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HTML5 Open Day
Lecturer: Roi Yehoshua
[email protected]
05/09/2012
Agenda
• HTML 5.0 Introduction
• Overview of HTML5 new features
• Overview of CSS3 capabilities and new features
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Introduction
• HTML5 is the next generation of HTML and it will be the new
standard for HTML, XHTML, and the HTML DOM.
• HTML5 is still a work in progress. However, most modern
browsers have some HTML5 support.
• HTML5 introduces a collection of new features - rich
typography, native audio & video, powerful drawing and
image manipulation API – allows you to create web pages
with unparalleled user experience.
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HTML Timeline
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HTML5 Goals
• New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and
JavaScript
• Reduce the need for external plugins (like Flash or Silverlight)
• Better error handling
• More markup to replace scripting
• HTML5 should be device independent
• The development process should be visible to the
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HTML5 New Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
New structural elements
Canvas
<video> and <audio> tags
Geolocation
Form enhancements
Web Storage
Web SQL
Web Socket
Web Workers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Offline web applications
Web GL
Drag and drop
FileSystem API
History API
Messaging API
Desktop Notifications
And more…
© Roi Yehoshua, 2012
HTML5 Desktop Browser Support
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The Mobile Web Challenge
• The mobile web is massive
• 10+ billion web-enabled mobile devices by 2013
• Each mobile platform has its own programming
language
•
•
•
•
•
•
iPhone apps are written in Objective C.
Android apps are written in Java.
Symbian apps are written in C++.
Blackberry apps are written in Java (but not the
same Java as Android).
WinPhone apps are written in .NET
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Mobile Web
• Web technology is the one thing all devices have
in common
• Using HTML, CSS and JavaScript, we can write
applications that will run on any device.
• These apps can run online or offline using HTML5
offline capabilities
• Web apps can integrate special device capabilities
to create Hybrid Applications
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One codebase, all platforms
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jQuery Mobile
• A unified, HTML5-based user interface system for all
popular mobile device platforms
• Built on the rock-solid jQuery and jQuery UI libraries
• Implements native looking UI components
• Latest stable version 1.1.1 (July 2012)
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Real-World jQM
http://www.jqmgallery.com/
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PhoneGap
• PhoneGap is an open-source mobile development
framework "connecting" solution from mobile web to
native.
• It enables to build applications for mobile devices
using JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS3, instead of often
less-known languages such as Objective-C.
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Hybrid Apps
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PhoneGap Selected Apps
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Web vs. Native
Web
Coding
Native
Write once, test
everywhere
Write everywhere, test
everywhere
Device Capabilities Use limited device
capabilities
Use full device capabilities
Look & Feel
Build your own UI
components
Use device UI Components
Typical Use Cases
Provide information
about service/business
M-Commerce (Mobile
online shop)
Simple games
Photo taking app
3D or complex games
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HTML5 Editors
• HTML5 Open Source Editors
• Komodo Edit http://www.activestate.com/komodo-edit
• Maquetta, IBM’s open source WYSIWYG HTML5 Editor
http://maqetta.org/
• Many other HTML5 editors are available on the web
• The Helios release of the Eclipse IDE for Java EE
Developers provides support for HTML5 development.
