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Chapter 2
The Young Republic, 1789-1850
How Do Nations Grow?
The young republic saw the growth of the federal
government and nationalism. Sectional disputes
began as industry developed in the North while
Southern agriculture depended on slavery. As the
nation expanded west, sectional conflict continued
to escalate.
• How did economic differences
between North and South cause
• How do you think the migration of
settlers to the West affected the
North and the South?
Section 1
The New Republic
What steps did the United States take to establish a stable and
lasting national government?
Big Ideas
Government and Society An important Supreme
Court decision asserted that the Court had the
power to decide whether laws passed by
Which right guaranteed by the
Constitution do you find most
important and why?
A. Yes
B. No
A. A
B. B
The Early Years of the Republic
The United States established a federal
government, created a Bill of Rights, and witnessed
The Early Years of the Republic (cont.)
• In the summer of 1789, Congress created
three executive departments:
− The Department of STATE
− The Department of the TREASURY
− The Department of WAR
• Washington then chose his CABINET.
• Congress also organized the judicial
The Early Years of the Republic (cont.)
• TEN of the twelve constitutional
AMENDMENTS proposed by Congress
were approved. They are known as the
The Early Years of the Republic (cont.)
• Alexander Hamilton called for the
creation of a NATIONAL BANK to
manage the country’s finances.
− However, Thomas Jefferson, James
Madison, and others believed that the
bank was not one of the federal
government’s ENUMERATED powers.
− Hamilton rebuffed this criticism by stating
that it was an IMPLIED power.
The Early Years of the Republic (cont.)
• Hamilton won approval for his financial
program after promising to move the
nation’s capital to the DISTRICT OF
• By 1794, factions in Congress solidified
into two RIVAL political parties:
− Federalists—consisting of Hamilton’s
− Democratic-Republicans—consisting of
Madison’s and Jefferson’s supporters
The Early Years of the Republic (cont.)
• Washington’s successor as president was
− One of his most urgent challenges was
averting war with France.
• Federalists passed the unpopular ALIEN
AND SEDITION Acts in 1798.
• The election of 1800 revealed a flaw in
the system for electing the president.
The Early Years of the Republic (cont.)
• THOMAS JEFFERSON became president
and Aaron Burr became vice president.
− This switch from the Federalist Party to
established that power could be
PEACEFULLY transferred despite
disagreements between political
Manufacturers, merchants, and
bankers would have belonged to
which political party?
A. Federalist
B. Democratic-Republican
A. A
B. B
Republicans in Power
During the Jefferson administration, the Supreme
Court established judicial review, and the country
DOUBLED in size.
Republicans in Power (cont.)
• Thomas Jefferson took office committed
to LIMITING the scope of government.
− He also wanted to weaken the
Federalists’ control of the judiciary.
• With the case of Marbury v. Madison, the
Court asserted its right of JUDICIAL
Republicans in Power (cont.)
• Under Jefferson, the size of the country
increased considerably.
− NAPOLEON BONAPARTE offered to sell
all of the Louisiana Territory, as well as
New Orleans, to the United States.
− Congress overwhelmingly approved
Republicans in Power (cont.)
• When Republican James Madison
became president in 1809, the British
were antagonizing Americans.
− Congress declared war, resulting in the
War of 1812.
− The Treaty of Ghent, signed on
December 24, 1814, ended the war.
− The treaty increased America’s
prestige overseas and generated a
new spirit of patriotism at home.
Who was chief justice of the Supreme
Court during this time?
A. John Marshall
B. Benjamin Franklin
C. John Adams
D. George Washington
Section 2
The Growth of a Nation
How did nationalism affect the development of the
United States?
Big Ideas
Science and Technology New TECHNOLOGIES
reshaped American INDUSTRY.
Are you aware of any recent
Supreme Court decisions that have
had a major effect on society?
A. Yes
B. No
A. A
B. B
Growth of American Nationalism
The surge of nationalism and the survival of only
one political party made it possible to make
economic and judicial decisions that
STRENGTHENED the national government.
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
• After the War of 1812, a sense of
NATIONALISM swept the United States.
− A Boston newspaper called this time
the “Era of GOOD FEELINGS.”
− JAMES MONROE became the nation’s
fifth president in 1816.
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
• After Republicans eliminated the First
Bank of the United States, the results
were disastrous.
− In 1816 Representative JOHN C.
CALHOUN introduced a bill proposing
the Second Bank of the Unites States.
• Protection of MANUFACTURER from
foreign competition was another part of
the Republican program.
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
• Congress responded to the flow of
cheaper British goods with the TARIFF of
− Unlike earlier revenue tariffs, this tariff
was a PROTECTIVE tariff.
• The Republicans also wanted to improve
the nation’s TRANSPORTATION system.
