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ISSN XXXX XXXX © 2016 IJESC
Research Article
Volume 6 Issue No. 7
On Generalized *+b-Continuous and Irresolute Maps
B. Kanchana1, F. Nirmala Irudayam2
Research Scholar1, Assistant Professor 2
Department of Mathematics, Nirmala College for Women, Coimbatore, India
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a new class of maps named g *+b-continuous and g*+b-irresolute maps in simple extended topological
spaces. We have intended to study some of its basic properties and relations among them.
Keywords: g*+b-closed set, g*+b-continuous, g*+b-irresolute maps.
I.
INTRODUCTION
Levine [9] and Andrijevic [1] initiated the concept of
generalized closed (open) sets and b-open sets respectively in
topological spaces. The class of b-open sets is contained in the
class of semipre-open sets and contains the class of semi-open
and the class of pre-open sets. A.A.Omari and M.S.M.Noorani
[14] introduced generalized b-closed sets and gb-continuous
maps in topological spaces. Ekici [6] presented the concept of
b-continuous functions in topological spaces. El-Etik [5]
discussed gb-continuous functions with the aid of b-open sets.
Crossley and Hildebrand [4] have introduced and investigated
the idea of irresolute functions which are stronger than semicontinuous maps but are independent of continuous maps.
Munshi and Bassan [11] proposed the notion of generalized
continuous functions which are called in as g-irresolute
functions. M.K.R.S.Veerakumar [16] defined the concept of
gc-irresolute function in topological spaces. Vidhya and
Parimelazhagan [17, 18] studied the properties of g*b-closed
sets and g*b-continuous maps in topological spaces.
In 1963 Levine [8] formulated the concept of simple extension
of a topology
as
/
.
B.Kanchana and F.Nirmala Irudayam [7] coined the concept of
g*+b-closed sets in extended topological spaces. The aim of this
paper is to introduce and study the concepts of new class of
maps namely g*+b-continuous maps and g*+b-irresolute maps.
Throughout this paper X, Y and Z (or (
),
and
) are simple extension topological space in which no
separation axioms are assumed unless and otherwise stated.
For any subset A of X, the interior of A is same as the interior
in usual topology and the closure of A is newly defined in
simple extension topological spaces. The complement of A is
denoted by Ac respectively.
II.
PRELIMINARIES
We recall the following definitions.
Definition 2.1: A subset A of a topological space (
called a,
) is
(i) b-open set [1], if A ⊆ cl(int(A)) ∪ int(cl(A)).
(ii) generalized closed set (briefly g-closed) [10], if cl(A) ⊆
U, whenever A ⊆ U and U is open in X.
(iii) g*-closed set[16], if cl(A) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and U
is g-open in X.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, July 2016
(iv) generalized b-closed set (briefly gb-closed) [14], if
bcl(A) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and U is open in X.
(v) g*b-closed set [17], if bcl(A) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and
U is g-open in X.
Definition 2.2: A subset A of a topological space (
called a,
) is
(i) b+-open set[12], if A ⊆ cl+(int(A)) ∪ int(cl+(A)).
(ii) generalized closed+ set (briefly g-closed+) [7], if cl+(A)
⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and U is open in X.
(iii) g*+-closed set [7], if cl+(A) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and
U is g+-open in X.
(iv) generalized b+-closed set (briefly gb+-closed) [12], if
bcl+(A) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and U is open in X.
(v) g*+b-closed set [7], if bcl+(A) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U
and U is g+-open in X.
Definition 2.3: A map
from a topological
space X into a topological space Y is called,
(i) b-continuous [5], if
is b-closed in X for every
closed set V of Y.
(ii) gb-continuous [14], if
is gb-closed in X for
every closed set V of Y.
(iii) g*b-continuous [18], if
is g*b-closed in X for
every closed set V of Y.
(iv) irresolute [4], if
is semi-closed in X for every
semi-closed set V of Y.
