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World Civilizations
The Global Experience
AP® Seventh Edition
Chapter
12
The Americas on the Eve
of Invasion
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.1 The great Aztec city-state of
Tenochtitlan was established on an island in the
midst of a large lake. Connected to the shores
by causeways, supplied with fresh water by an
aqueduct, it housed a population estimated to
be over 150,000. Early Spanish observers
compared its canals to Venice and were
fascinated by its markets and gardens. To the
Aztecs it was the center of political and spiritual
power, or as they called it, “the foundation of
heaven.”
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Chapter Overview
I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000–1500
C.E.
II. Aztec Society in Transition
III.Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas
IV.The Other Peoples of the Americas
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
TIMELINE 900 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000–
1500 C.E.
• Teotihuacan collapses, 700s
– Toltec culture
• The Toltec Heritage
– Rule extended to Yucatan, Maya lands, c.
1000
– Commercial influence to American
Southwest
 Possibly Mississippi, Ohio valleys
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.2 Toltec political and cultural
influence spread from its capital at Tula in
northern Mexico to places as far south as
Chichén Itzá in Yucatan. The colossal statues of
warriors shown here served as columns that
supported the roof of a great temple.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000–
1500 C.E.
• The Aztec Rise to Power
– Toltec collapse, c. 1150
 Caused by northern nomads?
– Center moves to Mexico valley
 Lakes used for fishing, farming,
transportation
– Aztecs in, early 14th century
 Begin as mercenaries, allies
 1325, found Tenochtitlan
 Dominate by 1434
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Map 12.1 Central Mexico and Lake Texcoco
An aquatic environment at the heart of the
Aztec empire.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000–
1500 C.E.
• The Aztec Social Contract
– Transformation to hierarchical society
– Service of gods pre-eminent
 Sacrifice increased
 Source of political power
– Moctezuma II
 Head of state and religion
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000–
1500 C.E.
• Religion and the Ideology of Conquest
– Spiritual and natural world seamless
 Hundreds of deities
 Three groups
• Fertility, agriculture, water
– Tlaloc
• Creator gods
• Warfare, sacrifice
– Huitzilopochtli
– Aztec tribal god
– Identified with sun god
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.3 Human sacrifice was practiced
by many Mesoamerican peoples, but the Aztecs
apparently expanded its practice for political
and religious reasons. This image shows Aztec
priests cutting out their victims’ hearts and
then rolling the bodies down the steps of the
pyramid.
(Ms. Magliabechiano: sacrificio umano azteco.
Biblioteca Nazionale Firenze. Scala/Art
Resource, NY.)
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000–
1500 C.E.
• Religion and the Ideology of Conquest
– Nezhualcoyotl
– Sacrifice
 Motivated by religion or possibly terror
– Cyclical view of history
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.4 This Aztec stone calendar is
about 12 feet across and 4 feet thick, and it
weighs about 24 tons. It was unearthed
accidentally by construction crews in Mexico
City in 1790.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Postclassic Mesoamerica
1000–1500 C.E.
• Feeding the People: The Economy of
the Empire
– Agriculture
 Chinampas, man-made floating islands
• High yield
 Farming organized by clans
– Markets
 Daily market at Tlatelolco
• Controlled by pochteca, merchant class
 Regulated by state
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Aztec Society in Transition
• Society increasingly hierarchical
• Widening Social Gulf
– Calpulli
 Transformed from clans to groupings by
residence
 Distribute land, labor
 Maintain temples, schools
 Basis of military organization
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Aztec Society in Transition
• Widening Social Gulf
– Noble class develops from some calpulli
 Military virtues give them status
 Serf-like workers on their lands
– Social gaps widen
 Imperial family at head of pipiltin
– Calpulli of merchants
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.5 In the militarized society of the
Aztec empire, warriors were organized into
regiments and groups distinguished by their
uniforms. They gained rank and respect by
capturing enemies for sacrifice. Note the
symbolic gripping of the defeated captives’ hair
as a sign of military success.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Aztec Society in Transition
• Overcoming Technological Constraints
– Women have various roles
 Can own property
 No public roles
– Elite polygamy
 Most monogamous
– Lacked the wheel, suitable animals for
power
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Aztec Society in Transition
• A Tribute Empire
– Speaker
 One rules each city-state
– Great Speaker
 Rules Tenochtitlan
 Prime Minister powerful
– Subjugated states could remain
autonomous
 Owe tribute, labor
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Tihuanaco, Huari (c. 550-1000
C.E.)
