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CLASSE IV A CORSO ARTISTICO INTERROGAZIONE DI RECUPERO PRIMO TRIMESTRE PAGES 32 – 33 THE MAKING OF THE NATION THE CELTS The history of England is the story of the colonisation of the islands. Its prehistoric inhabitants were Iberians. CELTS began to arrive from north-west Germany. They were organised into tribes. The most influential figures inside Celtic society were the DRUIDS. They administred religion, justice and education of the young. The Celts worshipped1 the natural elements such as the Sun, the Moon, the Trees and the Rivers. Water was considered as the holy element. THE ROMANS Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 BC2, but the real conquest of the country took place3 under Emperor Claudius (100 BC – AD4 54). The Romans introduced their civilisation and language. They built5 towns connected by roads, many of which still exist to this day6. In AD 409 Emperor Honorius withdrew his soldiers7 to defend Rome against Barbarian raiders8. The Romanised Celts were left alone to fight against some Germanic tribes who invaded the island in the 5th century and destroyed the Roman British towns.9 They To worship = to adore. BC = before Christ 3 avvenne 4 AD = Anno Domini (l’anno del Signore) 1 2 5 costruirono Till this day – esistono ancora oggi. 7 … withdrew his soldiers = to pull out his troops = ritirò le sue truppe 8 Against Barbarian raiders = against Barbarian invaders – contro gli invasori barbari 9 I Celti romanizzati furono lasciati soli a combattere contro alcune tribù germaniche, organizzate in gruppi familiari, il cui più importante impegno era la lealtà verso gli altri membri e verso il Signore della tribù. Erano gli Angli, i Sassoni e gli Iuti e diedero a gran parte della Bretagna il nome di ENGLAND, cioè “la terra degli Angli”. 6 were the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes and gave the larger part of Britain its new name: ENGLAND, that is, “The Land of the Angles”. THE ANGLO-SAXONS Most Anglo-Saxons were farmers, (agricoltori) but many of them were also fishers. (pescatori) They were organised into family groups, called CLANS, where the most important social bond (il maggior impegno sociale ) was loyalty to the other members and to the lord of the tribe. They exalted physical courage and personal freedom and they had also a highly developed sense of beauty. They made fine ornaments.