(v) gc-irresolute [2], if
is g-closed in X for every gclosed set V of Y.
(vi) g*b-irresolute [18], if
is g*b-closed in X for
*
every g b-closed set V of Y.
Definition 2.4: A map
from a topological
space X into a topological space Y is called,
(i) b+-continuous [15], if
is b+-closed in X for
every closed set V of Y.
(ii) gb+-continuous [15], if
is gb+-closed in X for
every closed set V of Y
III.
g*+b-CONTINUOUS MAPS
In this section we introduce the concept of g*+b-continuous
maps in topological spaces.
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Definition 3.1: A map
is said to be g*+b-continuous
*+
if
is g b-closed in X for every closed set V of Y.
Theorem 3.2: If a map
continuous but not conversely.
is continuous, then it is g*+b-
Proof: Let
be continuous. Let F be any closed set in
Y. Then the inverse image
is closed in X. Since every
closed set is g*+b-closed,
is g*+b-closed in X. Therefore
f is g*+b-continuous.
Remark 3.3: The converse of the theorem need not be true as
seen from the following example.
Example 3.4: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be a map
defined by f (a) = b, f (b) = a, f (c) = c. Here f is g*+bcontinuous. But f is not continuous since for the closed set F =
{b} in Y,
= {a} is not closed in X.
Theorem 3.5: If a map
is b+-continuous, then it is
*+
g b-continuous but not conversely.
Proof: Let
be b+-continuous. Let F be any closed set
in Y. Then the inverse image
is b+-closed in X. Since
+
*+
every b -closed set is g b-closed,
is g*+b-closed in X.
*+
Therefore f is g b-continuous.
Remark 3.6: The converse of the theorem need not be true as
seen from the following example.
Example 3.7: Let X = Y = {a, b, c, d} with topologies
and
. Let
be
the identity function. Here f is g*+b-continuous. But f is not b+continuous since for the closed set F = {a,b,d} in Y,
=
{a,b,d} is not b+-closed in X.
Theorem 3.8: If a map
is g*+b-continuous, then it is
+
gb -continuous but not conversely.
Proof: Let
be g*+b-continuous. Let F be any closed
set in Y. Then the inverse image
is g*+b-closed in X.
*+
+
Since every g b-closed set is gb -closed,
is gb+-closed
+
in X. Therefore f is gb -continuous.
Remark 3.9: The converse of the theorem need not be true as
seen from the following example.
(i) The following statements are equivalent:
(a) f is g*+b-continuous.
(b) The inverse image of each open set in Y is g*+b-open
in X.
(ii) If
is g*+b-continuous, then f (b+*(A)) ⊂
(A)) for every subset A of X.
(iii) The following statements are equivalent:
cl+(f
(a) For each point x ∈ X and each open set V in Y with f
(x) ∈ V, there is a g*+b-open set U in X such that
U f (U) ⊂ V.
(b) For every subset A of X, f (b+*(A)) ⊂ cl+(f (A)) holds.
(c) For each subset B of Y, b+*(f -1(B)) ⊂ f -1(cl+(B)).
Proof: (i) Assume that f : X → Y be g*+b-continuous. Let G be
open in Y. Then Gc is closed in Y. Since f is g*+b-continuous, f
−1
(Gc) is g*+b-closed in X. But f −1(Gc) = X − f −1(G). Thus X −
−1
f (G) is g*+b-closed in X and so
f −1(G) is g*+b-open in
X. Therefore (a) implies (b).
Conversely assume that the inverse image of each open set in
Y is g*+b-open in X. Let F be any closed set in Y. The Fc is
open in Y. By assumption, f −1(Fc) is g*+b-open in X. But f
−1 c
(F ) = X − f −1(F). Thus X − f −1(F) is g*+b-open in X and so f
−1
(F) is g*+b-closed in X. Therefore f is g*+b-continuous. Hence
(b) implies (a). Thus (a) and (b) are equivalent.