– After 1000, smaller regional states
• Chimor (900-1465)
– North coast of Peru
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• The Inca Rise to Power
– Cuzco area
 Quechua-speaking clans (ayllus)
 Huari
 Control regions by 1438, under Pachacuti
– Topac Yupanqui
 Son of Pachacuti
 Conquered Chimor
 Rule extended to Ecuador, Chile
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• The Inca Rise to Power
– Huayna Capac
 Furthers conquests of Topac Yupanqui
 1527, death
• Twantinsuyu (empire)
– From Colombia to Chile
– To Bolivia, Argentina
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Map 12.2 Inca Expansion
Each ruler expanded the empire in a series of
campaigns to increase wealth and political
control.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Visulizing the Past
Archeological Evidence of Political
Practices
Chan-Chan covered more than 2 square miles.
It contained palace compounds, storehouses,
residences, markets, and other structures.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Visulizing the Past
Archeological Evidence of Political
Practices
City of Chan-Chan.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Conquest and Religion
– Split inheritance
 Power to successor
 Wealth, land to male descendants
 Result is continual conquest
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Conquest and Religion
– Religion
 Sun god supreme
• Represented by ruler (Inca)
• Temple of the Sun at Cuzco
 Local gods survive
• Huacas
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• The Techniques of Inca Imperial Rule
– Inca
 Rules from Cuzco
 Governors of four provinces
 Bureaucracy
 Local rulers (curacas)
– Unification
 Quechua
 Forced transfers
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• The Techniques of Inca Imperial Rule
– Military
 System of roads, way stations (tambos),
storehouses
– State
 Redistributive economy
 Mita
• Building, irrigation projects
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• The Techniques of Inca Imperial Rule
– Gender cooperation
 Ideology of complementarity of sexes
 Also seen in cosmology
• Inca's senior wife links state to moon
– Yanas
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Map 12.3 The Ancient Cities of Peru
The Inca system of roads, with its series of
tambos, linked major towns and cities and
allowed rapid communication and troop
movement.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The "Troubling" Civilizations of the
Americas
• Inca socialism and despotism
• Cultural clash with the west
– Violent customs
 Ritual torture, human sacrifice
– Moral judgment
– West has history of sacrifice but deems it
"barbaric" in Aztecs
• Cannibalism
– Possibly due to lack of cattle, sheep
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Inca Cultural Achievements
– Metallurgy
– Knotted strings (quipu)
 Accounting
– Monumental architecture
– Organization of labor
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.6 This Inca sculpture, made of
gold, portrays one of the mamaconas, or
“chosen women,” who served as concubines to
the Inca emperors. The wool of her cloak is
woven in a classic Inca design.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Comparing Incas and Aztecs
– Similarities
 Built on earlier empires
 Excellent organizers
 Intensive agriculture under state control
 Redistributive economy
 Kinship transformed to hierarchy
 Ethnic groups allowed to survive
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Comparing Incas and Aztecs
– Differences
 Aztecs have better developed trade, markets
 Metallurgy
 Writing systems
 Social definition, hierarchy
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Other Peoples of the Americas
• Great variety elsewhere
• How Many People?
– Larger densities in Mesoamerica, Andes
– Compared
 China, India: 75–150 million
 Europe: 60–70 million
 Americas: est. 60–70 million
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Table 16.1 Population Estimate for the
Western Hemisphere, 1492
Sources: William M. Deneven, The Native
Population of the Americas in 1492 (1976),
289–292; John D. Durand, “Historical Estimates
of World Population,” Population and
Development Review 3 (1957): 253–296;
Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust
and Survival (1987).
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Table 16.2 World Population, c. 1500
Sources: William M. Deneven, The Native
Population of the Americas in 1492 (1976),
289–292; John D. Durand, “Historical Estimates
of World Population,” Population and
Development Review 3 (1957): 253–296;
Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust
and Survival (1987).
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Other Peoples of the Americas
• Differing Cultural Patterns
– Caribbean islands
 Some similar to Polynesian societies
– c. 1500
 200 languages in North America
 Mississipian mounds abandoned
 Anasazi descendants along Rio Grande
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.7 Taos Pueblo, in the foothills of
what is now New Mexico. The pueblos of the
Rio Grande Valley were based on agriculture
and the concentration of population in urban
areas. This reflected a number of the traditions
of the older Native American cultures of the
southwestern United States.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Other Peoples of the Americas
• American Indian Diversity in World
Context
– Two great imperial systems by 1500
 Mesoamerica and the Andes
weakened
 Technologically behind Europeans
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP® Seventh Edition
Stearns | Adas | Schwartz | Gilbert
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved