT treatment, especially as
medication adherence does not appear to decrease following LT.
Reference
1. Friedman, DS et al. “Using pharmacy claims data to study
adherence to glaucoma medications:methodology and findings of
the Glaucoma Adherence and Persistency Study (GAPS).” IOVS
48(2007):5052-5057.
226
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
111 Anesthetic Device Reduces Pain Perception for
Laser Iridotomy
ELMASEH1,2,
Song1,
SHENODA
Julia
Trisa Palmares1, Mike Song2, Alice
Song2
1
Southern California Eye Physicians &
Surgeons
2 Center for Oculofacial & Orbital Surgery
Purpose/Relevance
Anesthetics and distractors have been
utilized, includling ethyl chloride,
lidocaine gel, ear pulling, coughing during the injection,
and massaging to lessen the discomfort or the perception of
discomfort. However, there are limitations including potential
toxicity, cost, and patient movement. There is a new device,
the Vibration Anesthetic Device (VAD, Blaine Labs),1 which
works on the Gate theory to reduce the transmission of noxious
stimuli by stimulating the large nerve fibers. Inhibitory cells are
stimulated simultaneously so that the gates for pain are closed,
and the transmission of pain to the thalamus is decreased.
According to the gate control theory of pain, A-β nerve fibers,
which transmit information from vibration receptors (Pacinian
corpuscles and Meissner corpuscles) and touch receptors in the
skin, stimulate inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord that in
turn act to reduce the amount of pain signal transmitted by A-δ
and C fibers from the skin to second-order neurons that cross
the midline of the spinal cord and then ascend to the brain. The
purpose of this study was to determine whether the VAD can
help reduce pain associated with laser iridotomy.
Methods
Prospective study with survey of 14 patients undergoing laser
iridotomies who received the VAD. 8 patients received VAD
in the periorbital region. 6 of the patients received VAD on a
remote region of their body (arm or shoulder).
Results
Of the 8 patients who received VAD in the periorbital region,
7 reported increased discomfort in eye receiving the VAD. 1
patient reported decreased discomfort in the receiving VAD.
Of the 6 patients receiving VAD on the extremity, 4 reported
decreased pain sensation when receiving VAD, while 2 reported
increased pain with VAD application.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Discussion
Pain associated with laser iridotomy has not previously been
discussed or addressed. Historically, VAD has not been
shown to be efficacious in reducing pain in infants receiving
venipuncture.2 However, it was found to be helpful in reducing
pain associated with venipuncture in children 4-18 years of
age.3 The VAD was not efficacious in reducing pain during
corticosteroid injection for trigger finger.4 It has been proven
useful in decreasing pain during dermatologic procedures/
injection5 and oculoplastic procedures.6 Since our patients
reported increased pain awareness while receiving VAD in the
periorbital region, yet decreased pain while receiving VAD in the
extremity, the location of the VAD may be a factor. Conclusion
The VAD, when applied on the patient’s extremity, is a safe
and effective method in reducing discomfort and perceived pain
during laser iridotomy. Further studies are needed to determine
how useful this device is for future glaucoma procedures. References
1. Fayers T1, Morris DS, Dolman PJ. Vibration-assisted anesthesia in
eyelid surgery. Ophthalmology. 2010 Jul;117(7):1453-7.
2. Secil A1, Fatih C, Gokhan A, Alpaslan GF, Gonul SR. Efficacy
of vibration on venipuncture pain scores in a pediatric emergency
department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014 Oct;30(10):686-8. 3. Whelan HM, Kunselman AR, Thomas NJ, Moore J, Tamburro
RF. The impact of a locally applied vibrating device on
outpatient venipuncture in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2014
Oct;53(12):1189-95. 4. Park KW1, Boyer MI1, Calfee RP1, Goldfarb CA1, Osei DA2. The
Efficacy of 95-Hz Topical Vibration in Pain Reduction for Trigger
Finger Injection: A Placebo-Controlled, Prospective, Randomized
Trial. J Hand Surg Am. 2014 Sep 10. 5. Smith KC, Comite SL, Balasubramanian S, Carver A,Liu JF.
Vibration anesthesia: A noninvasive method of reducing discomfort
prior to dermatologic procedures. Dermatology Online Journal 10
(2): 1.
6. Elmaseh S, Siu E, Song M, Palmares T, Song J, Song A. Anesthetic
Device Reduces Pain Perception for Subcutaneous injections and
Ophthalmologic Lasers. ASOPRS Poster. October 16, 2014.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
112 Variation in Number of Doses, Bottle Volume,
and Calculated Yearly Cost of Generic and
Branded Latanoprost
JOANNA QUEEN1, David Lee1, Robert
Feldman1
1
The University of Texas Medical School
at Houston, Robert Cizik Eye Clinic
Purpose/Relevance
Discrepancies in doses per bottle and
bottle fill volume of topical glaucoma
medications has been a frequently
debated issue. Such variations impact
prescriber habits and cost to patients.1 The purpose of this study
is to evaluate such discrepancies among branded and generic
formulations of latanoprost, a popular and commonly prescribed
medication with new-to-the-market generic availabilities. Methods
Four regionally (Southeast US) available latanoprost
formulations, branded Xalatan (Pfizer, New York, NY) and
three generic latanoprost formulations (Akorn, Lake Forest, IL;
Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY; and Sandoz, Princeton, NJ)
were measured. Number of drops per bottle and actual bottle
fill volume were measured from 10 bottles per manufacturer
using a standard laboratory graduated cylinder and previously
described collection techniques.2 All bottles were marketed as
2.5 mL volume. The annual cost (based on average wholesale
price), days use per bottle, drops per milliliter. and number of
bottles used per year were calculated. All calculations were based
on the assumption of bilateral, once daily dosing. Data were
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
227
summarized using mean, standard deviation, minimum, and
maximum for each drug as well as compared among drugs using
one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Duncan multiple
comparisons. Results
Please refer to Table 1. AWP=average wholesale price. Within
data sets (columns), values denoted by the same number of
asterisks are not significantly different from each other using
Duncan multiple comparisons, and values denoted by different
numbers of asterisks (i.e. * vs. ** vs. ***) are significantly
different from each other using Duncan multiple comparisons. Discussion
Significant differences exist among branded and generic
formulations of latanoprost in all variables tested, including total
volume, drops/doses per bottle and annual cost. Conclusion
Annual cost and time to refill, factors important to patients
in regards to medication use, vary significantly depending on
manufacturer of latanoprost. Practitioners can better advise
patients being aware of these differences.
References
1. Fiscella RG, Green A, Patuszynski DH, Wilensky J. “Medical
therapy cost considerations for glaucoma.” American Journal of
Ophthalmology. 2003 Jul;136(1):18-25.
2. Fiscella RG, Wilensky JT, Chiang TH, Walt JG. “Efficiency of
instillation methods of prostaglandin products.” Journal of Ocular
Pharmacologic Therapy. 22 (2006), pp. 477–482.
228
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
113 Effect of Switching from Latanoprost to
Bimatoprost in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Patients Who Experienced a Hypotensive Effect
Reduction During Treatment C. GUSTAVO DE MORAES1, Remo
Susanna Jr2, Renato Germano2,
Carolina Susanna2, Milena Chibana2
1
2
Columbia University Medical Center
University of Sao Paulo
Purpose/Relevance
To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP)
variations after switching from 0.005%
latanoprost to 0.01% bimatoprost in
open-angle glaucoma patients who experienced a reduction of
the hypotensive effect during treatment.
Methods
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
mmHg (0.73) during WDT3 (p <0.0001, repeated- measures
ANOVA). Comparing WDT1 vs. WDT2, the mean peak IOP
difference was 5.5 mmHg (p<0.0001); for WDT1 vs. WDT3, the
difference was 0.5 mmHg (p=0.3127); for WDT2 vs. WDT3,
the mean difference was -5.0 mmHg (p<0.0001). The mean IOP
at each time point during the WDT sessions was significantly
different between WDT1 and WDT2 and between WDT2 and
WDT3.
Discussion
Many authors consider peak IOP the most important pressure
parameter predictive of glaucoma progression.1-3 Our study
shows that glaucoma patients on latanoprost who experienced
loss of the IOP lowering effect may benefit from switching
to bimatoprost. The peak IOP reduction was on average 5.0
mmHg, corresponding to a mean 23% reduction. Conclusion
This alternative can potentially postpone more costly or invasive
treatment options.
Single center, retrospective, interventional cohort study. We
included 41 patients on latanoprost who showed a peak IOP
increase of at least of 15% (assesed during the Water Drinking
Test, WDT2) relative to the peak IOP measured during the
previous WDT (WDT1). In these patients, treatment was
switched to 0.01% bimatoprost. A third WDT (WDT3)
was performed two to four weeks thereafter. Main outcome
measures: Baseline, peak, and IOP measurements at each time
point (15, 30, and 45 minutes) during all three WDT sessions
(WDT1, WDT2 and WDT3).
1. Susanna R Jr, Vessani RM, Sakata L, Zacarias LC, Hatanaka
M. The relation between intraocular pressure peak in the water
drinking test and visual field progression in glaucoma. Br J
Ophthalmol 2005;89(10):1298-1301.
Results
3. Konstas AG, Quaranta L, Mikropoulos DG, et al. Peak intraocular
pressure and glaucomatous progression in primary open-angle
glaucoma. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2012;28(1):26-32. Mean peak IOP was 15.6 mmHg (standard error (SE), 0.73)
during WDT1; 21.1 mmHg (0.73) during WDT2; and 16.1
References
2. De Moraes CG, Juthani VJ, Liebmann JM, et al. Risk factors for
visual field progression in treated glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol
2011;129(5):562-568.
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
114 Do Males Have More Severe Glaucoma?
SEAMONT1,
Eng1,
DAVID
David
Andrew Plummer1, Xilong Li1, Beverley
Adams-Huet1, Karanjit Kooner1
1
University of Texas Southwestern
Medical
Purpose/Relevance
To understand the role of gender in the
development and progression of primary
open angle glaucoma (POAG) by
contrasting the severity of glaucoma, health differences and risk
factors in male and female patients with POAG.
Methods
In an IRB approved cross-sectional study, 304 patients with
POAG were interviewed across 3 hospitals (a county hospital,
university based clinic, and VA hospital). Detailed family and
medical histories were recorded from patients through a review
of systems interview and verification from patient charts.
Markers of the severity of glaucoma, such as family history of
glaucoma, myopia, visual field (VF) defects, nerve fiber layer
thickness, central corneal thickness (NFLA), C/D ratio, IOP,
number of medications, and glaucoma surgeries were recorded.