(ii) Assume that f is g*+b-continuous. Let A be any subset of X.
Then cl+(f (A)) is closed in Y. Since f is g*+b-continuous, f
−1
(cl+(f (A))) is g*+b-closed in X and it contains A. But b+*(A)
is the intersection of all g*+b-closed sets containing A.
Therefore b+*(A) ⊂ f −1(cl+
( f (A))) and so f (b+*(A)) ⊂
+
cl (f (A)).
(iii) (a) ⇒ (b)
Let y
b+*(A) and x
X , f (x)
V. Let V be any
neighbourhood of y. Then there exists a point x
X and a
g*+b-open set U such that f (x) = y, x U, x b+*(A) and f (U)
V. Since x b+*(A), U ∩ A
holds and hence f (A) ∩ V
. Therefore we have y = f (x) cl+(f (A)).
(b) ⇒ (a)
Let x
X and V be any open set containing f (x). Let A = f
−1
(V c), then x ∉ A. Since f (b+*(A)) ⊂ cl+(f (A)) ⊂ V c. Then,
since x ∉ b+*(A), there exist a g*+b-open set U containing x
such that U ∩A
and hence f (U ) ⊂ f (Ac) ⊂ V.
(b) ⇒ (c)
Let B be any subset of Y. Replacing A by f −1(B) we get from
(b), f (b+*(f −1(B))) ⊆ cl+(f f −1(B)) ⊂ B. Hence b+*(f −1(B)) ⊂
f −1(cl+(B)).
Example 3.10: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be the
identity map. Here f is gb+-continuous. But f is not g*+bcontinuous since for the closed set F = {a,c} in Y,
=
{a,c} is not closed in X.
(c) ⇒ (b)
Let B = f (A) where A is a subset of X. Then b+*(A) ⊂ b+*(f
−1
(B)) ⊂ f −1(cl+(f (A))). Therefore f (b+*(A)) ⊂ cl+(f (A)).
Theorem 3.11: If a map
into a topological space Y,
Example 3.13: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
from a topological space X
International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, July 2016
Remark 3.12: The converse of the statement (ii) need not be
true as seen from the following example.
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. Let
be a map
defined by f (a) = b, f (b) = a, f (c) = c. Then for every subset A
of X, f (b+*(A)) ⊂ cl+(f (A)) holds but it is not g*+b-continuous,
since for the closed set {a} in Y,
= {b} is not g*+bclosed in X.
Theorem 3.14: If
and
be any two
functions, then
is g*+b-continuous if g is
continuous and f is g*+b-continuous.
Proof: Let V be any closed set in Z. Since g is continuous,
is closed in Y and since f is g*+b-continuous,
is g*+b-closed in X. Hence (g f)-1(V) is g*+bclosed in X. Thus g f is g*+b-continuous.
Remark 3.15: The composition of two g *+b-continuous map
need not be g*+b-continuous. Let us prove the remark by the
following example.
Example 3.16: Let X = Y = Z = {a, b, c} with topologies
;
and
. Let
be a
map defined by g(a) = a, g(b) = c, g(c) = b. Let
be a map defined by f(a) = b, f(b) = a, f(c) = c. Both f
and g are g*+b-continuous. Define
.
Here {b} is a closed set of
. Therefore
=
{a} is not g*+b-continuous.
Theorem 3.17: Let
be a g*+b-continuous map from a
topological space X into a topological space Y and let H be a
closed subset of X. Then the restriction
is g*+bcontinuous where H is endowed with the relative topology.
Proof: Let F be any closed subset in Y. Since f is g*+bcontinuous,
is g*+b-closed in X. If
∩ H = H1
*+
then H1 is a g b-closed set in X, since intersection of two g*+bclosed set is g *+b-closed set. Since (f / H)-1(F) = H1, it is
sufficient to show that H1 is g*+b-closed set in H. Let G1 be any
open set of H such that G1 contains H1. Let G1 = G∩H where G
is open in X. Now H1 ⊂ G∩H ⊂ G. Since H1 is g*+b-closed set
in X.