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
• In many cases, between 1816 and 1824,
John Marshall interpreted the
Constitution broadly to SUPPORT federal
• Examples of cases are as follows:
− Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee—the Court
decided it had the authority to hear all
appeals of state court decisions in
cases involving federal STATUTES and
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
− McCulloch v. Maryland—the Court
ruled that the “NECESSARY AND
PROPER” clause allowed the federal
government to use its powers in any
way not specifically prohibited by the
− Gibbons v. Ogden—the Court ruled
that states could regulate COMMERCE
only within their borders, but that
control of interstate commerce was a
FEDERAL right.
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
• Postwar NATIONALISM also influenced
foreign affairs.
− During the 1800s, Spanish-held Florida
was a source of frustration for
− Eventually, Spain gave in and ceded
all of Florida to the United States in the
ADAMS-ONIS Treaty of 1819.
Growth of American Nationalism (cont.)
• With the threat of European countries, as
well as Russia, claiming TERRITORY in the
United States, Monroe issued the Monroe
Doctrine in 1823.
During Monroe’s presidency, which
of the following was not a focus?
A. The banking system
B. Transportation
C. Tariffs
D. The military
A Growing Nation
New industries and RAILROADS transformed the
North in the early 1800s, while SLAVERY expanded
in the South.
A Growing Nation (cont.)
• With the United States expanding rapidly,
Americans sought new ways to
CONNECT the distant regions of the
were three of the ways by which this
was accomplished.
began in Britain in the mid-1700s, spread
to the United States.
A Growing Nation (cont.)
• The United States industrialized quickly for
several reasons:
− The American system of FREE
ENTERPRISE based on private property
− The era’s LOW taxes
− General incorporation laws that made
it much easier to start BUSINESSES
A Growing Nation (cont.)
• Between 1815 and 1860, more than 5
million foreigners journeyed to America.
− Some Americans, such as the KNOWNOTHINGS, had feelings of NATIVISM.
• By 1860, factory workers numbered
roughly 1.3 million.
− Hoping to gain higher wages or shorter
workdays, some workers began to
organize into LABOR UNIONS.
A Growing Nation (cont.)
• Despite the trend toward urban and
industrial growth, AGRICULTURE
remained the country’s leading
economic activity.
− In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the
COTTON GIN, transforming cotton
production in the South.
A Growing Nation (cont.)
• The spread of cotton plantations
boosted the Southern economy, but it
also made the demand for slave labor
− All enslaved persons, no matter how
well some were treated, suffered
Which form of transportation
contributed the most to connecting
different regions in the early 1800s?
A. Steamboats
B. Trains
C. Wagons
D. Cars
Section 3
Growing Division and Reform
How did the Missouri Compromise seek to address
growing sectionalism?
Big Ideas
Government and Society The American political
system became more DEMOCRATIC during the
Jacksonian era.
Is there any part of our society that
needs reform?
A. Yes
B. No
A. A
B. B
The Resurgence of Sectionalism
SECTIONALISM increased after the War of 1812,
while voting rights expanded for American citizens.
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
• Tensions rose to a boiling point in 1819,
when Missouri’s application for statehood
stirred up the country’s most divisive issue:
whether SLAVERY should expand
• The Senate decided to admit Maine as a
FREE state and Missouri as a SLAVE state,
− They also added an amendment to
prohibit slavery in the rest of the
Louisiana Territory NORTH of Missouri’s
southern boundary.
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
• John Quincy Adams won the DISPUTED
election of 1824.
− Andrew Jackson’s supporters called
themselves DEMOCRATS, while Adams
and his supporters called themselves
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
• Throughout the first decades of the
1800s, hundreds of thousands of white
males gained the right to VOTE.
− The campaign that year pitted John
Quincy Adams against Andrew
Jackson again.
− Jackson won and actively tried to
make the government more
− Jackson vigorously utilized the SPOILS
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
• The Jacksonians replaced the caucus with
the national nominating convention.
• When Congress levied yet another new tariff
in 1828—which critics called the Tariff of
ABOMINATIONS—many South Carolinians
threatened to SECEDE from the Union.
− When Congress passed yet another tariff
law, South Carolina voted to NULLIFY the
− Jackson considered their action TREASON
and sent a warship to Charleston.
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
− Henry Clay insisted that Congress pass
a bill that would lower TARIFFS
gradually until 1842, diffusing the
• In 1830 Jackson signed the INDIAN REMOVAL
• Chief Justice John Marshall supported the
Cherokee in two court decisions, but
Jackson REFUSED to carry out the decision.
− Roughly 4,000 Cherokee died before
and during the TRAIL OF TEARS.
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
• President Jackson also decided to
DISMANTLE the Second Bank of the
United States.
• By the mid-1830s, those who criticized
Jackson’s decision had formed a new
political party, the WHIGS.
