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A Comprehensive Design Approach of Power
Electronic-Based Distributed Generation
Units Focused on Power Quality
The undesirable harmonic distortion produced by distributed generation units
(DGUs) based on power electronic inverters presents operating and power quality
challenges in electric systems. The level of distortion depends on the internal
elements of the DGUs as well as on the characteristics of the grid, loads, controls,
among others. This paper presents a comprehensive method, focused on power
quality indexes and efficiency for the design of micro-grids with multiple DGUs
interconnected to the AC grid through three phase multi-Megawatt mediumvoltage PWM voltage source inverters (PWM-VSI). The proposed design method
is based on a least square solution using the harmonic domain modeling approach
to effectively consider explicitly the harmonic characteristics of the DGUs and
their direct and cross-coupling interaction with the grid, loads and the other
DGUs. Extensive simulations and analyses against PSCAD are presented in order
to show the outstanding performance of the proposed design approach.
Existing system:
 By considering the harmonic interaction in the modeling of power
electronics based systems, better design and analysis can be carried out.
Although it is not a generalized practice, it is common to assume certain
ideal operating conditions which neglect the harmonic interaction, in order
to simplify the model when performing some specific analysis, designs or
 Ideal operating conditions are increasingly difficult to sustain as valid, since
harmonic generation, interaction of controls and harmonic components,
resonances, harmonic stability issues, etc, are phenomena commonly
reported in systems with high harmonic penetration.
 In practical networks with power electronic-based DGUs, this could lead to
erroneous or unfavorable operating scenarios. .is gap has been recognized
and addressed in the open literature, although not in a holistic way.
Proposed system:
 This paper proposes a comprehensive approach, based on optimization and
the extended harmonic domain (EHD), for the design of multiple gridconnected multi-Megawatt medium-voltage PWM-VSI with LCL filters.
 This is carried out by means of a Nonlinear Least Squares formulation
(NLSQ), which calculates the filter parameters and the steady state control
variables which meet certain proposed reference operating conditions and
includes power quality restrictions and efficiency.
 As an example, the design of two DGUs, based on three-phase PWM-VSIs,
which are connected to a micro-grid is presented. Two case studies are
presented to show the proposed design approach, one considering that the
interconnections grid is unknown and the other when is known.
Block diagram:
Circuit diagram:
[1] A. Medina, J. Segundo, P. Ribeiro, W. Xu, K. Lian, G. Chang, V. Dinavahi,
and N. Watson, “Harmonic Analysis in Frequency and Time
Domain,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1813–
1821, Jul. 2013.
[2] J. Segundo-Ram´ırez, A. Medina, A. Ghosh, and G. Ledwich, “Stability
boundary analysis of the dynamic voltage restorer in weak systems
with dynamic loads,” International Journal of Circuit .eory and Applications,
vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 551–569, Jun. 2012.
[3] X. Wang, F. Blaabjerg, and W. Wu, “Modeling and Analysis of Harmonic
Stability in an AC Power-Electronics-Based Power System,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 6421–6432, Dec.
[4] I. Standards, “IEC61000-X-X - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC),”