• Visual studio 2010 SP1 has a Web Standards Update
that adds HTML5 and CSS3 support
• http://visualstudiogallery.msdn.microsoft.com/a15c3ce9f58f-42b7-8668-53f6cdc2cd83
© Roi Yehoshua, 2012
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The HTML5 Skeleton
• DOCTYPE is always the first tag but no URL required
• Required by browsers to trigger a standards mode
<!DOCTYPE html>
• Character encoding is optional but should be present
<meta charset="utf-8" />
• This is all you need to set encoding
• content and http-equiv are allowed but not required
• No need to specify type attribute in <script> and <link>
tags
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Basic HTML5 Page
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>My Amazing Page</title>
<meta charset="utf-8" />
<link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet" />
<script>
alert("Hello there");
</script>
</head>
<body>
This is my first HTML5 page
</body>
</html>
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HTML5 new structural tags
• HTML5 has a series of new structural elements
• To create a more semantically structured page
• The main building blocks of HTML5 are:
•
•
•
•
•
<header>
<nav>
<section>
<article>
<footer>
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Canvas
• Canvas is an API for 2D drawing
• Canvas is resolution-independent bitmap, which could be
used for rendering graphs, game graphics or other visual
graphics on the fly
• No plug in required and supported heavily now
• Could become a competitor to Flash and Silverlight once
the feature set and IDE designers become more adept
• IE versions earlier than 9 can use third-party canvas library
plugin to make it work
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Using Canvas
• The <canvas> element is a container
<canvas id="myCanvas" width="300" height="220“/>
• Write to it by first getting a reference to the object
var canvas = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
• Every canvas has a drawing context
var context = canvas.getContext(“2d");
• Then use this reference to draw
context.fillRect(25, 25, 150, 100);
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Drawing Rectangle example
<head>
<script>
function drawRect() {
var canvas = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var context = canvas.getContext("2d");
context.fillStyle = "blue";
context.fillRect(25, 25, 150, 100);
}
</script>
</head>
<body onload="drawRect();">
<canvas id="myCanvas" width="300" height="220">
Update your browser to enjoy canvas!
</canvas>
</body>
</html>
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Drawing Paths Example
function drawTriangle() {
var canvas = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var context = canvas.getContext("2d");
context.beginPath();
context.moveTo(50, 50);
context.lineTo(50, 150);
context.lineTo(100, 100);
context.fillStyle = “red”;
context.fill();
}
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Drawing Images Example
function drawImage() {
var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas');
var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
var img = new Image();
img.src = "images/koala.jpg";
img.onload = function () {
context.drawImage(img, 0, 0, 400, 360);
};
}
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Canvas Image Filtering
• It’s possible to paint a png or jpeg image on a
canvas using drawImage
• Canvas also lets JS code take the pixels from
the image into an array. Using this array, we
can transform the pixels and write the result
to a new canvas
• The operation is called filtering
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Canvas Image Filtering
function filterImage() {
var img = document.getElementById("sourceImage");
var width = img.width;
var height = img.height;
var canvas = document.createElement("canvas");
canvas.width = width;
canvas.height = height;
var context = canvas.getContext("2d");
context.drawImage(img, 0, 0);
// Grab the pixel data from the canvas
var imageData = context.getImageData(0, 0, width, height);
var data = imageData.data;
grayScale(imageData);
context.putImageData(imageData, 0, 0);
img.src = canvas.toDataURL();
}
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Canvas Image Filtering
function grayScale(imageData) {
var data = imageData.data;
// Loop through the pixels, turning them grayscale
for (var i = 0; i < data.length; i += 4) {
var r = data[i];
var g = data[i + 1];
var b = data[i + 2];
var v = (3 * r + 4 * g + b) / 8;
data[i] = v;
data[i + 1] = v;
data[i + 2] = v;
}
imageData.data = data;
}
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Canvas Image Filtering
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Games created with Canvas
• A first person shooter
• http://www.benjoffe.com/code/de
mos/canvascape/textures
• Asteroids
• http://www.kevs3d.co.uk/dev/aster
oids/
• Other games
• http://savedelete.com/best-html5canvas-games.html
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SVG
• SVG is an alternative W3C spec for creating
graphics
• SVG stands for Scalable Vector Graphics and it is
a language for describing 2D-graphics and
graphical applications in XML.
• SVG is mostly useful for vector type diagrams
like Pie charts, two-dimensional graphs etc.