The Resurgence of Sectionalism (cont.)
succeeded Jackson and took office as a
crippling economic crisis hit the nation.
− He did little to ease the crisis, and a Whig
candidate, General WILLIAM HENRY
HARRISON, won the 1840 election.
− After Harrison’s death, JOHN TYLER, a
former Democrat, took office.
The following reasons caused the
economic crisis during Van Buren’s
presidency EXCEPT
A. Jackson’s issue of the
Specie Circular
B. A lack of paper credit
C. A lack of gold
D. An absence of a National Bank
The Reform Spirit
The Second Great Awakening brought an era of
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• In the early 1800s, religious leaders
organized to revive America’s
commitment to RELIGION, called the
• Other religious groups besides
Protestants flourished, including:
− Unitarians
− Universalists
− Mormons
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• Associations known as BENEVOLENT
SOCIETIES focused on spreading the
word of God and attempting to convert
− They also sought to combat a number of
SOCIAL problems.
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• Although advocates of TEMPERANCE
had been active since the late 1700s,
the new reformers energized the
− In 1833 the American Temperance Union
was formed.
− Maine passed the first state PROHIBITION
• Other reformers focused on prisons and
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• Women did not have the right to VOTE in
the 1800s.
− In 1848 activists Lucretia MOTT and
Elizabeth Cady STANTON organized
the SENECA FALLS Convention in New
− This gathering marked the beginning of
an organized women’s movement.
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• Many of the country’s founders knew
that the nation would have difficulty
remaining true to its ideals if it continued
to ENSLAVE human beings.
− Early antislavery societies advocated
gradual reform.
− The American Colonization Society
(ACS) encouraged African Americans
to RESETTLE in Africa.
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• William Lloyd Garrison, in his newspaper,
the LIBERATOR, called for the immediate
EMANCIPATION of enslaved persons.
• Many women and free African
Americans took a prominent role in the
abolitionist movement.
SOJOURNER TRUTH worked hard to end
The Reform Spirit (cont.)
• Some Northerners OBJECTED to
abolitionism because they considered it
a dangerous threat to the existing social
• Most Southerners vehemently defended
the institution of SLAVERY.
Of all the reform movements, which
one was the most divisive?
A. Social reform
B. The women’s movement
C. The abolitionist movement
D. Religious reform
Section 4
Manifest Destiny and Crisis
Why did westward expansion make sectional
tensions worse?
Big Ideas
War, Trade, and Migration War with Mexico
brought new TERRITORIES under the control of the
United States and increasing DISCORD about
Do you agree that citizens are
sometimes justified in disobeying the
A. Agree
B. Disagree
A. A
B. B
Manifest Destiny
In the 1840s the nation expanded as settlers moved
Manifest Destiny (cont.)
• Most emigrants, like the majority of
Americans, believed in MANIFEST
− Latecomers to the Midwest set their
sights on California and Oregon.
− By the 1840s, several east-to-west
routes had been carved, including the
and the SANTA FE Trail.
Manifest Destiny (cont.)
• At first, Mexico had ENCOURAGED
Americans to settle the Mexican region
of Texas.
− Stephen AUSTIN and Sam HOUSTON
decided to separate from Texas and
create their own GOVERNMENT after
tensions developed with Mexico.
Manifest Destiny (cont.)
• The citizens of Texas voted in FAVOR of
joining the United States.
− Texas statehood became a key issue in
the presidential race of 1844.
− JAMES K. POLK, a Democrat, beat
Henry Clay, a Whig.
Manifest Destiny (cont.)
• In December 1845 Texas became a
− Texas’s entry into the Union OUTRAGED
the Mexican government.
• On May 13, 1846, the Senate and House
voted in favor of WAR with Mexico.
− Defeated Mexico’s leaders signed the
February 2, 1848.
Why did the United States declare war on Mexico?
A. Mexico’s president refused to
discuss a solution with the
United States.
B. Mexican forces began attacking
Americans in California.
C. A Mexican force attacked the
U.S. troops first.
D. A and B
E. A and C
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E
Slavery and Western Expansion
Continuing disagreements over the westward
expansion of SLAVERY increased sectional tensions
between the NORTH and SOUTH.
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• In mid-1846 Representative David Wilmot
proposed that any territory the United
States had gained from Mexico should
be a FREE state.
• Senator Lewis Cass suggested the
citizens of each new territory be allowed
to DECIDE for themselves if they wanted
to permit slavery, a policy known as
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• By the end of 1849, over 80,000 “FortyNiners” had arrived in California hoping
to find GOLD.
− California applied to enter the Union
as a FREE state in December 1849.
− At the time, the union consisted of 15
free states and 15 slave states.
− A few Southern politicians began to
talk of SECESSION if California tipped
the balance.