These markers, as well as patient comorbidities, were stratified
by gender and compared using Fisher Exact test for categorical
variables, analysis of variance for Gaussian distributions, and
Kruskal-Wallis test for non-Gaussian continuous variables.
Results
There were 148 females and 156 males. Men had more VF
damage of 1.99 vs 1.68 (p=0.0168) based on a 0-3 severity scale,
higher C/D ratio of 0.77 vs 0 .73 (p=0.0373) and needed more
glaucoma medications (2.72 vs 2.11, p=<0.0001) than women
229
respectively. No significant difference was found for CCT or
IOP. 55.41% of women and only 39.1% of men had a first
degree relative with POAG (p=.0057). Women were more likely
to have immunological disease (51.35% vs 28.21%; p= <0.001)
and disease of the GI system (36.49% compared to 23.08%; p=
0.012).
Discussion
The severity of VF defects in male patients points to a more
severe disease course while the increased medications point to an
increased difficulty in management of the disease. Family history
of POAG was more associated with female patients than males.
Women also seemed to carry higher burden of immunological
and GI diseases, a finding that requires further exploration.
With larger sample sizes and a control group, specific diseases
can potentially be isolated as gender-specific co-morbidities in
POAG. Conclusion
Our study suggests that men develop a more severe form of
glaucoma. In addition, it stresses that we need to consider both
ocular and systemic associations in developing the picture of
an “at-risk” patient, with implications both in gender-specific
treatment plans and patient screening.
References
1. Dielemans I, Vingerling J.R., Wolfs R.C.W, Hofman A, Grobbee
D.E., de Jong P. The Prevalence of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma
in a Population-based Study in the Netherlands. Ophthalmology.
1994 Nov; 101(11):1851-5.
2. Vajaranant TS, Nayak S, Wilensky JT, Joslin CE. Gender
and glaucoma: what we know and what we need to know.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010 Mar; 21(2):91-9. doi: 10.1097/
ICU.0b013e3283360b7e.
230
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
115 Diplopia Associated with Glaucoma Drainage
Devices
PHILIP SUN1, Jonathan Holmes1,
David Leske1, Cheryl Khanna1
1
Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN
Purpose/Relevance
lthough diplopia has been reported
A
following Glaucoma Drainage Device
(GDD) surgery1, there are minimal data
on the specific causes, severity, and
effect on health-related quality of life
(HRQoL).
Methods
In this pilot study, we prospectively evaluated diplopia in 20
patients undergoing GDD surgery (twelve Baerveldt 350mm2,
two Baerveldt 250mm2, and seven Ahmed FP7), compared
with 17 patients who underwent trabeculectomy. Patients
completed three established questionnaires – NEI VFQ-25,
Adult Strabismus-20(AS-20), and Diplopia Questionnaire(DQ),
at least one month following surgery. We defined diplopia as
“Sometimes”, “Often”, or “Always” in distance straight ahead
and/or reading positions on DQ and determined underlying
reasons for diplopia. We also compared HRQoL concerns based
on AS-20 and VFQ-25 subscale scores between diplopic and
non-diplopic patients.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
excyclotropia. In all cases of post-GDD diplopia, strabismus and/
or diplopia were noted pre-GDD placement except possibly for
one case of sensory exotropia. All post-trabeculectomy diplopia
cases were strabismus-related (esotropia and uncharacterized).
AS-20 reading function scores were lower in diplopic patients
(52.7 ± 31.8 vs. 68.2 ± 26.1). AS-20 general function scores were
also worse in diplopic patients (55.7 ± 26.3 vs. 78.2 ± 20.4). In
contrast, VFQ-25 reading & general function subscale scores
were similar.
Discussion
DQ allows standardized collection of diplopia symptom data
and reveals that about 1/4 of patients experience diplopia
following GDD surgery. Nevertheless, all patients with diplopia
post GDD had strabismus and/or diplopia prior to GDD
placement. Diplopia following GDD or trabeculectomy surgery
negatively affects HRQoL, particularly reading function and
general function, and the AS-20 appears more sensitive than the
VFQ-25 in detecting poor HRQoL.
Conclusion
Diplopia following GDD surgery may be more common than
previously appreciated and affects HRQoL. Diplopia is primarily
associated with strabismus, but strabismus and/or diplopia are
often pre-existing and may not be related to GDD placement.
Patients undergoing GDD surgery should have a standardized
assessment of diplopia and strabismus both before and after
surgery.
Results
Reference
5 of 20(25%) post-GDD patients reported diplopia, compared
with 2 of 17(11.8%) in the trabeculectomy group. All cases
of post-GDD diplopia were associated with strabismus; two
patients with exotropia, one with hypertropia, and one with
1. Gedde SJ et al., Tube Versus Trabeculectomy Study Group. Threeyear follow-up of the tube versus trabeculectomy study. Am J
Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov;148(5) 670-84.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
116 Comparison of Microbial Contamination
Rates Between 2.5ml and 5.0ml Dispensers of
Travoprost 0.004% with Sofzia
RENEE PETRIE1, Pierre Blondeau1,
Mohammad Hamid2, Olivier Lasnier3
1
Université de Sherbrooke
2
Université de Montréal
3
Hopital Trois-Rivieres
Purpose/Relevance
Repeated use of multi-dose containers of
topical ophthalmic products are subject
to contamination by a variety of microorganisms and may carry
a risk of ocular infectious complications. We aimed to determine
the rate of bacterial and fungal contamination of bottles of
Travoprost Z 0.0004% with Sofzia based on duration of use of
the medication.
Methods
Ffty-six asymptomatic glaucoma patients participated in this
prospective single-blinded in-use pharmacological safety trial.
After a new diagnosis of glaucoma, patients were randomly given
a 2.5ml or 5.0ml dispenser of Travoprost 0.0004% with Sofzia.
Patients assigned to the 2.5ml or 5.0ml group were asked to
submit their topical drops after 3 or 6 weeks of use, respectively.
Preparations were sent to the microbiology laboratory of
Université de Sherbrooke for culture of remaining drops using
blood agar, chocolate agar, Brucella agar, Sabouraud agar and
Thioglycolate broth.
Results
Fifty-four dispensers of glaucoma medication were collected;
28/28 (100%) from the 2.5ml group and 26/28 (92.9%) from
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
231
the 5.0 ml group. Bacteria were recovered from seven (13.0%)
preparations. Four bottles (57.1%) were contaminated by Gram
positive microorganisms and three bottles (42.9%) by Gram
negative bacteria. Contamination rate was highest in the 5.0ml
group (4/24, 16.7%) compared with the 2.5ml group (3/28,
10.7%). However, this difference was not statistically significant
(p=0.447). No infectious complications were detected in either
group.
Discussion
Clinical studies have demonstrated that although glaucoma
drops frequently become contaminated, their typical chronic
use does not represent a significant infectious risk. Our results
support this finding because no infectious complication was
detected even if 7 bottles were contaminated. We did not find
that the contamination was related to the duration of use or
format of dispenser.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that both formulations of Travaprost 0.004%
with Sofzia had similar contamination and are found safe to use
in terms of infectious complications. With proper use, patients
can utilize the same dispenser at least 6 weeks before replacing
it, which constitute a financial advantage over the one month
recommended use.
References
1. Porges Y, Rothkoff L, Glick J, Cohen S. Sterility of glaucoma
medications among chronic users in the community. Journal
of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal
of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
2004;20(2):123-8.
2. Geyer O, Bottone EJ, Podos SM, Schumer RA, Asbell PA.
Microbial contamination of medications used to treat glaucoma.
The British journal of ophthalmology. 1995;79(4):376-9.
232
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
117 The Best Glaucoma Quiz? A Qualitative
and Quantitative Evaluation of Glaucoma
Knowledge Assessments
JULLIA ROSDAHL1, Kelly Muir1
1
Duke Eye Center
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
quizzes from the literature covered primarily causes of glaucoma,
vision loss, eye drops (Gray) and systemic disease (Hoevenaars).
Provider survey: Overall, the NEHEP quiz was ranked best for
use in clinical practice, ranked first by 38% of the respondents.
Ranked second overall, the Gray quiz was ranked first by 34%
and last by 34% of respondents.
Purpose/Relevance
Discussion
To determine which glaucoma quiz
provides the best information about a
glaucoma patient’s knowledge, to the
clinician in a clinical practice setting.
Glaucoma specialists ranked the NEHEP quiz as most useful, due
to it being clear, easy-to-understand, and covering “the basics”,
although a deficiency of this quiz was that knowledge about
treatment was not covered. The short-answer-format of the
Gray quiz garnered both strong positive and negative opinion,
with a third of respondents ranking it first and another third
ranking it last. It covered important content, and the open-ended
short-answer-format could better identify gaps in knowledge;
however, those same attributes may make this test less appealing
to patients and more time-consuming in a busy clinical setting.
Methods
Glaucoma knowledge quizzes were identified from the literature
(Gray1 and Hoevenaars2) and national eye education programs
(National Eye Health Education Program, NEHEP, and Prevent
Blindness America, PBA). The qualitative analysis included
categorization of questions by topic. For the quantitative
analysis, the quizzes were reviewed, rated, and ranked by
members of the American Glaucoma Society, using an on-line
survey. Descriptive statistics were done: percentages and means
with standard deviations. Provider comments from the survey
were analyzed qualitatively using themes and representative
quotations.
Results
Qualitative analysis: All four quizzes covered content important
for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, with some
differences between the quizzes. The NEHEP and PBA quizzes
covered primarily diagnosis, screening, and risk factors; the
Conclusion
The NEHEP quiz appears to be most useful for assessing baseline
general glaucoma knowledge in the setting of a busy clinical
practice. The Gray quiz appears to be more useful as part of a
comprehensive education program, perhaps in combination with
an ophthalmic educator.
References
1. Gray TA, Fenerty C, Harper R, et al. Eye (Lond). Dec
2010;24(12):1777-1786.
2. Hoevenaars JG, Schouten JS, van den Borne B, et al. Acta
Ophthalmol. Scand. Feb 2006;84(1):84-91.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
118 Resident Perspectives on Microinvasive
Glaucoma Surgeries (MIGS)
RYAN BURTON1, Lindsay Rhodes2
1
University of Alabama-Birmingham
Department of Ophthalmology
2 University of Alabama at Birmingham
Purpose/Relevance
Microinvasive glaucoma surgeries
(MIGS) are a category of glaucoma
surgeries intended to provide surgical
treatment of open-angle glaucoma
while minimizing the risk of surgical complications inherent
to traditional glaucoma surgeries1. MIGS have been shown
to reduce intraocular pressure while decreasing dependence
on glaucoma medications, thus increasing interest in their use
amongst ophthalmologists2. The purpose of our survey was to
understand more about MIGS usage by ophthalmology residents
in training as well as residents’ opinions about MIGS.