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Embedding SVG in HTML5
• HTML5 allows embedding SVG directly using the
<!DOCTYPE html>
<svg> tag
<head>
<title>SVG</title>
<meta charset="utf-8" />
</head>
<body>
<h2>HTML5 SVG Circle</h2>
<svg id="svgelem" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
<circle id="redcircle" cx="50" cy="50" r="50"
fill="red" />
</svg>
</body>
</html>
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Canvas vs. SVG
• Vectors vs. Pixels
• SVG is vector based
• Canvas offers pixel operations
• Document vs. Script
• SVG images are defined in XML
• Canvas is script-based and requires JavaScript
• SVG is best suited to scalable and interactive graphics
• Canvas is the best option for fast games or animations
• SVG is a plug-in for IE8 or less
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HTML5 Multimedia
• Multimedia support has always been a delivery
issue
• Commonly the <object> tag provided the support
• With a classid attribute to denote the plugin required
• The non-standard <embed> may also be nested for
legacy browser support
• Execution is then passed from the browser to a
plugin
• User must have a correct version of plugin
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HTML5 Video
• The <video> element has a src attribute
• By default shows first frame of video but does not
start
• Add an autoplay attribute to initialize
• Add controls attribute for user control
• In the same way as <object> add legacy support
<video src="myvideo.mp4" autoplay controls>
<p>Your browser fights the future!</p>
</video>
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The Codec Issue
• The HTML5 spec does not mandate a specific video
format
• YouTube has already moved to a HTML5 video
support based on Apple’s H.264 codec
• Both Firefox and Opera have refused to use H.264
because it’s heavily patented and expensive
• Google have provided an open source alternative
called WebM
• Broad support
• Not from Apple
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The Source element
• Media must be supported in multiple formats
• The <source> element gives multiple chances
• Use instead of src attribute on video tag
<video id="myVideo" width="600" height="400" controls autoplay
loop>
<source src="video/big_buck_bunny.mp4" />
<source src="video/big_buck_bunny.ogv" />
<source src="video/big_buck_bunny.webm" />
</video>
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Video API
• <video> element can be controlled via JavaScript
• Used to give a consistent cross browser feel
• Or dynamic functionality
function toggleVideo() {
var video = document.getElementById("myVideo");
if (video.paused)
video.play();
else
video.pause();
}
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Video API
• currentTime attribute
• When read, this attribute returns the current playback
position in seconds
• Setting this attribute will, if possible, move the playback
position to the specified time index.
• Media events
•
•
•
•
Loadstart
Play
Seeking
timeupdate
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Video API Demo
• http://www.w3.org/2010/05/video/mediaevents.html
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HTML5 Audio
• Almost identical to the video element
• source elements need to be used
<audio controls autoplay>
<source src="audio/bach_air.mp3" />
<source src="audio/bach_air.ogg" />
Your browser doesn't support HTML5 Audio
</audio>
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Combining Canvas with Video Effects
• http://www.craftymind.com/factory/html5video/CanvasVideo
.html
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Local Storage
• Local storage will mean the death of cookies
• Problems with cookies:
• Cookies are limited to 4KB of data and 20 per domain
• Cookies are included in every HTTP request
• Wasteful plus potential bandwidth issues
• Potential security issues
• What modern web apps need is:
• More storage space
• Client based
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Local Storage
• Local storage can store up to 5MB (per site)
• The storage API offers two modes:
• sessionStorage – available to the window until the window is
closed
• localStorage – spans all windows that are open on that
domain. The data will last until you want to get rid of it.
• Web storage has very good browser support
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Working with Local Storage
• Web storage is based on named key/value pairs
• Retrieve data based upon the key
• Key is a string value
• Value can be any JavaScript type but is held as string
• Must be parsed into correct type
• Using parseInt() or similar
• Local storage can be treated like an associative array
• Method based or array based approach
• Can be used for more complex JSON structures
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Working with Local Storage
• Use setItem() method to save the key-value pair
localStorage.setItem("thing", 5);
// or
sessionStorage.setItem("key", "value");
• Read data with getItem() parsing when necessary
var x = parseInt(localStorage.getItem("thing"));
• Can also use direct access on the storage object (using
JavaScript expando properties)
localStorage.thing = 5;
var x = parseInt(localStorage.thing);
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Exploring Web Storage State
• Webkit browsers have the best support for looking at what is
being stored in each storage type in their web inspector
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Dealing with Complex Objects
• AJAX applications often hold JSON data structures
• Using a JSON serialization we can add it to local storage
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JSON and JavaScript
• JSON is a subset of the object literal notation of JavaScript
– Can be used in the JS language with no problems
var myJSONObject = { "searchResults": [
{ "productName": "Aniseed Syrup", "unitPrice": 10 },
{ "productName": "Alice Mutton", "unitPrice": 39 }
]
};
• Can use dot or subscript operators to access members
alert(myJSONObject.searchResults[0].productName); // alerts
"Aniseed Syrup"
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JSON Serialization
• There are two JSON methods in JavaScript:
• JSON.stringify(obj) — converts an JavaScript
object to a JSON string
• JSON.parse(str) — converts a JSON string back
to a JavaScript object
• Supported from ECMAScript5 (IE9 and
above) or can use json2 library
(http://www.json.org/json2.js)
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JSON Serialization
localStorage.products = JSON.stringify(products);
var p = JSON.parse(localStorage.products);
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Get JSON from Server
$.ajax({
$.getJSON('ajax/test.json',
type: 'POST',
function (data) {
url: url,
});
dataType: 'json',
data: data,
success: function (data) {
}
});
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Web SQL
• Web SQL gives us the ability to create a real database
client side
• Using SQLite (http://sqlite.org)
• Limited to 5Mb in size
• Currently supported only by Chrome, Safari and Opera
• Web SQL may be dead end in development
• Mozilla and Microsoft are hesitant to implement support
• An asynchronous API that uses callback functions
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Create and Open Database
• If you try to open a database that doesn’t exist, the API
will create it on the fly for you. You also don’t have to
worry about closing databases.
