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Grammar
and Stuff
Format of Essays
 Heading:




Your name
Instructor’s name
Assignment description
Date assignment turned in
 1”
margins
 Indent each paragraph
 12 pitch using a legible font
 Sans Serif vs
Serif
Unity and Coherency
 Repetitive
 One
topic
 One main idea
 One thesis

This usually means
that you are
writing on one
subject with an
emphasis on its
significance
key nouns
 Consistent pronouns
 Transitional signal words
or phrases


Chronological
Temporal
 Logical



order of ideas
Space order
Order of importance
Chronological order
Sentences – are made up of clauses: both independent
and dependent; they are complete thoughts
• Simple
– I researched.
–
Subject + verb
• Complete
– I researched a subject.
–
Subject + verb + object
• Compound (coordinating conjunctions & conjunctive adverbs)
– I researched a subject and I wrote a brief summary.
–
Independent clause +conjunction + independent clause
• Complex (subordinating conjunctions)
– I researched a subject because it was required.
–
Independent clause + dependent clause that begins with a subordinator
• Compound-Complex
– I researched a subject because it was required; however, I wanted to
write on something else.
–
Independent clause + dependent clause that begins with a subordinator + independent clause
that begins with a subordinator
Conjunction

For – I am a little hungry, for I didn’t eat breakfast this morning
Connects a result to a reason
 And – Mrs Hanzek likes to cook and sew.
 Connects similar ideas
 Nor – She does not eat meat, nor does she drink milk.
 Connects two negative sentences
 But – I like to eat fish but I don’t like to catch them.





Connects equal different ideas

Connects two equal choices

Connects equal yet contrasting ideas

Connects a reason to a result.
Or – Do you prefer to drink coffee or tea?
Yet – It is sunny yet cold.
So – I did not eat breakfast this morning, so I am a little hungry.
Verb Tenses
1. Judy saved thirty dollars. (past)
action that was completed in the past
2. Judy will save thirty dollars. (future)
action that will end in the future
3. Judy has saved thirty dollars. (present perfect)
A conjugation of Have + [VERB+ed] describes an action that began in the past and
continues into the present or that occurred in the recent past.
4. Judy had saved thirty dollars by the end of last month. (past perfect)
Had + [VERB+ed] describes actions that began and ended in the past.
5. Judy will have saved thirty dollars by the end of this month. (future perfect)
action which began in the past but which continues into the present or the effect of which
still continues.
6. I am taking Spanish this semester. (present progressive)
Present Continuous Action Is + [VERB+ing] shows action that is in progress now or is going to
happen in the future.
7. Yesterday I was working in the garden. (past progressive)

Past Continuous Action (Past Progressive) Was + [VERB+ing] shows action that was in
progress at a certain time in the past.
To Semi or Not to Semi
 Semi-colons

Use when adding another complete
sentence with the same thought
 Colons

(;):
(:):
Use when writing out a list or to give
attention to a phrase of sorts.
How to use a semi-colon
I
researched a subject; however, I didn’t
write anything on it.
I
wrote a book; I wrote it in a year.
 The
home is a haven; the haven is a
home.
Comma Splice / Run On
 CS:
I am not following the advice of a
doctor, I usually don’t, I am a strong
believer of the organic way of healing, I
know I can heal myself in that way.
 RO:
I am not following the advice of a
doctor I usually don’t I am a strong
believer of the organic way of healing.
Who, which, that –
when to use it
 Use
this words in conjunction with the subject you
are referring to.



She loved him, who was the love of her life.
The cat loved tuna, which was not part of his diet
plan.
The life of Harry Potter is so intriguing that I have
become a fan.
This and That
Numbers (Counting) under 100
should be spelled out, unless it
is a scientific or formulated
number like:
• $100.00
• 5 out of 90
• 98 %
COUNTING Numbers:
Ninety-nine bottles of coke
Seventy-five books
Thirty students
Refrain from using words / or
phrases like:
• got to drive
• do cooking
• Slang / colloquial words (words
you use with your friends
KEEP these words to a minimum
• really
• very
• a lot