Methods
A brief, internet-based survey was sent to United States (US)
ophthalmology residency program directors to be distributed
to current residents in October 2014. The survey responses are
reported here.
Results
Sixty-four responses were collected, of which 77% are postgraduate year three or four residents. Half of the residents rated
their exposure to glaucoma surgery as “adequate,” and most
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
233
residents had performed less than fifteen trabeculectomies or
glaucoma drainage implant procedures thus far in their training.
Opinions on MIGS were mixed with 75% finding them to have
some value, but nearly a quarter of respondents were unsure.
A majority reported that MIGS were offered at the hospitals or
surgery centers at which they operate, with the iStent being most
commonly available. Less than half of the residents reported the
opportunity to participate in MIGS as an assistant or primary
surgeon. Of those that will include glaucoma surgery in their
future practice, over 75% plan to offer MIGS. Overall, nearly
three quarters of residents surveyed felt that it was important
to learn MIGS while in residency in order to be competitive/
marketable upon the completion of residency.
Discussion
MIGS are a growing category of surgery in ophthalmology with
interest amongst current US ophthalmology residents. Despite
this interest, MIGS use in residency programs is low.
Conclusion
Efforts to expand the role of MIGS in resident education are
needed to better prepare residents for their future practices.
References
1. Francis BA, Singh K, Lin SC, et al. Novel glaucoma procedures:
a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Ophthalmology. 2011;118(7):1466–1480.
2. Saheb H, Ahmed II. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery: current
perspectives and future directions. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012
Mar;23(2):96-104.
234
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
119 Timeline of Glaucoma
ENG1,
Kooner1,
DAVID
Karanjit
Andrew Plummer1, David Seamont1,
Xilong Li1, Beverley Huet1
1
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Purpose/Relevance
To establish a timeline of risk factors
and comorbidities in patients with
primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
The average age at diagnosis for each disease were as follows:
CVD, 52.78±15.2; RID, 52.92±18.4; EMD, 55.49±13.32;
POAG, 56.51±14.26; ONC, 62.50±12.36; BC, 63.60±9.65.
Discussion
In this study, CVD, EMD, and RID were diagnosed before
POAG, and ONC and BC were diagnosed after POAG.
Although the standard deviations for age at diagnosis were high,
the general sequence of disease presentation appeared as listed
previously. Because this was a descriptive study, no controls were
recruited. Bias based on patient population cannot be ruled out.
Methods
Conclusion
In an IRB-approved cross-sectional study, patients with POAG
in at least one eye were interviewed. Patients with secondary
or congenital glaucoma were excluded. Patients were selected
from a university-based clinic, a county hospital, and a VA
hospital. Data were collected for the following variables: sex,
age, race, family history, date of POAG diagnosis, comorbidities,
severity of comorbidities, and date of comorbidity diagnosis.
A descriptive analysis was done to determine the mean age at
diagnosis and percent of patients with each comorbidity.
This timeline provides a snapshot of the global associations of
POAG and encourages us to be aware of the potential role of
comorbidities in the progression of POAG. A longitudinal study
may help further elucidate the sequence of events before and
after a diagnosis of POAG.
Results
Of the 304 patients interviewed, 51.4% had a family history of
POAG, 32.7% had myopia, 81.2% had cardiovascular disease
(CVD), 39.6% had rheumatoid or immune disease (RID), 43.2%
had endocrine or metabolic disease (EMD), 23% had a history
of cancer (ONC), and 3.3% had a history of breast cancer (BC).
References
1. Katz J, Sommer A. Risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma.
American journal of preventive medicine. 1988;4(2):110-114.
2. Zhao D, Cho J, Kim MH, Guallar E. The association of blood
pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis.
American journal of ophthalmology. 2014;158(3):615-627 e619.
3. Zhou M, Wang W, Huang W, Zhang X. Diabetes mellitus as a
risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and metaanalysis. PloS one. 2014;9(8):e102972.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
120 Sutureless 360 Degree Cyclodialysis Cleft Repair
ANNA
1
2
JUNK1,2,
Sara
Grace2
University of Miami
Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital
Purpose/Relevance
The treatment of cyclodialysis cleft
and associated hypotony can be
challenging. Oven the cyclodialysis
may be occult. Small clefts may be
treated medically with laser cyclopexy.
Clefts encompassing more than 4 clock hours require surgical
intervention to achieve apposition of the sclera and the ciliary
body to close the cleft. Surgical techniques include direct or
indirect cyclopexy, anterior scleral buckling, vitrectomy with
endotamponade and more recently, suture fixated Cionni ring
placement.
Methods
A 54 year old male presented 9 days after blunt trauma left eye
with decreased vision (VA cc 20/50, IOP 10 mm Hg) and was
started on medical treatment with Prednisolone and Atropine.
The patient was lost to follow up and returned 3 months later
(VA counting fingers, IOP 2 mm Hg) with worsening hypotony
maculopathy due to 360 degree cyclodialysis cleft. The deep cleft
was not amenable to laser cyclopexy. Given the extent of the cleft
over 360 degrees placement of capsular tension ring to the ciliary
sulcus was considered. As preoperative lens calculations revealed
0.9 mm asymmetry in axial length and 0.3 mm asymmetry in
anterior chamber depth phacoemulsification and suture fixation
of the rings were avoided. To achieve complete closure of the
cleft two overlapping 13 mm capsular tension rings were placed
into the ciliary sulcus.
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
235
Results
Postoperatively the patient experienced gradual improvement of
visual acuity, resolution of hypotony maculopathy and slow rise
in IOP. Four months postoperatively best corrected visual acuity
was 20/40, IOP 21. Axial length is 23.02 mm compared to 22.44
preoperatively, anterior chamber depth asymmetry is 0.4 mm
compared to 0.3 mm preoperatively. On gonioscopy there is 360
degree angle recession.
Discussion
Cyclodialysis clefts are often difficult to visualize and challenging
to repair. Multiple procedures are often required to achieve
good visual acuity and resolution of hypotony. The placement
of a capsular tension ring in the ciliary sulcus offers a new, more
predictable and less traumatic approach. Typically, phakic
patients will have concomitant cataract surgery and subsequent
McCannel suture fixation of the capsular tension ring. The IOL
selection for a hypotonus eye with traumatic deepened anterior
chamber can be challenging especially as successful cleft repair
will result in reversion of hypotony and postoperative increase in
axial length.
Conclusion
This case demonstrates that capsular tension rings may be
safely placed to the ciliary sulcus in phakic patients to achieve
successful cyclodialysis cleft repair.
References
1. Aminlari A, Callahan CE. Medical, laser, and surgical management
of inadvertent cyclodialysis cleft with hypotony. Arch Ophthalmol.
2004 (3):399-404.
2. Agrawal P, Shah P. Long-term outcomes following the surgical
repair of traumatic cyclodialysis clefts. Eye (Lond). 2013 (12):134752.
3. Yuen NS, Hui SP, Woo DC. New method of surgical repair for
360-degree cyclodialysis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006 (1):13-7.
236
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
121 Patients’ Attitudes Towards Generic Versus
Brand-name Glaucoma Eye Drops
RACHELLE REBONG1, Jason
Bacharach2
1
2
California Pacific Medical Center
North Bay Eye Associates
Purpose/Relevance
A debate over generic glaucoma eye
drops’ efficacy and impact on patient
compliance has grown. This study
examines the patient’s perspective in
this debate and is the first to look at patients’ attitudes towards
generic glaucoma drops specifically. This information should
help providers identify potentially important barriers to patient
compliance. Methods
A questionnaire was distributed to adult patients using at least
one glaucoma eye drop and being seen in a private practice office
between April and June 2014. The questionnaire consisted of 16
questions looking at demographics, the use of glaucoma drops,
and patient knowledge and attitudes towards these drops. Results
57% of respondents used brand-name glaucoma drops, 9%
generic glaucoma drops, 22% both, and 12% did not know.
58% said they never missed a dose of their glaucoma drops,
40% said they sometimes missed a dose, and 2% said they
frequently missed a dose. The Chi-square test did not show a
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
statistically significant difference in compliance between patients
who used brand-name only eye drops and generics only eye
drops (χ2=0.34, df=1, N=67, p=0.56). When asked what is the
difference between generic and brand-name glaucoma drops,
67% said cost, 23% said effectiveness, 10% said packaging,
15% said no difference, and 28% did not know (multiple
answers allowed). 51% of respondents said they were willing
to pay more for brand-name glaucoma drops. Only 35% of
respondents correctly identified the FDA’s definition of a generic
medication.
Discussion
Patients do perceive a difference, mainly cost, between generic
and brand-name glaucoma drops. While patients endorse
a preference for brand-name drops, there is no statistically
significant difference in compliance between patients who
use generic drops and those who use brand-name. Finally,
patients appear to have an incomplete understanding of generic
medications.
Conclusion
This study is the first to look at patients’ attitudes towards
generic versus brand-name glaucoma eye drops. Although
patients state a preference for brand-name drops, the use of
generics does not appear to be associated with compliance.
Reference
1. Zore M, Harris A, Tobe LA, Siesky B, Januleviciene I, Behzadi
J, Amireskandari A, Egan P, Garff K, Wirostko B. Generic
medications in ophthalmology. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97:253–257.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
122 Do Bottle Cap Colors Adequately
Communicate the Identity of Topical
Ophthalmic Medications?
PRADEEP RAMULU1, Pujan Dave2,
Guadalupe Villarreal 2, Malik Kahook3,
David Friedman2
1
Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute
Johns Hopkins
3 University of Colorodo
2
Purpose/Relevance
Bottle color is a primary cue to help
patients and physicians communicate
about topical ophthalmic medications. However, it is unclear if
cap color facilitates proper patient physician communication,
particularly amongst individuals with glaucoma who might have
color vision deficiency.
Methods
Glaucoma patients provided descriptions of 11 distinct
medication bottle caps. Patient-produced color descriptors
were then presented to three physicians, and each was asked
to match the color descriptor to the medication they thought
the color descriptor was describing. The frequency of patientphysician agreement, occurring when all three physicians
correctly matched the color descriptor to the correct medication,
was calculated across the 11 medication bottles evaluated.
Multivariate regression models evaluated whether patientphysician agreement decreased with the extent of better-eye
visual field (VF) damage and/or the extent of color vision
deficiency as determined by Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) score
and the Lanthony D15 testing index.