var db = openDatabase('mydb', '1.0', 'my first database', 2 *
1024 * 1024);
• Parameters:
•
•
•
•
Database name
Version number
Text description
Estimated size of database
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Execute SQL
• executeSql() is used for both read and write
statements, includes SQL injection projection, and
provides a callback method to process the results of
any queries you may have written.
• All SQL statements are performed under a transaction
db.transaction(function (tx) {
tx.executeSql('CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS foo (id unique,
text)');
tx.executeSql('INSERT INTO foo (id, text) VALUES (?, ?)',
[id, userValue]);
});
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Execute SQL
• To select values from the table, you can use a callback
to capture the results:
tx.executeSql('SELECT * FROM foo', [], function (tx, results) {
var len = results.rows.length, i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
alert(results.rows.item(i).text);
}
});
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HTML5 Forms
• HTML5 defines many new input types and attributes to
create more meaningful fields and use less
unnecessary classes and ids
• HTML5 provides validation tags that need no scripting
• Less files to deliver
• Less chance of client validation being bypassed
• The most complete part of the HTML5 spec
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New Input Elements
• HTML5 adds 13 new type options
• Mostly extend the <input> tags with new type values
• If a browser doesn’t understand, the extension is
rendered as <input type=“text”>
• No requirement in the spec for how browsers present
• Different browsers show different UI and error messages
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HTML5 Forms Browser Support
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New Input Elements
• HTML5 adds 13 new type options
• Mostly extend the <input> tags with new type values
• If a browser doesn’t understand, the extension is
rendered as <input type=“text”>
• No requirement in the spec for how browsers present
• Different browsers show different UI and error messages
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Email Input Type
• Add type value of email
• <input type=“email”>
• What happens in the client is not
consistent
• Safari and Opera provides submit
validation
• Firefox provides client validation on blue
• Safari Mobile changes the input keyboard
• IE does nothing 
• It is an easy win for a small change
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Number Input Type
• Numbers often need to be constrained by range
• New number type provides this functionality
<input type="number" min="1" max="20" step="2" value="5" />
• Four attributes:
•
•
•
•
min – lowest value
max – highest value
step – what value the control enumerates by
value – default value
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Number Input Type
• Browser support issues
• Chrome and Opera display these as
‘spinboxes’ (like numeric-up down control
in Windows Forms)
• No other desktop browsers support this
input yet
• Mobile browsers display a different virtual
keyboard to assist the user
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Range Input Type
• Creates a slider bar
• Currently supported only by Chrome and Opera
• Not even Safari Mobile 
name="age" type="range" min="0" max="120" value="37"
• Has<input
the same
attributes as the number type
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Date Input Type
<input type="date" id="dateofbirth" name="dateofbirth" />
In Chrome
In Opera
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Form Validation
• HTML5 defines 8 types of input validations
• These are JavaScript free client validation
• Browser support is currently limited
• IE offers no UI implementation in any version
• Firefox and Opera offers the most complete
implementation
• Chrome is pretty good and Safari is getting better
• Some controls have silent errors, not enough UI
feedback
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Required Fields
• You can force a field to be mandatory on the client
• This can be achieved by adding the required
attribute to an input, select or textarea element
• An error message will appear on submit action
<input type="text" id="name" name="name" required/>
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Type Validations
• Using the new HTML5 input fields, you can
explicitly create inputs for things like numbers,
email addresses and URLs.