⊂ G. Now
(H1) =
∩ H ⊂ G∩H = G1 where
(A) is the closure of a subset A of the subspace H of X.
Therefore f / H is g*+b-continuous.
Remark 3.18: In the above theorem, the assumption of
closedness of H cannot be removed as seen from the following
example.
Example 3.19: Let Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be a map
defined by f (a) = b, f (b) = a, f (c) = c. Now H = {a, b} is not
closed in X. Then f is g*+b-continuous but the restriction f / H
is not g*+b-continuous. Since for the closed set F = {b, c} in Y,
and
is not g*+b-closed in H.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, July 2016
PASTING LEMMA FOR g*+b – CONTINUOUS MAPS
Theorem 3.20: Let X = A
B be a topological space with
topology + and Y be a topological space with topology σ +. Let
f : (A,
A) → (Y, σ+) and g : (B,
B) → (Y, σ+) be g*+bcontinuous maps such that f (x) = g(x) for every x
A ∩ B.
Suppose that A and B are g*+b-closed sets in X. Then the
combination α : (X, + ) → (Y, σ+) is g*+b-continuous.
Proof: Let F be any closed set in Y. Clearly α−1(F ) =
f
−1
(F ) g− 1(F ) = C D where C = f −1(F ) and D = g−1(F ).
But C is g*+b-closed in A and A is g*+b-closed in X and so C is
g*+b-closed in X. Since we have proved that if B ⊆ A ⊆ X, B
is g*+b-closed in A and A is g*+b-closed in X then B is g*+bclosed in X. Also C D is g*+b-closed in X. Therefore α−1(F ) is
g*+b-closed in X. Hence α is g*+b-continuous.
IV.
g*+b-IRRESOLUTE MAPS
In this section we introduce the concept of g*+b-irresolute maps
in topological spaces.
Definition 4.1: A map
is said to be irresolute, if the
inverse image of every semi+-closed in Y is semi+-closed in X.
Definition 4.2: A map
is said to be gc+-irresolute, if
+
the inverse image of every g -closed in Y is g+-closed in X.
Definition 4.3: A map
is said to be g*+b-irresolute if
*+
the inverse image of every g b-closed in Y is g*+b-closed in
X.
Definition 4.4: A topological space (
) is said to be Tg*+bspace if every g*+b-open set of X is open in X.
Theorem 4.5: A map
is g*+b-irresolute if and only if
*+
the inverse image of every g b-open set in Y is g*+b-open in
X.
Proof: Assume that f is g*+b-irresolute. Let A be any g*+b-open
set in Y. Then Ac is g*+b-closed set in Y. Since f is g*+birresolute, f −1(Ac) is g*+b-closed in X. But
f −1(Ac) = X −
−1
−1
*+
f (A) and so f (A) is g b-open in X. Hence the inverse
image of every g*+b-open set in Y is g*+b-open in X.
Conversely assume that the inverse image of every g*+b-open
set in Y is g*+b-open in X. Let A be any g*+b-closed set in Y.
Then Ac is g*+b-open in Y. By assumption,
f −1(Ac) is
*+
−1
c
−1
g b-open in X. But f (A ) = X − f (A) and so f −1(A) is
g*+b-closed in X. Therefore f is g*+b-irresolute.
Theorem 4.6: If a map f : X → Y is g*+b-irresolute, then it is
g*+b-continuous but not conversely.
Proof: Assume that f is g*+b-irresolute. Let F be any closed set
in Y. Since every closed set is g*+b-closed, F is g*+b-closed in
Y. Since f is g*+b-irresolute, f −1(F) is g*+b-closed in X.
Therefore f is g*+b-continuous.