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
237
Results
The 100 glaucoma patients studied had a mean age of 69 (11)
years, with a mean VF mean deviation of -4.7 (6.0) and -10.9 dB
in the better and worse-seeing eyes, respectively. A total of 102
unique color descriptors were used to describe the colors of the
11 tested medication bottle caps. Among individual patients, the
mean number of medications demonstrating patient-physician
agreement was 6.1/11 (55%), and agreement rates across
patients were noted to be less than 15% for 4 medications
(prednisolone acetate, betaxolol, brinzolamide/brimonidine,
and latanoprost). Lower HRR scores and higher D15 CCI (both
indicating worse color vision) were associated with greater
VF damage (p<0.001). Severity of better-eye VF damage and
extent of color vision deficiency were both associated with a
lower likelihood of patient-physician agreement in univariate
analyses (p<0.05 for all), while greater color vision loss was
the only significant predictor of patient-physician agreement
in multivariate models (Odds of agreement = 0.90 per 1 point
decrement in HRR score; p<0.001).
Discussion/Conclusion
Physician understanding of patient medication usage based solely
on bottle cap color is frequently incorrect. Healthcare providers
should be aware of potential errors based on communication
using bottle cap color alone to protect patients from both
confusion and harm.
238
Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
123 Video Screen Capture of Flicker Chronoscopy
and Other Ophthalmic Imaging
TASSEL1,
SARAH VAN
Demetriades1
1
Anna-Maria
Weill Cornell Medical College
Purpose/Relevance
Flicker chronoscopy superimposes
two optic nerve photographs allowing
the observer to “flicker” between
two images and observe change.1 The
technique is highly sensitive for detecting
glaucomatous optic nerve changes.2,3 Sharing ophthalmic
imaging, such as fundus photographs, has traditionally
been accomplished by exporting images and then printing,
transmitting by facsimile, or emailing the images. These methods
work only for static imaging, and in some cases, may result in a
significant loss of image quality. Inability to share high fidelity
dynamic imaging with ease may lead to diagnostic delays and
unnecessary retesting. We describe a simple technique for sharing
high fidelity HIPAA compliant videos of flicker chronoscopy.
Methods
Flicker images were created from serial optic nerve head
photographs obtained by a digital fundus camera (Topcon
TRC50EX Retinal Camera; Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)
and aligned using PerfectView software (Merge Healthcare,
Chicago, Illinois) as is customary during our clinical evaluation
of glaucoma patients. Software and web-based programs for
video screen capture of flicker images were trialed. Windows
compatible programs that enabled video export in .mp4 were
included. Programs were evaluated on ease of use.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Results
Multiple video screen capture programs met inclusion
criteria. Camtasia Studio (TechSmith, Okemos, Michigan)
and Screencast-O-Matic (Screencase-O-Matic Agent, Seattle,
Washington) enable creation of high fidelity videos of flicker
chronoscopy. Camtasia Studio must be purchased, while
Screencast-O-Matic is a free program that leaves a small logo
watermark on exported videos. Both programs are easy to learn
and generate videos cropped of identifying information.
Discussion
Video screen capture is an easy way to create videos of flicker
chronoscopy. Videos can be shared by email or text message
to seek real time opinions from colleagues that affect disease
management. Additionally, the ability to share dynamic imaging
may lead to enhanced case and conference presentations and thus
valuable learning opportunities for trainees. Future applications
include generating multi-slice video animations of neuroimaging
and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.
Conclusion
Video screen capture of flicker chronoscopy is an easy and high
fidelity way to share dynamic optic nerve head videos that may
contribute to glaucoma management.
References
1. Chee R-I, Silva FQ, Ehrlich JR, Radcliffe NM. Agreement of flicker
chronoscopy for structural glaucomatous progression detection
and factors associated with progression. Am J Ophthalmol.
2013;155(6):983–990.e1.
2. Cymbor M, Lear L, Mastrine M. Concordance of flicker
comparison versus side-by-side comparison in glaucoma.
Optometry. 2009;80(8):437–441.
3. Syed ZA, Radcliffe NM, De Moraes CG, et al. Automated
alternation flicker for the detection of optic disc haemorrhages.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90(7):645–650.
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
124 A Randomized Trial of Fixed-Dose Combination
Brinzolamide 1% / Brimonidine 0.2% as
Adjunctive Therapy to Travoprost 0.004%
ROBERT FELDMAN, GREGORY
KATZ1, Matthew McMenemy2,
Douglas Hubatsch3, Tony Realini4
1
St. Joseph Mercy Medical Center
Lone Star Eye Care, P.A.
3 Alcon Laboratories, Inc.
4 West Virginia University
2
Purpose/Relevance
Fixed-combination brinzolamide 1% / brimonidine 0.2%
(BBFC) is currently the only fixed-combination glaucoma
medication that does not contain a β-blocker.1 The purpose of
this study was to assess the additional IOP-lowering efficacy
provided by BBFC when used in combination with travoprost
0.004% (TRAV).
Methods
This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group
study was conducted at 32 US sites from October 2013 to April
2014 (NCT01937299). Patients with open-angle glaucoma
or ocular hypertension discontinued their prior glaucoma
medications and received TRAV for 30 days. After washout,
eligible patients were randomized to receive BBFC or vehicle 3
times daily in addition to once-daily TRAV for 6 weeks. The
primary efficacy endpoint was mean diurnal IOP (8 am, 10 am,
3 pm, and 5 pm average) at week 6; secondary endpoints were
mean and percent diurnal IOP change from baseline at week 6.
Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout the study. Poster Abstracts: Epidemiology and Clinical Studies
239
Results
Of 233 randomized patients, 229 were included in the intentto-treat data set (BBFC+TRAV, n=113; vehicle+TRAV, n=116).
Mean ± standard deviation patient age was 66.8±10.5 years;
most patients were female (59.4%), white (78.6%), and
diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma (72.1%). At week 6,
diurnal IOP (least squares mean ± standard error) was 17.6±0.4
mmHg vs 20.7±0.4 mmHg with BBFC+TRAV vs vehicle+TRAV
(P<0.0001), respectively. Mean and percent diurnal IOP
reduction from baseline at week 6 were significantly greater
with BBFC+TRAV vs vehicle+TRAV (–5.0±0.3 mmHg and
–21.9±1.2% vs –2.0±0.3 mmHg and –8.8±1.2%; P<0.0001).
At week 6, the IOP decrease from baseline during the day
ranged from –3.9 to –6.2 mmHg for BBFC+TRAV and from
–1.7 to –2.5 mmHg for vehicle+TRAV. The most frequent AE
was conjunctival hyperemia (BBFC+TRAV, n=16 [13.7%];
vehicle+TRAV, n=7 [6.0%]). The most common ocular adverse
drug reactions in both groups were hyperemia, blurred vision,
allergic reactions, and ocular discomfort. Discussion
Patients receiving BBFC+TRAV experienced significantly
lower IOP after 6 weeks compared with patients receiving
vehicle+TRAV and achieved significantly greater IOP reductions
from baseline. These results demonstrate that BBFC+TRAV is
effective and that IOP-lowering efficacy of BBFC is additive to
that of TRAV. There were no new or unexpected safety concerns
identified with the combined use of these agents.
Conclusion
Adding BBFC adjunctive to prostaglandin monotherapy is
effective in IOP reduction and is well tolerated. Reference
1. Nguyen QH. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2014;8:853-864.
new memberS
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
243
New Members
Spring 2014
Active
Manal H. Assaad, MD Priya Desai, MD, MBA Michael J. Lloyd, MD Karl S. Pappa, MD,
PharmD
Michael W. Dorey,
MD, FRCSC
Ann C. Fisher, MD
Brian C. Samuels, MD, PhD
Robert A. Flores, MD
Martin C. Seremet, MD Francisco L. Tellez, MD
Associate
Michael Belkin, MD
Tania Lamba, MD
244
New Members
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Provisional
Elisa Bala, MD, MSC
Nancy M. Buchser, MD Samantha J. Chai, MD John Y. Chen, MD
Nikola Ragusa, MD
Fall 2014
Active
Michael Banitt, MD
Maria Basile, MD
Davinder Singh Grover, MD, MPH
Sara Seacat O’Connell, MD
Benjamin J. Frankfort, MD, PhD
James Wen-Chiang
Hung, MD
Vikas Chopra, MD
Jeffrey Louis Goldberg, MD, PhD
Eric Leung, MD
Kalpana Kasala Jatla,
MD
James Donald Paauw, MD
Yvonne Ou, MD
Sai B. Gandham, MD
Denise Ann-Marie
John, MD, FRCSC
Shuchi Patel, MD
New Members
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
245
No photo was
submitted
Meredith Regina, MD, PhD
Christopher Shen, MD Kirk Alexander
Sturridge, MD
Yeu Wang, MD
Garrett Ranson Scott,
MD
Enitan Sogbesan, MD, FRCSC, FACS
Shalani SoodMendiratta, MD
Take Yee Tania Tai,
MD
Andrea Knellinger
Sawchyn, MD
MarkAnthony
Slabaugh, MD
Mark Soontornvachrin, MD
Robert Michael
Saltzmann, MD
Deepan Selvadurai, MD Dana J. Wallace, MD
Bibiana Jin Reiser, MD Angela Valera Turalba, MD
Davesh Kumar Varma,
BEng, MD, FRCSC
246
New Members
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Associate
Gianmarco Domenico Vizzeri, MD
Anna-Maria
Demetriades, MD, PhD
Provisional
Jonathan David
Gambrell, MD
Matthew Emanual, MD
Nicholas J. Frame, MD Feyzahan Uzun Ekici,
MD
Igor E. Estrovich, MD Nila Melina Cirineo,
MD
Anjum Cheema, MD
Joseph Juyo Chen, MD Kirstin Schmid
Biggerstaff, MD
Brian Hong Chen, MD Surbhi Bansal, MD
Elizabeth Petitfond
Aponte, MD
Juan AlmodovarMercado, MD
Winston Joseph Garris, MD
Deepta A. Ghate, MD
New Members
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Tara Golisch, MD
Evan Peter Lagouros,
MD
Mugen Liu, MD
Arindel Stefon Maharaj,
MD, PhD
Gregory Warren
Oldham, MD
Ian Franz Pitha, MD,
PhD
Thiripurasundari
Pugazhendhi, MD
Abhishek Nemani, MD Jeffrey Lusk, MD
Mehul Nagarsheth, MD
Meng Lu, MD
Vandana Minnal, MD Helen Lee Kornmann,
MD PhD
Alan Eliot Lowinger,
MD
O’Rese J. Knight, MD Crystal Hung, MD
Deborah Kim, MD
Eun Sara Huh, MD
Mona Kaleem, MD
Wanda Deborah Hu,
MD
Renu Jivrajka, MD
Shane Havens, MD
247
Alexander K. Nugent,
MD
Alena Reznik, MD
Shlomit Feit Sandler,
MD
248
New Members
Neha Sangal, MD
Michelle Sato, MD
Luis Enrique Vazquez, MD
Amy Duoxi Zhang, MD
Jeffrey Raymond
SooHoo, MD
Andrew John Tatham, FRCOphth, FEBO
Jessica Jer-Heng Wong, MD
Michael Jason Siegel,
MD
Ambika Sud Hoguet,
MD
Sonya Babar Shah, MD Arielle R. Spitze, MD
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Joanne C. Wen, MD
Fellow in Training
Mary Anne Ahluwalia, DO
Victoria Marie Addis,
MD
Evan Allan, MD
Ardalan Eddie
Aminlair, MD
Claudia Emerson
Bartolini, MD
New Members
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Lind Yu Bei, MD
Fred Bernabe Chu, MD Elizabeth Ann Dale,
MD
David Fleischman, MD Howard David Guan, MD
Ann H. Guy, MD
Christine Marchetti
Funke, MD
Pamela D’Souza-David, MD
Samantha S.
