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Compiled by Peter J.H. Reijnders
ALTERRA-Marine and Coastal Zone Research
P.O. Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg, The Netherlands
This report summarises information obtained from: Alterra-Marine and Coastal Research (Alterra), the Harderwijk
Marine Animal Park (HMAP), the Leiden Center for Environmental Sciences (CML), the National Institute for
Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ), the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research/Nederlandse
Zeevogelgroep/Camphuysen Seabird Research Consultancy (NIOZ/NZG/CSR), the National Museum of Natural
History (Naturalis: NMNH), the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO-DLO).
Species and stocks studied
Scientific name
Balaenoptera borealis
Balaenoptera edeni
Balaenoptera physalus
Delphinus delphis
Delphinus delphis delphis
Delphinus tropicalis
Eubalaena australis
Globicephala macrorhynchus
Globicephala melas
Hyperoodon ampullatus
Lagenorhynchus albirostris
Lagenorhynchus obscurus
Orcinus orca
Phocoena phocoena
Physeter macrocephalus
Pseudorca crassidens
Stenella attenuata
Stenella clymene
Stenella coeruleoalba
Stenella longirostris
Stenella longirostris
Tursiops truncatus
Ziphius cavirostris
Common name
Sei whale
Bryde's whale
Fin whale
Common dolphin
Short-beaked common dolphin
Long-snouted common dolphin
Southern Right whale
Short-finned Pilot whale
Long-finned Pilot whale
Northern bottlenose whale
White-beaked dolphin
Dusky dolphin
Killer whale
Harbour porpoise
Sperm whale
False killer whale
Pantropical spotted dolphin
Short-snouted Spinner dolphin
Striped dolphin
Long-snouted Spinner dolphin
Long-snouted Spinner dolphin
Bottlenose dolphin
Cuvier's beaked whale
SW Africa
SW Africa
North Sea, NW Africa
NW Africa, SW Africa
NW Africa
Red Sea
SW Africa
NW Africa
NW Africa
NW Africa
North Sea
North Sea
NW Africa, North Sea
NW Africa, Red Sea,
NW Africa
NW Africa
NW Africa, SW Africa
Red Sea
NW Africa,
NW Africa
Items referred to
2.1.1, 9
2.1.1, 2., 2.2, 9
2.1.1, 9
2.1.1, 2.1.2
2.1.1, 9
2.1.1, 2.1.2
2. Sightings data
2.1 Field work
Ship-based surveys between Cadiz (Spain) via Moroccan coast towards Mauritania. Transects
perpendicular to the shelf and upwelling system off Mauritania and ship-based surveys towards Dakar
(Senegal), January 2000 (NIOZ/CSR)
Ship-based surveys between Walvisbaai (Namibia) via Walvisridge towards Cape Town (South
Africa), including transects perpendicular to the shelf and upwelling system off Namibia and South
Africa, February 2000 (NIOZ/CSR).
The monitoring programme "coastal seawatches" to register the occurrence of harbour porpoises and
other cetaceans in Dutch coastal waters was continued (NZG/CSR).
Continuation of the Marine Mammal Database (database of sighting records in the North Sea)
including the establishment of web pages with features to be used for the identification of cetaceans
and lists of recent sightings and images of marine mammals :
Total number of records in the database 1960-2000 (51-60°N, 4°W-12°E): 6893 records, 14 species,
16 770 individuals. Total number of records in the database 2000 in Dutch waters (51-56°N, 2°E-7°E):
87 records, 4 species, 168 individuals. Species observed in 2000 in Dutch waters (51-56°N, 2°E-7°E):
Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Lagenorhynchus albirostris, Phocoena phocoena
Yearend bi-monthly aerial surveys of seabirds and marine mammals on the Dutch Continental Shelf
have been continued, using standardised routes/methods (RIKZ).
Coastal sightings survey Cape Province, South Africa, August 1999 (NZG/CSR)
Delphinus delphis
common dolphin
Pantropical spotted
Spinner dolphin
Bottlenose dolphin
Stenella attenuata
Stenella longirostris
Tursiops spp.
Red Sea
Red Sea
Red Sea
Red Sea
2.2 Analyses/development of techniques
New techniques have been developed to perform spatial analysis of seabird/marine mammal
distribution. The analyses are performed using Generalised Linear Models with additional spatialdependence (variogram) modelling. The applicability of these techniques for marine mammal-data is
currently unknown (RIKZ).
7. Statistics for small cetaceans
7.1 For the calendar year 2000
Directed catch
Harbour porpoise
North Sea
Incidental mortality
Est. total
Est. total
8. Strandings
The focal institution in the Netherlands for live strandings is HMAP, for dead animals NMNH.
9. Other studies and analyses
Bycatch assessment and bycatch prevention
As part of an ongoing programme to mitigate bycatch of small cetaceans, the HMAP has continued
studies on how cetaceans use their echolocation system to detect nets. Currently harbour porpoise
target detection in noise is under investigation (HMAP).
A project on bycatch assessment in Dutch Fisheries off Mauritania has been started. Besides
assessment of the extent of the bycatch, methods to prevent bycatch through technical fishing gear
adaptations, are being developed and tested (RIVO).
The co-ordination of the IWC-Research Programme to Investigate Pollutant Cause-effect Relationships
in Cetaceans- POLLUTION 2000+, has been continued. The Programme is further developed and
project participants have started fieldwork as well as sample analyses on the two subprojects:
bottlenose dolphins and harbour porpoises ( Alterra).
