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AP Art History
Chapter 22 Overview
Dissatisfaction with church leads to Protestant Reformation
Church responds with Counter Reformation: The Jesuits were a religious order who helped spread
Christianity through education.
Protestantism is a belief that your relationship with God is personal.
Because of this turmoil, there were many papal art commissions.
POPE Julius II was a major commissioner of art at this time.
He thought that:
VISUAL IMAGES ENFORCE BELIEF
Artists became more established during 16th century:
-matured the perspectival systems
-accurate depiction of anatomy
-visual art has a higher status in society
DaVinci
 Trained by Verrocchio
 Botany, geology, geography, biology, military engineering,
 Believed eyes were most important organ
 Worked in Milan for some time b/c of drama in Florence
 Sfumato
 Helped drawing become an art form
 Chiaroscuro
 Atmospheric perspective
 Last Supper was the first true High Renaissance work
Pope Julius II
 Strong patron of arts
 Interested in rebuilding classical Rome
 Know his commissions
 Commissions part of counter reformation efforts
Raphael
 Images calm with reason and balance
 Works commissioned by Pope Julius
 Decorated papal library
 Learned from Perugino
 Preferred clarity over Davinci’s obscurity
 Unifying Christian devotion with pagan beauty
Michelangelo
 Sculptor, painter, architect, poet, but considered himself sculptor
 Was a favorite artist of Pope Julius
 Work resembles Hellenistic
 Sistine Chapel
 Human form was beautiful, psychological
 Also an architect of St. Peter’s at Vatican City
Venetian Art
 Titian!!!!! Know his works
 Art flourished in Venice, a powerful port city
 Light and color important to the artists of this school
 Concern for paint application, poetry of senses & pleasures of humanity
 Oil paint & symbolism (an influence of Flemish art from the north)
 Color helps define space in painting, helps bring objects to foreground/background (classic
color theory)
 Tintoretto’s Last Supper vs. DaVinci (Tintoretto inspired by Titian but also adopted mannerism)
 Late Venetian art was dramatic and theatrical
Mannerism
 Painting in the style (manner) of someone else (Michelangelo)
 Renaissance artists strove for balance while mannerists focused on instability
 Difficult to acknowledge specific dates of this period
 Staged imagery
 Elegance and beauty, not derived from nature or observation
 Preferred unbalance compositions & unusual complexities
 Ambiguous and unusual
 Distorted figures and exaggerations
 Women artists present, but not common
Terms:
Sfumato
Atmospheric perspective
Tempietto
Chiaroscuro
Scaffold
Venetian
Neoplatonism
mannerism