Dewundara, MD
Naama Hammel, MD Kevin M. Gamett, MD Huiyi Chen, MD, PhD
Jennifer Edith DeNiro, MD
Jessica Eva Chan, MD Tanya Fooks, MD
Anita Campbell, MD
Megan Chambers,
MD
Eric N. Brown, MD,
PhD
Garrick Chak, MD
Hari Bodhireddy, MD Nisha Chadha, MD
Daniel Isaac Bettis, MD 249
Anthony Greer, MD
David W. Hayes, DO
Lisa Heckler, MD,
FRCSC
250
New Members
Jeremy Chaoyen
Hwang, MD, PhD
Richard Moore, MD
Gaga Sawhney, MD
Jessica Munro
Schrieber, MD
Anjali B. Sheth, MD
Roma Patel, MD
Arsham Sheybani, MD Ken Lin, MD, PhD
Julia Kisin Polat, MD
Manjool Shah, MD
Andrew Wayne Lewis, MD
Amanda Elizabeth
Kiely, MD
Peng Lei, MD
Noureen Khan, MD
Mirela Krasniqi, MD
Shivani Kamat, MD
Mark Gill Kosko, MD Grace Marie Richter,
MD, MPH
Eliesa Ann Ing, MD
Shivali Menda, MD
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Sonia Walia Rana, MD
Justin Michael Shaw,
MD
Harmanjit Singh, MD, FRCSC
Jonathan Skarie, MD, PhD
Michael P Smith, MD
New Members
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Avneet Kaur Sodhi, MD
Ramya Narasimha
Swamy, MD, MPH
Christiana Vasile, MD Anita Danya Turner,
MD
Schonmei Wu, MD
Qui Vu, MD
Renee Talbot, MD,
FRCSC
Roger Allen Velasquez, MD, MPH
Richard John Symes,
MBBS, FRCOphth
251
index
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
255
Index
A
Abe, Ricardo Y., 14, 91, 107, 114
Abramowitz, Benjamin, 208
Abumasmah, Ramiz K., 14, 81–82
Acosta, Mauricio Turati, 108, 143, 149, 155,
193, 202, 219
Adams-Huet, Beverley, 220–221, 229, 234
Addis, Victoria Marie, 14, 56, 69, 101, 248
Afifi, Abdelmonem A., 14, 207
Ahluwalia, Mary Anne, 248
Ahmad, Sameer Imtiaz, 31
*Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K., 3, 11, 39, 52, 53, 64,
87, 143, 146, 149, 155, 166, 219, 223
Akula, Kiran K., 14, 212
Al-ameri, Aliah, 183
Al-Aswad, Lama, 157, 176
Al-Hashimi, Saba, 14, 144
Al Jadan, Ibrahim, 183
Al Shahwan, Sami, 14, 183
Alexander, David, 14, 80
Alghamdi, Yousef A., 14, 218
Alhadeff, Paula A., 14
Aljasim, Leyla Ali, 14, 111, 218
Allan, Evan, 14, 110, 192, 195, 248
Allen, Robert C., 28
Allingham, R. Rand, 14, 51, 55, 62, 67, 75,
115
Almodovar-Mercado, Juan, 246
Alomairi, Ahmed, 14, 110, 183
Alvarado, Jorge A., 28
Alward, Wallace L.M., 30
Amin, BE (IT), Samreen, 14
Aminlair, Ardalan Eddie, 248
Anderson, Douglas R., 6, 27, 28, 29, 30
Ando, Fujiko, 140
Andrews, Chris A., 14, 95
Angle, Joanne, 30
Ansari, Husam, 32
Aponte, Elizabeth Petitfond, 246
*Aref, Ahmad A., 11, 32, 52, 63
Armaly, Mansour F., 28
Armour, Rebecca, 14, 76–77
Arora, Sourabh, 14, 55, 67, 97
Arthur, Stella N., 32
Ashburn Jr., Frank S., 28
Asrani, Sanjay G., 32
Assaad, Manal H., 243
Auinger, Peggy, 14
Aung, Tin, 75
*Ayyala, Ramesh, 11, 53, 64, 85
B
Bacharach, Jason, 111, 204, 236
Badlani, Vandana K., 32
Baerveldt, George S., 28, 29
Baker, Doug, 198
Baker, Laura A., 14, 124
Bala, Elisa, 244
Balkrishnan, Rajesh, 100
Banik, Rudrani, 14
Banitt, Michael, 244
Bansal, Surbhi, 246
Barbosa, Diego T., 14, 94
Barker, Gordon T., 14, 209, 212
Barnett, Edward M., 31, 32
Barr, Yael R., 14, 80
Bartolini, Claudia Emerson, 248
Basile, Maria, 244
Batlle, Juan, 86, 161–162
Beck, Allen Dale, 14, 53, 65
Becker, Bernard, 28, 29
Beckman, Hugh, 28
Bei, Lind Yu, 249
Belcher III, C. Davis, 28
Belkin, Michael, 243
Bell, Nicholas P., 14
Bello Lopez-Portillo, Hector H., 14, 124, 136,
155, 193
Bellows, A. Robert, 28
Beltran-Agullo, Laura, 14, 84
Belyea, David, 208
Bettis, Daniel Isaac, 249
Bex, Peter, 116
Bhorade, Anjali M., 14, 31, 32, 56, 68
Biggerstaff, Kristin Schmid, 14, 111, 217,
246
Blachley, Taylor, 14, 101, 205
Blalock, Susan J., 14
Blieden, Lauren S., 14, 32, 124, 136
*Blondeau, Pierre, 11, 231
Blumberg, Dana M., 14, 31, 157
Bodhireddy, Hari, 249
Boer, Erwin, 91, 123
Boland, Michael V., 14, 31, 32, 56, 57, 68,
70
Bollinger, Kathryn E., 14, 31, 32, 52, 107,
113
Bora, Nalini Dr., 14, 223
Brady, Rachel, 14, 80
Brandt, James D., 6, 7, 30, 53, 57, 65, 70
Breazzano, Mark P., 14, 142
Brown, Eric N., 249
Brown, Ninita, 14, 169
*Brown, Reay H., 11, 52, 63, 110, 185–186
Brubaker, Richard F., 28, 29
Buchser, Nancy M., 244
*Budenz, Donald L., 3, 6, 7, 11, 32, 45, 51,
54, 62, 66, 132
*Burgoyne, Claude F., 3, 11, 30, 32, 42, 51,
56, 62, 78–79, 92–93
Burnett, Diana K., 14, 214
Burton, Ryan, 14, 112, 233
Bussel, Igor, 14, 167–168
Butler, Michelle R., 14, 175
*Buys, Yvonne M., 11, 84
C
Cai, Sophie, 14, 107, 116
Calkins, David J., 50
Camp, Andrew, 14, 111, 218
Campbell, Anita, 249
Campbell, David G., 28, 29, 30
Camras, Carl B., 30
Cantor, Louis, 99
Caprioli, Joseph A., 3, 6, 14, 30, 51, 62, 150,
201, 207
*Caron, Marc G., 11, 104
Carpender, Delesha, 14
Chadha, Nisha, 14, 111, 208, 249
Chai, Samantha J., 244
Chak, Garrick, 14, 57, 69, 104, 249
Chaku, Meenakshi, 144
*Challa, Pratap, 11, 53, 54, 65
Chambers, Megan, 14, 110, 198, 249
Chambers, Wiley A., 30
Chan, Jessica Eva, 249
Chandler, Paul A., 28, 29
Chang, Elma, 185–186
*Chang, Robert T., 11, 32, 57, 71
Chang, Ta C., 32
Chauhan, Balwantray C., 14, 51, 62
Cheema, Anjum, 246
Chen, Brian Hong, 246
Chen, Huiyi, 249
Chen, John Y., 244
Chen, Joseph Juyo, 246
Chen, Lian, 14, 54, 110, 191
Chen, Philip, 14, 65, 209
Chen, Rebecca I., 14, 94, 128
*Chen, Teresa C., 11, 32, 54, 66, 107, 117
Cheng, Ching-Yu, 75
Cheng, Jason, 14, 84
Chibana, Milena N., 14, 228
Chien, Jason, 14, 81–82, 107, 120–121
*Chiu, Gloria B., 11, 194
*Chopra, Vikas, 11, 52, 63, 108, 142, 194,
244
Chu, Fred Bernabe, 249
Chuang, Alice Z., 14, 124, 136
Churchill, Winston, 27
Cioffi, George A., 30, 69, 157
Cirineo, Nila Melina, 246
Clemetson, Nashay, 14, 158–159
Coffman, Cynthia, 225
Cohen, John S., 28
*Coleman, Anne L., 11, 30, 150, 201
Condon, Garry P., 52, 64
Conner, Ian P., 32
Cortes-Alcocer, Claudia, 14, 149
*Costarides, Anastasios P., 11, 57, 70
*indicates that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has a financial relationship. No asterisk means that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has no
financial relationship.