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• In early 1850 HENRY CLAY tried to find a
compromise that would enable
California to join the Union and resolve
other sectional disputes.
− By September, Congress had passed
all parts of the COMPROMISE of 1850.
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• As part of the Compromise of 1850,
Henry Clay had convinced Congress to
pass the FUGITIVE SLAVE Act as a benefit
to slaveholders.
− The law actually hurt the Southern
cause by creating active HOSTILITY
toward slavery among many
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• One reason that so many African
Americans could escape from the South
− HARRIET TUBMAN was the most famous
• Harriet Beecher Stowe’s book, UNCLE
TOM’S CABIN, had such a dramatic
impact on public opinion that many
historians consider it a CAUSE of the Civil
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• The opening of the Oregon country and
the admission of California to the Union
brought further problems as the nation
• Many people became convinced of the
need for a TRANSCONTINENTAL railroad
to promote growth in the territories along
the route.
− The choice of the railroad’s eastern
starting point was CONTENTIOUS.
Slavery and Western Expansion (cont.)
• Despite opposition, Congress passed the
KANSAS-NEBRASKA Act in May 1854.
• By March 1856, Kansas had two
governments, one opposed to slavery
and the other supporting it.
− “BLEEDING Kansas,” as newspapers
dubbed the territory, had become the
scene of a territorial civil war.
− Kansas finally became a free state in
The disputed starting points for the
transcontinental railroad were which
two cities?
A. Chicago and Philadelphia
B. The District of Columbia
and Philadelphia
C. New Orleans and Chicago
D. Los Angeles and Boston
The Crisis Deepens
The slavery controversy shook up political parties
and ACCELERATED the crisis between North and
The Crisis Deepens (cont.)
• During the congressional elections of 1854,
many Northern Whigs joined forces with
FREE-SOILERS and a few antislavery
Democrats to organize the Republican Party.
• The Know-Nothing Party began to come
apart when the Upper South section split with
the Northern section over the Northerners
support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
• Democrat JAMES BUCHANAN defeated
Republican John C. Fremont and KnowNothing Millard Fillmore in the 1856 election.
The Crisis Deepens (cont.)
• Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled against
Dred Scott in the case Dred Scott v.
− Taney claimed that African Americans
were not citizens and therefore could
not SUE in the courts.
• About a year after the second rejection
of the Lecompton constitution, national
attention shifted to John Brown, a fervent
ABOLITIONIST who opposed slavery not
with words but with violence.
The Crisis Deepens (cont.)
• After seizing the arsenal at Harpers Ferry,
Virginia, Brown was captured and
sentenced to DEATH.
− Many Northerners saw Brown as a
MARTYR in a noble cause.
Whose main goal was to stop
Southern planters from becoming an
aristocracy that controlled the
A. The Republican Party
B. The Know-Nothings
C. The Democratic Party
A. A
B. B
C. C
A Growing Nation
Political Developments
• Washington creates the first cabinet; Supreme
Court is established.
• The Bill of Rights is added to the Constitution.
• The first political parties develop; the convention
system emerges.
• Voting rights are widely extended to free adult
• Women begin to seek voting rights.
• United States fights the War of 1812 against Britain.
A Growing Nation
Political Developments
• Supreme Court asserts power to overturn laws in
Marbury v. Madison.
• The United States issues the Monroe Doctrine.
A Growing Nation
Economic Developments
• Canals, railroads, and
roads are built linking
the nation together.
• Factories open in the
North; cotton farming
spreads across the
A Growing Nation
Territorial Growth
• The Louisiana Purchase doubles the size of the
• The United States obtains Florida from Spain.
• The United States annexes Texas and divides
Oregon with Britain.
• United States acquires the Southwest and
California after the war with Mexico.
A Growing Nation
An Emerging National Culture
• Religious revivalism triggers movements to reform
education, prisons, and asylums, and reduce
alcohol consumption.
• New American literature is written.
A Divided Nation
Economic Differences
• North’s economy is based on small family farms,
trade, and small-scale industrial production.
• South’s economy is based on enslaved labor on
plantations and farms.
A Divided Nation
Political Conflict
• Missouri Compromise divides territories into
areas where slavery is and is not permitted.
• Jackson threatens to use force to ensure federal
authority over South Carolina in the Nullification
• Abolitionism emerges in the North; Southern anxiety
• Underground Railway develops to help enslaved
people escape to the North.
• Uncle Tom’s Cabin builds support for abolition but
enrages Southerners.
A Divided Nation
Political Conflict
• Compromise of 1850 angers both
North and South.
• Northerners openly defy the Fugitive
Slave Act.
• Kansas-Nebraska Acts lead to fighting between proslavery and antislavery settlers.
• Dred Scott ruling allows slavery in territories, angering
• John Brown’s raid terrifies and angers Southerners.