An EC-funded research project, BIOCET (BIOaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in small
CETaceans in European waters: transport pathways and impact on reproduction) started in January
2001 at the NMNH. Aim is to study the relation between pollutant burden, reproductive success and
pathology in Phocoena phocoena, Delphinus delphis, (main species), Tursiops truncatus and Stenella
coeruleoalba (additional species). The countries involved in the project are Scotland, France, Ireland,
The Netherlands and Spain. The Netherlands' part of the BIOCET project is focused on the harbour
Pathology, life history
Studies of the pathology, virology, life history and stomach contents of stranded, and a few bycaught,
white-beaked dolphins and harbour porpoise were continued. The animals were dissected and sampled
for future research (NMNH).
Registration of strandings was continued (NMNH).
Photo-id catalogue
As a follow up on the photo-CD, containing 2081 photos of sperm whales, the project Europhlukes has
started. Europhlukes is a concerted action in the Fifth Framework Programme of the European
Commission and has two objectives: The first objective is to develop a European Cetacean Photo-ID
system as a facility for research on the sustainable management of the marine environment. The system
will allow user-friendly retrieval by visual characteristics of an individual cetacean, allowing the
answer to the question if one individual has ever been photographed before, and if so, where and when.
The second objective is to initiate a European Network of providers and end-users of the European
Cetacean Photo-ID system, to ensure continued addition and use of the material and continued
maintenance of the (meta)databases within the system. Europhlukes is planned to be operational later
this year and will run 36 months. There are 18 participants from eight European countries.
(Netherlands, United Kingdom, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Greenland.) Leiden University
co-ordinates the project (CML, in collaboration with IFAW).
Foodconsumption in captive animals
Foodconsumption in relation to growth and/or bodydimensions has been studied in captive false killer
whales, killer whale, Dusky dolphin and common dolphin (HMAP).
11. Publications
11.1 published
Addink, M.J. & Smeenk, C. 1999. The harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in Dutch coastal waters:
Analysis of stranding records for the period 1920-1994. Lutra 41: 55-80.
Berrevoets, C.M. and Arts, F.A. 2001 (In press). Ruimtelijke analyses van zeevogels op het NCP: de
Noordse Stormvogel. RIKZ-rapport 2001.XXXX (in dutch)
Camphuysen C.J. 2000. Durchzug, Häufigkeit und räumliche Verteilung der Vögel und Meeressäuger
nach Planbeobachtungen, im Bereich der Nordseeinseln Alte Mellum und Scharhörn und auf den
"Norder Gründen" (Deutsche Bucht). CSR Consultancy Report 200.014, CSR Consultancy, Oosterend,
Texel, 33pp.
Camphuysen C.J. 2000. Durchzug, Häufigkeit und räumliche Verteilung der Vögel und Meeressäuger
nach Planbeobachtungen auf der "Borkumriffgrund" (südöstlichen Nordsee). CSR Consultancy Report
200.015, CSR Consultancy, Oosterend, Texel, 27pp.
Camphuysen C.J. 2000. Häufigkeit und räumliche Verteilung der Vögel und Meeressäuger nach
Planbeobachtungen im Bereich der Nordseeinseln Sylt (Deutschland) und Romo(Danmark). CSR
Consultancy Report 200.018, CSR Consultancy, Oosterend, Texel, 39pp.
Ciano, J.N., and Huele R. 2001. Photo-identification of Sperm whales at Bleik Canyon, Norway.
Marine Mammal Science 17: 175-180.
García Hartmann, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the third ECS workshop on cetacean pathology: Lung
pathology, held in Lisbon, 14 March 1996. European cetacean Society Newsletter, 37 special issue: 154, figs 1-14.
Huele, R., H.A. Udo de Haes, H.A., Ciano J.N. and Gordon J. 2001. Finding similar trailing edges in
large collections of photographs of sperm whales. Journal Cetacean Research and Management 2(3):
IFAW/CML 2001. The North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sperm Whale Catalog, Version 2.0. 2001.
International Fund for Animal Welfare, Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University, The
Kastelein, R.A., Au, W.W.L. and Haan, D. de. 2000. Detection distances of bottom-set gillnets by
harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Marine
Environmental Research 49: 359-375.
Kastelein, R.A., Macdonald, G.J. and Wiepkema, P.R. 2000. A note on food consumption and growth
of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). J. Cetacean Research and Management 2(1): 69-73.
Kastelein, R.A., Elst, van der, C.A., Tennant, H.K. and Wiepkema, P.R. 2000. Food
Consumption and Growth of a female Dusky Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). Zoo Biology 131142.
Kastelein, R.A., Mosterd, J, Schooneman, N.M. and Wiepkema, P.R. 2000. Food consumption, growth,
body dimensions, and respiration rates of captive false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens). Aquatic
Mammals 26(1): 33-44.
Kastelein, R.A., Walton, S., Odell, D, Nieuwstraten, H. and Wiepkema, P.R. (2000) Food consumption
of a captive female killer whale (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals 26 (2), 127-131.
Reijnders, P.J.H. and Reineking B. 2000. Mammals. In: F. de Jong, J.F. Bakker, C.J.M. van Berkel, K.
Dahl, N.M.J.A. Dankers, C. Gätje, H. Marencic & P. Potel (eds), 1999 Wadden Sea Quality Status
Report, 160-164. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No 9. Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Trilateral Monitoring
and Assessment Group, Quality Status Report Group. Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
Santos, M.B., G.J. Pierce, C. Smeenk, M.J. Addink, C.C. Kinze, S. Tougaard & J. Herman, 2001.
Stomach contents of northern bottlenose whales Hyperoodon ampullatus stranded inn the North Sea.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 143-150