• Browsers can validate the input fields in these more
specific fields against a built-in pattern that defines
what valid entries in those types
<input type="email" />
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Pattern Validations
• You can use the pattern attribute to specify your
own custom regular expression.
<input type="tel" id="phone" name="phone"
pattern="[0-9]{2,3}-[0-9]{7}"/>
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Custom Validation Messages
• You can set a custom validation message using the
method element.setCustomValidity(message)
function check(input) {
if (!input.checkValidity()) {
input.setCustomValidity("Dude '" + input.value +
"' is not a valid email. Enter something nice!!");
}
else {
input.setCustomValidity("");
}
}
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Custom Validations
• You can use setCustomValidity() to add your own
custom validations, for example when the confirm
password doesn’t match the original password.
function checkPasswords() {
var pass = document.getElementById("password");
var confirmPass =
document.getElementById("confirmPassword");
if (pass.value != confirmPass.value)
confirmPass.setCustomValidity("Passwords do not
match");
else
confirmPass.setCustomValidity("");
}
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Styling with CSS3
<head>
<style type="text/css">
input[type=text]:focus:valid,
input[type=email]:focus:valid,
input[type=number]:focus:in-range
{ outline: 2px green solid; }
input[type=text]:focus:invalid,
input[type=email]:focus:invalid,
input[type=number]:focus:out-of-range
{ outline: 2px red solid; }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<form id="frm1">
<label for="email">E-mail:</label>
<input type="email" id="email" name="email" />
<br />
</form>
</body>
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Placeholder attribute
• The placeholder attribute offers default text
• Gives the user example or instruction for the field
• Sometimes called a watermark
• Can only be used for text fields
<input type="text" id="name" name="name"
placeholder="First and last name"
<input type="tel" id="phone" name="phone"
placeholder="xx(x)-xxxxxxx"/>
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Geolocation
• Geolocation API lets you share your
location with trusted web sites
• The latitude and longitude are available
to JavaScript on the page
• Enables to provide location-aware things
like finding local businesses or showing
your location on a map
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Get Location
• navigator.geolocation is the entry point for all location
related calls
• To get hold of the user’s current position use the
getCurrentPosition() method
navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(showLocation,
handleLocationError);
• Location querying is asynchronous, so a callback is
supplied
• Mandatory success callback, optional error method
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Get Location
• When user agrees, a position object is passed to the
success method
function showLocation(position) {
var lat = position.coords.latitude;
var long = position.coords.longitude;
var when = position.timestamp;
}
• Position object has two properties
• coords – list of properties about location (next slide)
• timesatmp – date and time when location was calculated
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Coords object
• Only latitude, longitude and accuracy are guaranteed
• Depends on device whether the other are supported
Property
Type
Description
latitude
double
Decimal degrees
longitude
double
Decimal degrees
altitude
double or null
Meters above the referenced ellipsoid
accuracy
double
Meters
altitudeAccuracy
double or null
Meters
heading
double or null
Degrees clockwise from true north
speed
double or null
Meters/second
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Location Tracking
• Receive notifications about location changes
• Can be used for navigation apps, sport apps, and more
• Use navigator.geolocation.watchPosition(success,
navigation.getolocation.watchPosition()
error);to start
watching a user’s position
• The method returns a watch id. Keep it. When tracking
is no longer needed, use clearWatch() with the watch
id to stop.
• The callback of watchPosition will get called every time
location has changed
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Google Maps API
• A JavaScript API to display embedded
maps in web sites
• Works on both desktop and mobile
devices
• Free to use
• Full documentation:
http://code.google.com/apis/maps/do
cumentation/javascript/
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Google Maps API
• Add the following JavaScript to your page:
<script src="http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/js?sensor=true"></script>
• Assign a special empty div that will contain the map.
Recommended size of the div is entire page.