Remark 4.7: The converse of the theorem need not be true as
seen from the following example.
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Example 4.8: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be the
identity map. Here f is g*+b-continuous. But {a,c} is g*+bclosed in Y but
= {a,c} is not g*+b-closed in X.
Therefore f is not g*+b-irresolute.
Example 4.15: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be the
identity map. Here f is gc+-irresolute. But {a} is g*+b-closed in
Y but
= {a} is not g*+b-closed in X. Therefore f is not
g*+b-irresolute.
Theorem 4.9: Let X be any topological space, Y be a T g*+bspace and f : X → Y be a function. Then the following are
equivalent:
(i)
f is g*+b-irresolute
(ii)
f is g*+b-continuous
Remark 4.16: The irresolute maps and g*+b-irresolute maps
are independent and can be seen from the following examples.
Proof: (i) ⇒ (ii): obvious by the definition.
(ii) ⇒ (i): Let F be an g*+b-closed set in Y. Since Y is a Tg*+bspace, F is a closed set in Y and by hypothesis,
f -1(F) is
*+
*+
g b-closed in X. Therefore f is g b-irresolute.
Theorem 4.10: If f : X → Y is bijective, b+-open and g*+bcontinuous then f is g*+b-irresolute.
Proof: Let V be any g*+b-closed set in Y and let
⊂U
where U is b+-open in X. Then V ⊂ f (U). Since f (U) is b+open in Y and V is g*+b-closed in Y, then cl+(V) ⊂ f (U)
implies that
⊂ U. Since f is g*+b-continuous,
*+
is g b-closed in X. Hence
⊂ U.
Therefore
⊂
⊂ U. That is
⊂ U. This shows that f is g*+b-irresolute.
Example 4.17: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be a map
defined by f (a) = b, f (b) = a,
f (c) = c. Here f is irresolute.
But {a,c} is g*+b-closed in Y but
= {b,c} is not
g*+b-closed in X. Therefore f is not g*+b-irresolute.
Example 4.18: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be a map
defined by f (a) = b, f (b) = a, f (c) = c. Here f is g*+b-irresolute.
But {b,c} is semi+-closed in Y but
= {a,c} is not
semi+-closed in X. Therefore f is not irresolute.
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Theorem 4.11: If f : X → Y is bijective, closed and irresolute
then the inverse function
is g*+b-irresolute.
Proof: Let A be g*+b-closed in X. Let
⊆
U, where U is g+-open in Y. Then ⊆
U holds. Since
U is g+-open in X and A is g*+b-closed in X, b+cl(A) ⊆
U and hence f (b+cl(A)) ⊆ U. Since f is b+-closed in Y.
Therefore b+cl(f (b+cl(A))) ⊆ U and hence b+cl(f (A)) ⊆ U.
Thus f (A) is g*+b-closed in Y and so
is g*+b-irresolute.
Theorem 4.12: Let X, Y and Z be any topological spaces. For
any g*+b-irresolute map f : X → Y and any g*+b-continuous
map g : Y → Z, the composition g ◦ f : (X, τ+ ) → (Z, η+) is
g*+b-continuous.
Proof: Let F be any closed set in Z. Since g is g*+b-continuous,
g− 1(F) is g*+b-closed in Y. Since f is g*+b-irresolute, f
−1 −1
(g (F)) is g*+b-closed in X. But f −1(g−1(F)) = (g ◦ f )−1(F).
Therefore g ◦ f : X → Z is g*+b-continuous.
Remark 4.13: The following examples shows that the notion
of gc+-irresolute maps and g*+b-irresolute maps are
independent.
Example 4.14: Let X = Y = {a, b, c} with topologies
and
. Let
be the
identity map. Here f is g*+b-irresolute. But {a,b} is g+-closed
in Y but
= {a,b} is not g+-closed in X. Therefore f
+
is not gc -irresolute.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, July 2016
V.
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