256
Index
Cousins, Scott, 115
Cowan, Lisa, 14, 111, 222
Crandall, Alan S., 14, 57, 70
*Crichton, Andrew C.S., 11, 57, 70
Cui, Qi, 14, 110, 181–182
Cull, Grant, 14, 78–79
Cyrlin, Marshall N., 28
D
Dale, Elizabeth Ann, 249
Damento, Gena, 211
Damji, Karim F., 14, 53, 65, 97
Danesh-Meyer, Helen V., 49, 50
Danias, John, 32
Dastiridou, Anna, 14, 110, 194
Dave, Pujan, 14, 237
Davis, Ellen, 76–77
De Carlo, Talisa, 14, 165
*De Moraes, C. Gustavo V., 11, 57, 71, 108,
112, 130, 133–134, 157, 228
DeBarber, Andrea, 14, 212
Del Real, Fernando, 149
*Demetriades, Anna-Maria, 11, 32, 238, 246
Demirel, Shaban, 14, 209
DeNiro, Jennifer Edith, 249
Desai, Manishi, 14, 144
Desai, Priya, 243
Devaprasad, Sam, 14, 122
Dewundara, Samantha S., 249
Dickrell, Dan, 141
Ding, Kai, 14, 192, 195
Diniz-Filho, Alberto, 114
Dixon, S. Jeffrey, 14, 171
Dorey, Michael W., 243
Douglas, Gordon R., 28, 29
*Downs, J. Crawford, 11, 50, 61
Drance, Stephen M., 27, 28, 29
D’Souza-David, Pamela, 249
Duan, Xuanchu, 14, 137
DuBiner, Harvey, 132
Dueker, David K., 28
Dunbar, Nick, 141
Dvorak, Justin D., 14, 192, 195
E
Edmunds, Beth E., 14, 53, 64, 76–77
Edward, Deepak P., 14, 31, 183, 218
Ekici, Feyzahan Uzun, 246
Elam, Angela, 14, 55, 67, 95
Elmaseh, Shenoda, 112, 226
Elze, Tobias, 14, 113
Emanuel, Matthew E., 14, 52, 175, 246
Eng, David, 14, 112, 220–221, 229, 234
Epstein, David L., 3, 28, 29, 37
Escalante-Castañón, Mariana, 14, 143
Estrovich, Igor E., 246
Evangelista, Charisma, 14, 170
Eydelman, Malvina B., 30
F
Fechter, Herbert P., 14, 54, 57, 66, 71
*Fechtner, Robert D., 11, 57, 71, 108, 132
*Feldman, Robert M., 11, 52, 112, 124, 136,
227, 239
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
*Fellman, Ronald L., 11, 30, 52, 56, 57, 68,
72, 101, 156, 175
Fingert, John H., 14, 31, 32, 57, 71
Fisher, Ann C., 243
*Flanagan, John G., 11, 50, 61
Fleischman, David, 249
Flores A., Robert A., 243
Fooks, Tanya, 249
Forbes, Max, 27, 28, 30
*Fortune, Brad, 11, 92–93
Frame, Nicholas J., 246
*Francis, Brian A., 3, 6, 11, 52, 63, 64, 90,
102, 109, 142, 175, 176, 194
Frankfort, Benjamin J., 31, 32, 244
Frankhauser, Franz, 29
Frazier, Travis C., 14, 224
*Freedman, Jeffrey, 12, 54, 65, 108, 151
Freedman, Sharon F., 14, 200
Friedman, David S., 3, 6, 14, 237
Fudemberg, Scott J., 32
Fukuoka, Hideki, 14, 108, 140
Funk, Jens, 14, 160
Funke, Christine Marchetti, 249
G
Gaasterland, Douglas E., 28
Galor, Anat, 14, 218
Gambrell, Jonathan David, 246
Gamett, Kevin M., 14, 110, 196, 249
Gandham, Sai B., 244
Garcia-Huerta, Magdalena, 14, 143
Garcia, Kathleen, 14, 80
Gardiner, Stuart K., 14, 78–79, 92–93, 209,
212
Garris, Winston Joseph, 14, 246
*Gedde, Steven J., 3, 6, 12, 49, 53, 61, 64
Gentile, Ronald C., 14, 163
Germano, Renato, 14, 228
Gessesse, Girum W., 14, 97
Ghassibi, Mark, 14, 51, 81–82, 120–121
Ghate, Deepta A., 14, 32, 108, 131, 246
*Giaconi, JoAnn A., 12, 31, 32, 54, 66, 150,
201
Giangiacomo, Annette L., 14, 32
Gibson, Charles R., 14, 80
*Gibson, Daniel J., 12, 141
Gibson, Zack, 185–186
Gil-Carrasco, Félix, 14, 109, 143, 149, 155,
202, 219
Gil, Jasbeth Ledesma, 110, 199
Giorgis, Abeba T., 97
*Girkin, Christopher A., 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, 31, 49,
50, 53, 56, 61
Glaucoma Foundation, 30
Glaucoma Research Foundation, 30
*Godfrey, David G., 12, 56, 68, 109, 156,
175
Gogte, Priyanka, 14, 137
Goldberg, Jeffrey Louis, 50, 244
Goldmann, Hans, 29
Golisch, Tara, 247
*Gong, Haiyan, 12, 107, 125
Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Johanna M., 14, 84
Good, Daniel J., 32
Good, Margaret P., 31
Gordon, Mae O., 14, 205
*Gould, Lisa F., 12, 52
Grace, Sara, 235
Gracitelli, Carolina P., 14, 55, 66, 91, 114,
123
Grant, W. Morton, 29
Graue-Hernandez, Enrique O., 14, 199
*Greenfield, David S., 4, 6, 7, 12, 30, 49, 53,
102
Greer, Anthony, 249
Grillo, Lola M., 14
Grippo, Tomas M., 14, 32, 139
*Gross, Ronald L., 12, 52, 63
Grosskreutz, Cynthia L., 32
*Grover, Davinder Singh, 12, 52, 63, 109,
156, 161–162, 175, 244
Guan, Howard David, 249
Gulati, Vikas, 14, 31, 32, 214
Gupta, Divakar, 14, 111, 209
*Gupta, Neeru, 3, 6, 12, 67
*Gupta, Sunil, 12, 141
Gurria, Lani, 199
Gurubaran, Iswariyaraja S., 14, 126
Guy, Ann H., 249
H
Hamid, Mohammad, 14, 110, 184, 231
Hammel, Naama, 249
Han, Ying, 14, 32, 181–182
Hansen, Bradley A., 14, 165
Harasymowycz, Paul, 52, 63, 177, 184
Harbin Jr., Thomas S., 28
Hariri, Sepideh, 14, 88–89
Hark, Lisa, 14, 96, 137
*Harris, Alon A., 12, 55, 67
Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth, 14
Hass, Joseph S., 28
Hauser, Michael, 75
Havens, Shane, 247
Hayes, David W., 249
Hayreh, Sohan S., 28
*He, Lin, 12, 92–93
He, Xu, 14, 103
Heckler, Lisa, 249
Heijl, Anders H., 3, 43
Helm, Jonathan, 122
Hennein, Lauren, 14
Hernandez-Garciadiego, Carlos, 14, 202
Hernandez-Oteyza, Alejandra, 14, 193, 202
*Herndon Jr., Leon W., 12, 54, 66, 169
Herschler, Jonathan, 27, 28
Hetherington Jr., John, 27, 28, 30
Heuer, Dale K., 6, 7, 53, 57, 64, 72
Hillier, Sian, 14
Hitchings, Roger, 29
Ho, Joseph, 125
Hodapp, Ellizabeth A., 28
Hodge, David, 211
Hoguet, Ambika Sud, 248
Holmes, Jonathan M., 14, 230
*Hood, Donald, 12
Hoskins Jr., H. Dunbar, 28, 29, 30
Houghtaling, Paul M., 15, 224
Hsia, Yen-Cheng, 15, 181–182
Hsu, Chi-Hsin, 15, 111, 128, 206
*indicates that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has a financial relationship. No asterisk means that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has no
financial relationship.
Index
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Hu, Jennifer, 33
Hu, Wanda Deborah, 247
Huang, Alex A., 15, 32, 54, 66, 90
*Huang, David, 12, 51, 62, 76–77, 102
Huang, Jennifer S., 33
*Hubatsch, Douglas, 12, 132, 239
Huet, Beverley, 220–221, 229, 234
*Hughes, Bret A., 12
Huh, Eun Sara, 247
Hung, Crystal, 247
Hung, James Wen-Chiang, 244
Hutchinson, B. Thomas, 28, 30
Hutnik, Cindy, 15, 109, 171
Hwang, Jeremy Chaoyen, 250
Hylton, Camille, 31
I
Idrizovic, Azra, 15, 151
Im, Lily, 215
Ing, Eliesa Ann, 78–79, 250
Iomini, Carlo, 99
Iserovich, Pavel, 151
Ivers, Kevin, 15, 51, 62, 78–79
Iwach, Andrew, 191
J
Jarukasetphon, Ravivarn, 15
Jasien, Jessica, 15, 130, 133–134, 147
Jatla, Kalpana Kasala, 244
*Jia, Yali, 12
Jiang, Yi Y., 15, 88–89
Jiménez-Arroyo, Jesús, 15, 143, 219
Jiménez-Roman, Jesús, 149, 193, 202, 219
Jivrajka, Renu, 247
John, Denise Ann-Marie, 244
Johnson, Chris A., 15, 29, 56, 68
Johnson, Deiana M., 15, 96
Johnson, Douglas H., 30
*Johnstone, Murray A., 12, 28, 29, 54, 66,
88–89
Jones, Leslie S., 31
Joos, Karen M., 15, 32, 99
Jorkasky, James F., 30
Jozic, Lidija, 160
Junk, Anna, 15, 112, 235
K
*Kagemann, Larry E., 12, 51, 62
*Kahook, Malik Y., 12, 31, 196, 202, 237
Kakigi, Caitlin, 15, 111, 206, 213
Kalarn, Sachin, 15, 110, 187
Kaleem, Mona A., 32, 247
Kamat, Shivani, 250
Kamel, Mohammed, 15, 157
Kammer, Jeffrey A., 31, 166
Kamour, Abdulbaset, 15, 131
Kan, Noureen, 250
Kang, Jae H., 15, 203
Kang, Min, 15, 103
Kapetansky, Frederick M., 28
Kaplan, Richard, 33
Kaplowitz, Kevin, 15, 110, 167–168, 179–
180
*Kardon, Randy H., 12, 50, 61
Kass, Michael A., 15, 28, 29, 205
Kassam, Faazil, 15, 97
Kasuga, Toshimitsu, 128
*Katz, Gregory, 12, 239
*Katz, L. Jay, 6, 7, 12, 96, 109, 153
*Kaufman, Paul L., 12, 28, 29, 30, 49, 67
Kazemi, Arash, 214
Keates, Edwin U., 28
Kedar, Sachin, 15, 131
Khaimi, Mahmoud, 192, 195
Khan, Arif O., 15, 183
Khanna, Cheryl, 211, 230
Khanna, Sunil S., 15, 211
*Khatana, Anup K., 12, 166
Khodadadeh, Sarah, 15, 179–180
Khouri, Albert S., 32, 132
Kiely, Amanda Elizabeth, 15, 109, 169, 250
Kim, Deborah, 257
Kim, Denise S., 33
Kim, Eun Ah, 15, 110, 201
*Kinast, Robert M., 12, 111, 212
Knight, O’Rese J., 32, 247
Kolker, Allan E., 6, 28, 29, 30
Kolko, Miriam, 15, 107, 126
Kooner, Karanjit S., 15, 220–221, 229, 234
*Kopczynski, Casey, 12, 204
Kornmann, Helen Lee, 15, 49, 247
Kosko, Mark Gill, 250
Kramer, Jennifer, 15, 217
Krasniqi, Mirela, 250
Krupin, Theodore, 6, 28, 29, 30
Kuchar, Sarah, 15, 109, 174
Kuchtey, John, 15, 135
