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5th Grade Science Study Guide Chap. 4 Test Date: ________________ Types of Rock: 1. Igneous rocks: obsidian, granite and pumice 2. Sedimentary Rocks: shale, sandstone and limestone 3. Metamorphic Rocks: marble and slate Fossils: 1. 2. 3. 4. Petrified fossils are plant and animal remains that have turned to stone. Paleontologists are scientists who study fossils. Most fossils were probably formed during the Flood of Noah’s time. Mold fossils are formed when mud buries a plant or animal and then quickly hardens. Geology: 1. A person who studies minerals is a mineralogist. 2. A scientist who studies the structure of the earth is a geologist. 3. There are two types of weathering: chemical and physical. 4. A spelunker is a person who explores caves. 5. A geyser is an underground spring that shoots streams of boiling water and steam up into the air from time to time. 6. Gemstones are rare, beautiful minerals that are very hard but are not yet polished. 7. Oil in its natural state is called crude oil or petroleum. Rocks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Magma is the molten rock in the earth’s mantle. Graphite is used in pencils instead of lead. Shale is a rock that smells like mud when wet. Slate is most often used to make chalkboards. Concrete is a very durable artificial rock. Humus is decaying plant and animal material in the soil. Stones and Metals: 1. Diamond is the hardest of all substances. 2. Silver is the best conductor of electricity. 3. The ruby is the rarest gemstone. 4. Iron is the most useful metal. 5. Mercury is the only metal that is a liquid at room temperature. 6. A geode is a rock-like object that looks like a mudball on the outside, but filled with crystals on the inside. 7. All minerals form a special kind of solid called a crystal. 8. Aluminum is a lightweight, nonmagnetic, rustproof metal. 9. Uranium is a radioactive metal used as a source for nuclear power.