Timeline of Ancient Era IDES 3341: His. Of Furniture, Decoration Fall 2012 Name: Reema Hassan Balharith ID:200901459 The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with a sharp edge, a point, or a percussion surface. It artifacts include tools used by humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly. The concept of Stone AgeThe term was never meant to suggest that advancement and time periods in prehistory are only measured by the type of tool material, rather than, for example, social organization, food sources exploited, adaptation to climate, adoption of agriculture, cooking, settlement and religion. Like pottery, the typology of the stone tools combined with the relative sequence of the types in various regions provides a chronological framework for the evolution of man and society. They serve as diagnostics of date, rather than characterizing the people or the society.Lithic analysis is a major and specialized form of archaeological investigation. Chronology:The geologic Pliocene—Pleistocene boundary (highly glaciated climate) -The Paleolithic period of archaeology-The geologic Pleistocene—Holocene boundary (modern climate) - Mesolithic or Epipaleolithic period of archaeology - Neolithic period of archaeology Ancient Egypt The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3200 BC, when Lower and UpperEgypt became a unified state, until the country fell under Greek rule in 332 BC. Egyptian chronology: Predynastic Period (Prior to 3100 BC) Protodynastic Period (Approximately 3100 - 3000 BC) Early Dynastic Period (1st–2nd Dynasties) Old Kingdom (3rd–6th Dynasties) First Intermediate Period (7th–11th Dynasties) Middle Kingdom (12th–13th Dynasties) Second Intermediate Period (14th–17th Dynasties) New Kingdom (18th–20th Dynasties) Third Intermediate Period (21st–25th Dynasties) (also known as the Libyan Period) Late Period (26th–31st Dynasties) Early dynastic period: The historical records of ancient Egypt begin with Egypt as a unified state, which occurred sometime around 3150 BC. According to Egyptian tradition Menes, thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt, was the first king. This Egyptian culture, customs, art expression, architecture, and social structure was closely tied to religion, remarkably stable, and changed little over a period of nearly 3000 years. First Intermediate Period: After the fall of the Old Kingdom came a roughly 200-year stretch of time known as the First Intermediate Period, which is generally thought to include a relatively obscure set of pharaohs running from the end of the Sixth to the Tenth, and most of the Eleventh Dynasty. Most of these were likely local monarchs who did not hold much power outside of their own limited domain, and none held power over the whole of Egypt. The Second Intermediate Period: The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. This period is best known as the time the Hyksos (an Asiatic people) made their appearance in Egypt, the reigns of its kings comprising the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties. Third Intermediate Period: After the death of Ramesses XI, his successor Smendes ruled from the city of Tanis in the north, while the High Priests of Amun at Thebes had effective rule of the south of the country, whilst still nominally recognizing Smendes as king. In fact, this division was less significant than it seems, since both priests and pharaohs came from the same family Late Period From 671 BC on, Memphis and the Delta region became the target of many attacks from the Assyrians, who expelled the Nubians and handed over power to client kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. Psamtik I was the first to be recognized as the king of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country during a 54-year reign from the new capital of Sais. Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt successfully and peacefully from 610-526 BC, keeping the Babylonians away with the help of Greekmercenaries. Ancient Egypt Mesopotamia:Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and NeoBabylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC and, after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. History:The history of ancient Mesopotamia begins with the emergence of urban societies during the Ubaid period (ca. 5300 BC). The history of the Ancient Near East begins in the Lower Paleolithic period, and ends with either the arrival of the Achaemenid Empire in the late 6th century BC, or with the Arab Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia and the establishment of the Caliphate in the late 7th century AD, from which point the region came to be known as Iraq. Mesopotamia housed some of the world's most ancient highly developed and socially complex state Periodization• Pre- and protohistory-Pre-Pottery Neolithic - Pre-Pottery Neolithic- Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf -Ubaid period -Uruk period -Jemdet Nasr period -Early Bronze Age -Early Dynastic period -Akkadian Empire -Ur III period -Early Assyrian kingdom -Middle Bronze Age - Early Babylonia -First Babylonian Dynasty -collapse: Minoan Eruption -Late Bronze Age -Middle Assyrian period - Assyrian Empire- Kassite dynasty in Babylon -collapse: Bronze Age collapse Late Antiquity -Persian Mesopotamia, Persian Asuristan (Assyria). Arab Muslim conquest of MesopotamiaLanguage and writingThe earliest language written in Mesopotamia was Sumerian, an agglutinative language isolate. Along with Sumerian, Semitic dialects were also spoken in early Mesopotamia. Akkadian, came to be the dominant language during the Akkadian Empire and the Assyrian empires, but S Ancient Greecewas a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. From about the 9th century BC written records begin to appear. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbours by the sea or mountain ranges. CultureAncient Greekphilosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. In many ways, it had an important influence on modern philosophy, as well as modern science. Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers, to medieval Muslim philosophers and Islamic scientists, to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, to the secular sciences of the modern day. Art and architecture: The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art. RomeAncient:Rome was a thriving civilization that began growing on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world.In its approximately twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an aristocratic republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Kingdom:According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded sometime in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill. In Roman times: Polybius – The Histories -Sallust – Bellum Catilinae and Bellum Jugurthinum Julius Caesar – De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili –Livy -Ab Urbe Condita -Dionysius of Halicarnassus -Pliny the Elder – Naturalis Historia –Josephus -The Jewish War -Suetonius – The Twelve Caesars -Tacitus – Annales and Histories -Plutarch – Parallel Lives -Cassius Dio -Herodian In Modern times:Edward Gibbon -John Bagnall Bury -Michael Grant -Barbara Levick -Barthold Georg Niebuhr -Michael Rostovtzeff -Howard Hayes Scullard -Ronald Syme -Adrian Goldsworhty Culture:Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, located on seven hills. The city had a vast number of monumental structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. It had theatres, gymnasiums, marketplaces, functional sewers, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, and fountains with fresh drinking water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts. Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from modest houses to country villas. Language: The native language of the Romans was Latin, and gradually shifting into many distinct Romance languages.