*Kuchtey, Rachel W., 12, 31, 32, 69, 108,
135
Kumar, Jaya, 15, 111, 216
Kunkel, Jessica, 135
Kupfer, Carl, 28
Kurji, Ayaz K., 15, 97
Kwon, Young H., 31
L
Lagouros, Evan Peter, 247
Lai, Julia, 15, 125
Lamba, Tania, 208, 243
Lasnier, Olivier, 15, 231
Lavieri, Mariel, 15, 107, 122
Law, Samuel M., 15, 150
Law, Simon K., 15, 57, 71, 108, 150, 201
Lawrence, Scott D., 31
Layden, William E., 28, 30
Lazcano-Gómez, Gabriel S., 15, 110, 202,
219
LeBlanc, Raymond P., 28
Ledesma Gil, Jasbeth, 15
Lee, Brian L., 15, 56, 68
Lee, Daniel, 15, 110, 179–180, 188
*Lee, David A., 12, 124, 227
Lee, Ji Woong, 15, 111, 201, 207
*Lee, Olivia L., 12, 142, 194
Lee, Paul P., 15, 29, 41, 53, 95
Lee, Pei-Fei, 28
Lee, Richard K., 31, 32
Lee, Roland Y., 15, 94, 128
Lei, Peng, 250
257
Lekakh, Olga, 15, 145
Leske, David A., 15, 230
Leung, Eric, 244
Levene, Ralph Z., 28
Levin, Leonard A., 50, 61
*Levy, Brian, 12, 204
Lewis, Andrew Wayne, 15, 111, 205, 250
Lewis, Richard A., 6, 12, 52, 63
Li, Cody, 15, 177
Li, Manqui, 15, 122
Li, Xilong, 15, 220–221, 229, 234
*Liang, Susan, 12, 165
Lichter, Paul R., 28
*Liebmann, Jeffrey M., 6, 7, 12, 30, 55, 67,
81–82, 120–121, 127, 130, 133–134
Lim, Michele C., 3, 6, 15, 52, 63
Lin, Ken, 250
Lin, Shan C., 6, 7, 15, 31, 32, 53, 55, 65, 66,
94, 98, 128, 206, 210, 213
Lin, Shuai-Chun, 15, 94, 111, 206, 210
Liu, Hong, 15, 171
Liu, Ji, 15, 139
*Liu, John, 12, 107, 129
Liu, Liang, 15, 76–77
Liu, Mugen, 247
Liu, Yingna, 15, 117
Llerandi, Christina Guadalupe Isida, 15, 111,
155, 193, 219
Lloyd, Michael J., 243
Loewen, Nils A., 15, 31, 32, 57, 70, 102, 109,
167–168
Lombardi, Lorinna, 15, 76–77
Lowe, Starrie, 15, 150
Lowinger, Alan Eliot, 247
Luo, Na, 15, 99
Lusk, Jeffrey, 247
Lynch, Mary G., 15, 185–186
Lynn, John, 28
Lyzogubov, Valeriy V., 15, 223
M
Ma, Kelly, 15, 108, 144
Maddess, Ted, 138
Magner, Joachim, 160
Maharaj, Arindel Stefon, 247
Mai, Derek, 15, 111, 224
Mandell, Alan I., 28
*Mansberger, Steven L., 12, 31, 55, 67, 209,
212
*Mansouri, Kaweh, 13, 111, 148, 210
Mantravadi, Anand V., 32
March, Wayne F., 28
Margeta, Milica, 15, 110, 200
Martinez-Castellanos, Maria Ana, 15, 143
Martinez Villarreal, Pamela, 122
Maslin, Jessica S., 15, 139
*Mattox, Cynthia, 6, 7, 13, 30, 52, 56, 57,
68, 72, 101, 165
Maumenee, A. Edward, 28
Maurer, Rie, 15, 117
McConnell, Kate H., 15, 144
McCulley, Timothy J., 49
McKinnon, Stuart J., 31, 50
McLaren, Jay, 214
McMenemy, Matthew, 239
*indicates that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has a financial relationship. No asterisk means that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has no
financial relationship.
258
Index
McPherson Jr., Samuel D., 28
*Meadows, David, 13, 108, 141
*Medeiros, Felipe A., 3, 6, 13, 31, 32, 51, 62,
68, 91, 114, 123
Mehta, Nitisha, 15, 181–182
Melka, Fikru, 15, 97
Meltzer, David W., 28
Menda, Shivali, 15, 111, 209, 250
Miller-Ellis, Eydie G., 15, 57, 72
Mills, Richard P., 15, 30, 50, 51, 61, 62
Minckler, Donald S., 28, 29
Minnal, Vandana, 15, 124, 247
Modak, Cristina, 15, 142
Molineaux, Jeanne, 15, 96
Molteno, Anthony C.B., 3, 44, 53, 54, 65
Moore, Richard, 250
Morales, Esteban J., 15, 201, 207
Morin, Donald J., 28
*Moroi, Sayoko E., 13, 49, 205, 214
Morrison, John C., 15, 76–77
Morshedi, Richard G., 15, 223
Mosaed, Sameh, 52, 63
Moses, Robert A., 28
Moss, Edward, 15, 52, 64, 84
Moster, Mark L., 49, 50
*Moster, Marlene R., 6, 7, 13, 49, 52, 64,
174, 190
Motwani, Anita, 15, 110, 192
Mousa, Ahmed, 183
Muir, Kelly W., 15, 31, 32, 52, 64, 216, 225,
232
Mulegeta, Abiye, 15, 97
*Musch, David C., 13, 95, 122, 205, 209, 214
*Myers, Jonathan S., 13, 49, 96, 109, 132,
164
N
Nagarsheth, Mehul, 247
NANOS (North American NeuroOphthalmology Society), 3
Naseri, Ayman, 15, 181–182
*Navas, Alejandro, 13, 199
Nemani, Abhishek, 147
Newman-Casey, Paula A., 32
Nguyen, Anhtuan, 15, 194
Nguyen, Donna, 15, 136
Nguyen, Thuan, 15, 222
Nicholls, P.J., 15, 104
Niles, Charles, 178
Niles, Philip, 15, 110, 178
Niziol, Leslie, 209
Noecker, Robert, 166, 188, 189
North American Neuro-Ophthalmology
Society (NANOS), 3
*Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros, 13, 31, 32, 51, 62,
201, 207
*Novack, Gary D., 13, 204
Nugent, Alexander K., 247
*Nuyen, Brenda, 13, 108, 148
Nysather, Deborah M., 15
O
Obukhov, Alexander G., 15, 99
O’Connell, Sara Seacat, 244
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Oh, Dong Jn, 103
Okeke, Constance O., 32
Oldham, Gregory Warren, 247
Olivier, Mildred M.G., 7
Otsuka, Rei, 15, 140
Otto, Christian, 15, 40, 51, 62, 80
Ou, Yvonne, 31, 244
Owsley, Cynthia, 15, 56, 68
P
Paauw, James Donald, 244
Padilla, Steve M., 15, 88–89
Palmares, Trisa, 226
*Palmberg, Paul F., 13, 28, 53, 57, 64, 65,
70, 86
Panarelli, Joseph F., 32, 163
Pantcheva, Mina B., 15, 32, 196
Pappa, Karl S., 243
*Parekh, Parag D., 13, 166
Park, Abraham, 15, 111, 223
*Park, Sung Chul, 13, 31, 32, 81–82, 120–
121, 127
Parrish II, Richard K., 28, 29
Paschalis, Eleftherios, 152
Pasquale, Louis R., 6, 7, 15, 49, 111, 116,
152, 203
Patel, Nimesh, 15, 80
Patel, Roma, 250
Patel, Sachi R., 15, 109, 172
Patel, Shamil S., 15, 172, 187
Patel, Shuchi B., 15, 32, 108, 145, 244
Patthanathamrongkasem, Thipnapa, 15,
120–121
Pederson, Jonathan E., 28
Perez-Gudiño, Itzel I., 15, 143
Perkins, Edward S., 28
Peterson, Jeffrey, 15, 108, 136
*Petrie, Renée, 13, 112, 231
Phelps, Charles D., 27, 28, 29, 30
Pickering, Terri-Diann, 15, 191
*Piltz-Seymour, Jody R., 13, 57, 72
Pitha, Ian Franz, 32, 247
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J., 15, 80
Plummer, Andrew, 15, 111, 220–221, 229,
234
Podos, Steven M., 28, 29
Pokabla, Michael, 110, 188, 189
Polat, Julia Kisin, 250
Pollack, Irvin P., 28, 30
Proia, Alan, 200
Pruzan, Noelle L., 15, 98, 110, 190
Pugazhendhi, Thiripurasundari, 247
Q
Qiu, Mary, 15, 33, 55, 67, 98
Que, Chris, 117
Queen, Joanna, 15, 112, 227
Quigley, Harry A., 27, 28, 29, 30, 50
R
*Radcliffe, Nathan M., 13, 32, 54, 66, 109,
166
*Radhakrishnan, Sunita, 13, 191
Radius, Ronald L., 28
Ragusa, Nikola, 244
Ramachandran, Rithambara, 15
Ramirez, Nancy, 15, 204
Ramos-Cadena, Angeles, 15, 110, 193
*Ramulu, Pradeep Y., 13, 31, 32, 68, 112,
237
Rana, Sonia Walia, 15, 250
Rao, Veena, 15, 112, 225
*Realini, Anthony D., 13, 32, 55, 67, 239
Rebong, Rachelle, 15, 112, 236
Reed, David M., 15, 205, 214
Regina, Meredith, 245
Reif, Roberto, 15, 88–89
Reilly, Matthew, 138
Reiser, Bibiana Jin, 245
Reiss, George R., 15, 172, 187
Remolina, Antonio, 193
Renner, Morgan, 15, 110, 195
Reyes, Marcos, 32
Reynaud, Juan, 15, 78–79, 92–93
Reznik, Alena, 247
*Rhee, Douglas J., 13, 31, 32, 52, 56, 64, 69,
103
Rhodes, Lindsay, 15, 233
Rich III, William L., 30
Richardson Jr., Thomas M., 28
Richter, Grace Marie, 250
Rigi, Mohammed, 15, 107, 124, 136
*Ritch, Robert, 13, 28, 29, 50, 81–82, 120–
121, 127, 130, 133–134, 147
Rizkalla, Amin, 15, 171
Rizzo, Jennifer, 15, 117
Robin, Alan L., 15, 28, 53, 64, 215
Rockwood, Edward J., 15, 54, 65, 111, 217
Rodarte, Christopher, 33
*Rosdahl, Julia A., 13, 32, 112, 232
Rosen, Peter N., 15, 56, 68, 91, 123
Rosenberg, Elana, 15, 108, 133–134
Rosman, Michael, 15, 107, 127
S
Saboori, Mazeyar, 15, 108, 146
Sadda, Srinivas, 142
Sadun, Alfredo A., 50
Saeedi, Osamah J., 15, 32, 215
*Saheb, Hady, 13, 57, 70, 177
Saltzmann, Robert Michael, 245
Samuels, Brian C., 15, 31, 80, 243
*Samuelson, Thomas W., 6, 7, 13, 52, 63,
64, 83
Sandler, Shlomit Feit, 247
Sangal, Neha, 248
*Sankar, Prithvi, 13, 54
Saraswathy, Sindhu, 9
Sargsyan, Ashot E., 15, 80
Sarkisian Jr., Steven R., 15, 52, 63
Sato, Michelle, 248
Sawchyn, Andrea Knellinger, 245
Sawhney, Gaga, 250
Sayner, Robyn, 15
Sbeity, Zaher H., 32
Schehlein, Emily, 15, 111, 215
Schell, Greggory J., 15, 122
Schrieber, Jessica Munro, 250
*Schuman, Joel S., 13, 30, 102
*indicates that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has a financial relationship. No asterisk means that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has no
financial relationship.
