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Air Pollution The depletion of ozone over Antarctica is greatest during A. August through November B. December through February C. February through May D. June through August E. the ozone hole is consistent in size throughout the year The compound that is the leading cause of ozone depletion is A. CO B. CO2 C. CFCs D. NOX E. VOCs The agreement that allowed for a reduction, and eventual elimination, of CFC production and use is A. The Montreal Protocol B. The Quebec Protocol C. The Kyoto Protocol D. The Clean Skies Initiative E. The Clean Air Act The “hole” in the ozone layer is A. greatest over the South Pole B. greatest over the southern hemisphere C. greatest over the Pacific Ocean D. greatest over the Atlantic Ocean E. consistent around the globe Ozone which contributes to the formation of smog is found in the A. troposphere. B. thermosphere. C. mesosphere. D. stratosphere. E. mesopause. Which of the following is correct with regard to the effects of CFCs on ozone production? A. UV radiation frees a chlorine atom, which breaks down ozone. B. Infrared radiation frees a chlorine atom, which breaks down ozone. C. UV radiation frees a fluorine atom, which breaks down ozone. D. Infrared radiation frees a chlorine atom, which breaks down ozone. E. UV radiation frees a carbon atom, which breaks down ozone. Which region shown on the maps appears to have the worst air quality? A. northern Nevada B. southern Nevada C. northern California D. central California E. Arizona A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between A. an alga and a fungus. B. a dinoflagellate and a coral. C. a coral and a fungus. D. a coral and an alga. E. a sea anemone and a clown fish. Of the following strategies to reduce emissions of pollutants from stationary sources, the one which is least likely to help over the long run is A. burning low-sulfur coal. B. removing sulfur from coal. C. dispersing pollutants above the thermal inversion layer. D. shifting to less polluting fuels. E. convert coal to a liquid or gaseous fuel. Respiratory illnesses in developing countries are most likely to be caused by A. formaldehyde. B. cigarette smoke. C. particulate matter. D. asbestos. E. chloroform. Haze in the Amazon basin would most likely come from A. slash and burn methodologies used to remove trees B. microbial action in the river sediments C. trade winds moving sea spray inland D. cattle overgrazing the river basin E. indigenous people’s life styles The correct sequence of layers of the atmosphere from innermost to outermost is A. mesosphere stratosphere thermosphere troposphere. B. tropospherestratosphere mesosphere thermosphere. C. stratosphere thermosphere troposphere mesosphere. D. thermosphere stratosphere mesosphere troposphere. E. thermospheremesosphere stratosphere troposphere. A thermal inversion, which can lead to serious pollution events, occurs when A. warm air that normally rises, does so taking the pollutants with it B. warm air that normally rises stays close to the surface holding pollutants close to the surface C. cool air that normally rises, does so taking the pollutants with it D. cool air stays close to the surface but pollutants rise into the atmosphere E. cool air stays close to the surface and is blanketed by a layer of warm air that traps pollutants What do all volatile organic compounds have in common? A. all are carbon based B. all are produced from man made sources C. all are emitted for processing and/or burning fossil fuels D. all are colorless, odorless reactive gases E. all are naturally occurring colorless and odorless gases found in rocks and vegetation Gray-air smog comes from suspended particles of A. carbon dioxide. B. ammonium salts. C. particulate matter or soot. D. carbonic acid. E. ozone. Which is of the following would be likely to increase outdoor air pollution? A. Wide open landscapes transport pollutants. B. Hills and valleys increase the flow of air in valleys C. Higher temperatures decrease chemical reactions leading to more photochemical smog formation. D. FOC emissions from certain trees and plants can play a large role in creating photochemical smog. E. Temperature inversions can help to disperse pollutants. Which of the following ranges correctly describes the pH of acid deposition? A. pH < 5.6 B. 7 > pH > 5.6 C. 7 < pH > 5.6 D. pH < 8.6 E. 7 < pH < 8.6 Specific reasons for sick building syndrome as identified by the EPA include all of the following except A. copy machines B. mold and pollen C. VOCs from carpet and furniture D. faulty ventilation E. CFCs Furniture stuffing, paneling, particle board, and foam insulation may be sources of A. chloroform. B. formaldehyde. C. carbon monoxide. D. asbestos. E. sulfur dioxide. The troposphere differs from the stratosphere in that it has A. 1,000 times less oxygen by volume. B. 1,000 times more ozone by volume. C. 1,000 times less ozone by volume. D. 1,000 times more nitrogen. E. 1,000 times less moisture by volume. National ambient air quality standards A. have been established for almost 100 air pollutants. B. must be met by 50 major U.S. metropolitan areas that are responsible for implementation plans. C. are established by Congress. D. specify the maximum allowable level, averaged over a specific time period, for a certain outdoor air pollutant. E. specify the minimum allowable level, averaged over a specific time period, for a certain outdoor air pollutant. Of the following motor vehicle fuels, the greatest polluter is A. gasoline. B. hydrogen gas. C. alcohol. D. natural gas. E. battery. If the earth were an apple, the lower layer of the atmosphere would be the thickness of A. the core. B. the part of the apple we eat. C. the skin. D. the whole apple. E. A seed. Which of the following strategies would help protect the atmosphere? A. Use a city-by-city rather than regional approach to air quality control. B. Shift from renewable to more efficient nonrenewable energy resources. C. Integrate air pollution, water pollution, energy, land-use, and population regulation policies. D. Exclude social costs of air pollution from pricing strategies. E. Decrease use of renewable energy. Most of earth's weather occurs in the A. troposphere. B. thermosphere. C. mesosphere. D. stratosphere. E. tropopause. Which of the following statements about California air quality on Aug. 25, 2010, is correct? A. Every California city shown on the map had an unhealthy AQI at some point on that day. B. In the early morning, most of California had an unhealthy AQI. C. Most of the state never reached a Moderate AQI on that day. D. The air quality between Sacramento and Los Angeles became much worse over the course of the day. E. Air quality appears to be worst along the coast of the state. The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth's air is the A. thermosphere. B. mesosphere. C. stratosphere. D. troposphere. E. tropopause. There is evidence that humans are ____ ozone in the troposphere and ____ ozone in the stratosphere. A. increasing. . . increasing B. increasing. . . decreasing C. decreasing. . . decreasing D. decreasing. . . increasing E. decreasing . . . steady Human health depends on having A. low amounts of ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere. B. enough ozone in the stratosphere and little ozone in the troposphere. C. high amounts of ozone in the troposphere and low amounts in the stratosphere. D. high amounts of ozone in the stratosphere. E. high amounts of ozone in the troposphere. You are enjoying a sunny day in Los Angeles. In late afternoon, your respiratory tract becomes irritated. Of the following substances, the one least likely to be causing your problem is A. PANS B. aldehydes. C. ozone. D. carbon dioxide. E. carbon monoxide. The ozone layer is approximately ____ over Antarctica than it is over the surrounding areas. A. 3 times as concentrated B. 2 times as concentrated C. 4/5 as concentrated D. 1/2 as concentrated E. 1/10 as concentrated You send up a weather balloon that monitors temperature changes in the atmosphere. Initially, the temperature drops as the balloon rises. Suddenly, there is a reversal and the temperature starts to rise. This boundary would be the A. the tropopause. B. the stratopause. C. the minipause. D. the mesopause. E. the thermopause.