<div id="map" style="width:100%; height:100%">
</div>
• Display the map by creating a google.maps.Map object
• To initialize a Map, first create a Map options object to
contain map initialization variables and pass it to the
Map object
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Google Maps API
var ns = google.maps;
var map;
function init() {
var opts = {
center: new ns.LatLng(0, 0),
zoom: 1,
mapTypeId: ns.MapTypeId.HYBRID // or ROADMAP or SATELLITE
};
map = new ns.Map(document.getElementById("map"), opts);
}
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Update Location on Map
function updateLocation() {
navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(success, error);
}
function success(position) {
var latlng = new ns.LatLng(position.coords.latitude,
position.coords.longitude);
map.setCenter(latlng);
map.setZoom(17);
}
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Markers
• Markers identify points on the map.
• Place markers on the map using google.maps.Marker
• Markers can receive "click" events, and are often used
within event listeners to bring up info windows.
function drawMarker(latlng) {
marker = new ns.Marker({
position: latlng,
map: map,
title: 'You are here!'
});
}
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Markers
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Offline Applications
• HTML5 introduces new methods for enabling a web
site or web application to function without a network
connection.
• When you’re working on a mobile connection and your
signal drops having some level of access is better than
nothing.
• Can run a completely offline app as a standalone
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Manifest File
• The application cache is controlled by a plain text file
with a .manifest extension
• Contains a list of resources to be stored for use when
there is no network connectivity.
• If the user goes offline but has visited the site while
online, the cached resources will be loaded so the user
can still view the site in a limited form.
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Manifest File
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Manifest file
• A sample manifest file
CACHE MANIFEST
# Offline cache v1
# html files
article.html
# css files
assets/styles.css
# js files
assets/javascript.js
# images
assets/ico_ninja-star.gif
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Manifest file
• Every page that needs to use the manifest must link to
it, using the manifest attribute
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html manifest="/cache.manifest">
<head>
<title>Offline App</title>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>
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Web Workers
• Web Workers allow for a multi-threaded execution of
JavaScript programs.
• A WebWorker is a JavaScript script executed from an HTML
page that runs in the background, independently of other,
user-interface scripts that may also have been executed
from the same HTML page.
• Can be used to perform a computationally expensive task
without interrupting the user interface.
• Web workers are currently supported
by Safari, Chrome, Operaand Mozilla Firefox
• IE 10 added support for Web Workers in Platform Preview 2
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Web Workers
• Web workers interact with the document via message
passing.
• The following code loads a JavaScript file
var worker = new Worker("worker_script.js");
• To send message to the worker, use
the postMessage() method of the worker object
worker.postMessage("Hello World!");
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Web Workers
• The event onmessage is used to retrieve information in
the worker
worker.onmessage = function (event) {
alert("Received message " + event.data);
doSomething();
}
function doSomething() {
//do work
worker.postMessage("Work done!");
}
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Web Workers Limitations
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Web Sockets
• WebSocket is a technology providing for bidirectional, full-duplex communications channels, over
a single TCP socket.
• It is designed to be implemented in web
browsers and web servers, but it can be used by any
client or server application.
• Chrome 14, Firefox 7 and Internet Explorer 10 are
currently the only browsers supporting the latest draft
specification ("hybi-10") of the WebSocket protocol.
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Web Sockets
• Needs a dedicated server supporting web sockets
• Server-Side implementations:
• Socket.IO, Jetty (Java), Ruby, Python, Perl
• Client Side: Native support on iPhone.
• Full Solution: Socket.IO.