Index
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Schuman, Stefanie G., 15, 115
Schwartz, Arthur L., 7, 28
Schwartz, Bernard, 28, 30, 33
Scichilone, John, 15, 135
Scott, Garrett Ranson, 245
Seamont, David, 15, 112, 220–221, 229, 234
Sears, Marvin L., 28, 29
*Sehi, Mitra, 13, 55, 67, 102
*Seibold, Leonard K., 13, 196
Selvadurai, Deepan, 245
Sembhi, Harjeet K., 15, 96
Seremet, Martin C., 243
*Serle, Janet B., 13, 52, 64
*Sforzolini, Baldo, 13, 129
Shaarawy, Tarek, 148, 210
Shabsigh, Muhammad, 157
Shaffer, Robert N., 28, 29
Shah, Manjool, 15, 87, 250
Shah, Sonya Babar, 248
Shareef, Shakeel, 15, 110, 195, 197
Sharpe, Elizabeth, 15
Shaukat, Bilal, 190
Shaw, Justin Michael, 250
Shekhawat, Nakul, 15, 100
Shen, Christopher, 245
Shen, Lucy Q., 15, 31, 32, 116, 152
Sherwood, Mark B., 54, 65, 66, 141
Sheth, Anjali B., 250
*Sheybani, Arsham, 13, 32, 87, 146, 250
Shields, M. Bruce, 6, 27, 28, 29, 30
Shimokata, Hiroshi, 140
*Shindler, Kenneth S., 13, 50, 61
Shuba, Lesya M., 32
Shukairy, Kareem, 15
Sidoti, Paul A., 53, 65, 163
Siegel, Michael Jason, 248
Silverman, Anna, 15, 172, 187
Simavli, Huseyin, 15, 117
Simmons, Richard J., 6, 27, 28, 29, 30
*Simon-Zoula, Sonja, 13, 130, 133–134, 139
Sing, Harmanjit, 250
*Singh, Kuldev, 6, 7, 13, 52, 63, 98, 213
*Sit, Arthur J., 13, 31, 32, 55, 67, 214
Skaat, Alon, 15, 108, 127, 147
Skarie, Jonathan, 250
Skuta, Gregory L., 6
Skytt, Dorte M., 15, 126
Slabaugh, Mark Anthony, 32, 245
Sleath, Betsy L., 15
Slota, Catherine, 15
Smith Jess A., 28
Smith, Michael P., 250
*Smith, Oluwatosin U., 13, 109, 156, 175
Smith, Sylvia B., 15, 113
Sodhi, Avneet Kaur, 15, 109, 165, 251
Sogbesan, Enitan, 245
Solley, Wayne, 141
Sommer, Alfred, 29
Song, Alice, 226
Song, Brian J., 32
Song, Julia, 226
Song, Mike, 226
Sood-Mendiratta, Shalani, 245
*SooHoo, Jeffrey Raymond, 13, 196, 248
Soontornvachrin, Mark, 245
*Spaeth, George L., 6, 7, 13, 27, 28, 29, 30,
51, 56, 62, 68, 96, 137
Spitze, Arielle R., 248
Sponsel, William, 15, 108, 138
*Stamper, Robert L., 6, 13, 28, 29, 53, 64
Stein, Joshua D., 6, 7, 15, 31, 32, 56, 69, 95,
100, 101, 122, 205
*Stiles, Michael, 13, 110, 197
Stinnett, Sandra, 15, 169
Stratford, Shayla, 96
Sturridge, Kirk Alexander, 245
Sugar, H. Saul, 28, 29
Suhr, Abraham, 15, 109, 170
Sun, Philip, 15, 112, 230
*Sun, Yang, 13, 31, 32, 55, 67, 99
Susanna, Carolina, 228
Susanna, Remo J., 228
Swain, David, 15, 125
Swamy, Ramya Narasimha, 15, 109, 175,
176, 251
Swenor, Bonnielin K., 15, 56, 68
Sy, Aileen, 15, 109, 173
Syed, Misha F., 32
Symes, Richard John, 251
T
Tai, Take Yee Tania, 245
Talbot, Renee, 251
Talwar, Nidhi, 15, 100
Tan, James C.H., 15, 31, 32, 90
Tan, Ou, 102
*Tanaka, George H., 13, 173
Tange, Chikako, 15, 140
Taniguchi, Elise, 15, 108, 152
*Tatham, Andrew John, 13, 91, 107, 123,
248
Tehrani, Shandiz, 15, 31, 107, 118–119
Tellez, Francisco L., 243
Teng, Christopher C., 31
Theventhiran, Alex, 15, 109, 157
Thomas, John V., 28
Toeteberg-Harms, Marc, 15, 103, 109, 160
Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine, 126
*Toris, Carol B., 13, 214
Trese, Matthew, 15, 111, 205, 214
Trope, Graham E., 15, 84
*Tsai, James C., 14, 57, 71, 126, 139,
179–180
Tseng, Henry, 31, 104
Tsikata, Edem, 15, 117
Tudor, Gail E., 15
Turalba, Angela Valera, 16, 152, 222, 245
*Turati Acosta, Mauricio, 14
Turner, Anita Danya, 251
Turner, Darell, 141
U
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 30
V
Vajaranant, Thasarat S., 31, 32, 49
Van Buskirk, E. Michael, 6, 28, 29
Van Oyen, Mark, 16, 122
Van Tassel, Sarah, 16, 112, 238
259
Varma, Davesh Kumar, 245
Varma, Rohit, 16, 56, 68, 102
Vasile, Christiana, 251
Vazquez, Luis Enrique, 16, 32, 49, 248
Velasquez, Roger Allen, 251
Vicchrilli, Sue, 16, 57, 72
Villareal, Analaura Berain, 16, 138
Villarreal, Guadalupe, 16, 237
Vinod, Kateki, 16, 109, 163
Vithana, Eranga, 16, 75
*VittitoW, Jason, 14, 129
Vizzeri, Gianmarco Domenico, 246
Vohra, Rupali, 126
*Vold, Steven D., 14, 52, 63, 109, 154, 166
Vu, Qui, 251
W
Waisbourd, Michael, 16, 55, 67, 96, 137,
174, 190
Wall, Michael, 16
Wallace, Dana J., 245
*Walsh, Molly M., 14, 31, 32, 52
Wang, Dandan, 128
Wang, Diane, 16
Wang, Haobing, 152
Wang, Lin, 16, 78–79
Wang, Linda, 16, 107, 128
Wang, Ruikang, 16, 88–89
Wang, Samantha, 16, 108, 139, 179–180
Wang, Sophia, 213
Wang, Wendy (Wan), 16, 171
Wang, Ye Elaine, 98
Wang, Yeu, 245
Watson, Kelsey A., 16, 171
Wax, Martin B., 30, 49
Weber, Paul A., 28
*Weinreb, Robert N., 6, 7, 14, 28, 29, 30, 50,
90, 91, 99, 114, 123, 129
Weizer, Jennifer Sommers, 16, 53, 65
Welch, Mark, 16, 109, 158–159
Weldeyes, Alemayehu, 16, 97
Wellik, Sarah, 16, 218
Welsbie, Derek S., 31, 32
*Wen, Joanne C.H., 14, 32, 107, 115, 248
Werner, Elliot B., 28
Werner, Mark A., 16, 158–159
Whigham, Ben, 225
White, Donna, 16, 217
Whitson, Emily R., 16, 212
Wier, Garrison P., 16, 113
*Wiggs, Janey L., 3, 6, 14, 30, 49, 57, 71
Wilensky, Jacob T., 28
Willett, Walter, 203
Williams, Alice, 16, 108, 137
*Williams, Ruth D., 14, 54, 56, 68
Williamson, Blake, 85
Wilson, M. Roy, 3, 30, 38, 49
Wilson, Richard P., 6, 29
Winkler, Kathryn, 16
Winkler, Nelson, 16, 111, 211
Winter, Aaron, 16, 110, 177
Wong, Jessica Jer-Heng, 248
Wong, Tien Yin, 16, 75
Woolson, Sandra, 16, 225
Worthen, David, 29
*indicates that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has a financial relationship. No asterisk means that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has no
financial relationship.
260
Index
Wright, Martha M., 53, 65
Wright, Tracy M., 33
Wu, Schonmei, 251
*WuDunn, Darrell, 14, 31, 32, 53, 65
X
Xu, Chaoying, 16, 139
American Glaucoma Society 25th Annual Meeting
Y
Z
Yablonski, Michael E., 28
Yang, Hongli, 16, 55, 66, 78–79, 92–93
Yarovoy, Dmitry, 16, 191
Yu, Chaoying, 16
Yu, Fei, 16, 201, 207
*Yucel, Yeni H., 14, 50, 61
*Zangwill, Linda, 14, 91, 114, 123
Zhang, Amy Duoxi, 32, 69, 248
Zhang, Xinbo, 16, 56, 102
Zhao, Jing, 16, 113
Zhou, Zhehai, 16, 88–89
Zimmerman, Thom J., 28
*indicates that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has a financial relationship. No asterisk means that the speaker, presenting author, or moderator has no
financial relationship.
American Glaucoma Society
T: (415) 561-8587
E: [email protected]
www.americanglaucomasociety.net
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