• socket.io also provides a lot of extra functionality over
existing web sockets
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Web Sockets Client
var connection = new WebSocket('ws://foo.org/wall');
connection.onopen = function () {
connection.send('Ping');
};
connection.onerror = function (error) {
console.log('WebSocket Error ' + error);
};
connection.onmessage = function (e) {
console.log('Server: ' + e.data);
};
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CSS3
• Like HTML5, CSS3 is a living standard
• No unified standard yet
• W3C has split the spec into modules
• Each has its own timeline
• CSS3 Modules Recommendation Status
• http://www.css3.info/modules/
CSS3 New Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Improved Selectors
Border Radius
Box and Text Shadow
RGBA color
Multiple Columns
Box Resizing
Gradients
Transitions
Transforms
Media Queries
CSS3 Media Queries
• You can query device dimensions:
/* Landscape smart phone */
@media (min-width: 321px) and (max-width: 480px)
{
/* style goes here */
}
• You can also query device orientation:
@media (orientation:portrait)
{
/* style goes here */
}
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CSS3 Media Queries
• You can also query device pixel density
100
#header {
background:url(medium-density-image.png);
}
@media (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5) {
/* CSS for high-density screens */
#header {
background:url(high-density-image.png);
}
}
@media (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 0.75) {
/* CSS for low-density screens */
#header {
background:url(low-density-image.png);
}
}
CSS3 Media Queries
• It is also possible to use completely different
CSS files
– The following example links to different CSS file
dependent on the device’s pixel density
<link rel="stylesheet" media="(-webkit-device-pixel-ratio:
1.5)" href="hdpi.css" />
<link rel="stylesheet" media="(-webkit-device-pixel-ratio:
1.0)" href="mdpi.css" />
<link rel="stylesheet" media="(-webkit-device-pixel-ratio:
0.75)" href="ldpi.css" />
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Responsive Web Design
• Responsive Web Design (RWD) essentially
indicates that a web site is crafted to use CSS3
media queries with fluid proportion-based grids,
to adapt the layout to the viewing environment,
and probably also flexible images.
• As a result, users across a broad range of devices
and browsers will have access to a single source
of content, laid out so as to be easy to read and
navigate with a minimum of resizing, panning and
scrolling.
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Responsive Web Design
• In the following example, we are going to adapt
the layout of a simple web page that contains a
banner, a main content area and a side bar with 3
news items to different screen sizes and
orientations
• We will need to classify the page into one of the
following 4 types of screens:
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–
–
–
–
Desktop or tablet landscape mode
Tablet portrait mode
Smartphone landscape mode
Smartphone portrait mode
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The HTML Page (1)
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Untitled Page</title>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale" />
<link rel="Stylesheet" href="style.css" />
</head>
<body>
<div id="page1">
<div id="banner">
<img src="sky.gif" />
</div>
<aside id="newsContainer">
<article class="newsClass">
<header class="newsTitle">
Article1 Header
</header>
<div class="newsContent">
..
</div>
</article>
<article class="newsClass">
…
</article>
<article class="newsClass">
…
</article>
</aside>
The HTML Page (2)
<section id="mainContent">
<p>
…
</p>
<p>
…
</p>
<p>
…
</p>
</section>
</div>
</body>
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Desktop Styling
/* Desktop and Tablet landscape styling */
#page1
{
width: 1000px;
margin: 0 auto;
font-family: Verdana;
}
#banner img
{
max-width: 100%; /* adjust the image size to the page's width */
}
#newsContainer
{
width: 30%;
float: right;
}
#mainContent
{
width: 68%;
}
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Desktop Styling
.newsClass
{
border: 1px solid black;
margin: 5px;
}
.newsTitle
{
background-color: #CCC;
font-weight: bold;
padding: 5px;
}
.newsContent
{
padding: 5px;
}
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Tablet Styling
/* Tablet portrait styling */
@media (min-width: 480px) and (max-width: 768px)
{
#page1
{
width: 720px;
}
}
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Smartphone Landscape Styling
/* Smartphone landscape styling */
@media (min-width: 320px) and (max-width: 480px)
{
#page1
{
width: 440px;
}
#newsContainer
{
width: 100%;
}
.newsContent
{
display: none;
}
.newsClass
{
float: left;
width: 30%;
}
#mainContent
{
width: 100%;
}
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}
Smartphone Landscape Styling
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Smartphone Portrait Styling
/* Smartphone portrait styling */
@media (max-width: 320px)
{
#page1
{
width: 280px;
}
#newsContainer
{
width: 100%;
}
.newsContent
{
display: none;
}
.newsClass
{
float: left;
width: 28%;
margin: 2px;
}
#mainContent
{
width: 100%;
}
113}
Smartphone Portrait Styling
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Thank You!
• Follow me on Facebook to get news and updates
on Mobile Application Development
• http://www.facebook.com/RoiYehoshuaMobile
App
Roi Yehoshua
[email protected]
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