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Transcript
Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-Introduction: What is Biological Anthropology?
1. Biological anthropologists employ a unifying set of biological principles to discuss
how our species came to be the way it is today. This set of principles is known as
__________.
a. biological anthropology
b. forensics
c. ethnography
d. evolution
(Answer d; page 3)
2. According to biological anthropology, humans are primates and are the products of
millions of years of evolution by natural selection.
a. true
b. false
(Answer a; page 2)
3. From the perspective of biological theory, humans are
a. not like all other biological species
b. unrelated to primates
c. the product of the same long process of adaptation as all other biological species
d. much like all other biological species, but did not result from evolutionary processes
(Answer c; page 3)
4. A hominin is
a. an ape-like primate that walks on two legs
b. a non-human animal
c. an example of a “paradigm”
d. none of these
(Answer a; page 3)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-5. The pace of discovery of new fossil hominins has accelerated. The text states that this
may be attributed to
a. regional political changes
b. the better training excavators are receiving
c. better pay for paleoanthropologists
d. all of these
(Answer a; page 6)
6. Regional political changes and an increased number of researchers are the main
reasons for the recent increase in paleoanthropological discoveries.
a. True
b. False
(Answer a; page 6)
7. The study of the skeleton is know as __________.
a. Forensic anthropology
b. Biocultural anthropology
c. Molecular anthropology
d. Osteology
(Answer d; page 6)
10. Which of the following typifies the work of an osteologist?
a. a scientist who studies the relationship of culture, medicine, and evolution
b. a researcher livening amongst Lowland Gorillas
c. a scientist piecing together tiny fragments of a skeleton
d. a scientist researching the cultures of living peoples
(Answer c; page 7)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-11.
may use their expertise in human variation in body form to help ascertain the
ethnic affinities of skeletons.
a. Osteologists
b. Nutritional anthropologists
c. Molecular anthropologists
d. Archaeologists
(Answer a; page 7)
12. Skeletal biology is the study the human skeleton in relation to __________.
a. diet
b. other tissues such as muscles and tendons
c. cultural practices such as medicine
d. pathology
(Answer b; page 7)
13. Because the bones of the body develop along with other tissues such as muscles and
tendons, it is necessary to study the interrelationship of the skeleton and its surrounding
tissue. This study is known as __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
paleopathology
forensic anthropology
human biology
skeletal biology
(Answer d; page 7)
14. A paleoanthropologist is likely to study __________.
a. detailed measurements of the human body in all its forms
b. disease in ancient human populations
c. the interrelationship of diet, culture, and evolution
d. the fossil remains of humankind and its ancestors
(Answer d; page 6)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-15. A scientist is carefully excavating a fossil hominin. She is participating in which
discipline?
a. osteology
b. paleoanthropology
c. paleopathology
d. ethnography
(Answer b; page 6)
16. A paleopathologist studies ancient skeletons for signs of __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
trauma
nutritional deficiencies
epidemics
all of these
(Answer d; page 8)
17. A scientist is examining an ancient skeleton for signs of vitamin deficiency. The
scientist is engaging in
a.
b.
c.
d.
paleopathology
cultural resource management
ethnology
none of these
(Answer a; page 8)
18. You would contact a paleopathologist if the skeleton you just found __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
seemed to have recently suffered from a blow to the head
may have signs of infectious disease
may be that of an extinct hominin
may be that of a non-human primate
(Answer b; page 8)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-19. The biological anthropologist most likely to be investigating at a crime scene is a(n)
__________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
human biologist
molecular anthropologist
forensic anthropologist
osteologist
(Answer c; page 8)
20. Forensic anthropologists study __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the bones of ancient primates
ancient hominins
the identification of skeletal remains and the means by which individuals have died
how cultural practices influence the spread of infectious diseases
(Answer c; page 8)
21. A
a.
b.
c.
d.
is most likely to participate in a police investigation.
primatologist
osteologist
paleoanthropologist
forensic anthropologist
(Answer d; page 8)
22. Jane Goodall’s field study of chimpanzees is a prime example of __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
osteology
ethnography
primatology
none of these
(Answer c; page 9)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-23. Which of the following is a reason primatologists study non-human primates?
a.
b.
c.
d.
to learn about human evolution
to learn about their patterns of behavior
to learn about the anatomy and physiology of extinct primates
all of these
(Answer d; page 9)
24. One place primatologists often find jobs are at conservation agencies.
a. True
b. False
(Answer a; page 9)
25. Which of the following does NOT fall under the discipline of human biology?
a.
b.
c.
d.
nutritional anthropology
the study of human variation
forensic anthropology
biocultural anthropology
(Answer c; page 10)
26. The study of human adaptation focuses on __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the interrelationship of culture, nutrition, and illness
physiological adjustments to the Earth’s physical environments
the variations between primates
the many ways human populations culturally adapt to the environment
(Answer b; page 10)
27. Nutritional anthropologists study the interrelationship of __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
disease, evolution, and culture
diet, culture, and evolution
environment, genetics, and adaptation
culture, evolution, and non-human primate eating habits
(Answer b; page 10)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-28. Today, anthropologists study human anatomic and genetic variation __________.
a. to learn about ancient human migrations and the peopling of the world
b. because it teaches us about the supremacy of certain human races
c. because traits such as skin color and skull shape offer clues about intelligence and
potential for achievement
d. all of these
(Answer a; page 10)
29. Biomedical anthropologists study the influence of
of infectious disease.
a.
b.
c.
d.
on the spread
primate anatomy
extreme environmental conditions
cultural practices
the skeleton
(Answer c; page 10)
30. Which of the following is most likely to study the effects of urbanization, pollution,
and health?
a.
b.
c.
d.
osteologists
molecular anthropologists
biomedical anthropologists
paleoanthropologists
(Answer c; page 10)
31. Biocultural anthropologists study __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
hominin evolution
the relationship of the skeleton with its surrounding tissue
human variation
the interplay of biological and cultural factors
(Answer d; page 10)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-32. Which of the following may NOT be labeled a type of human biology?
a.
b.
c.
d.
nutritional anthropology
biomedical anthropology
molecular anthropology
forensic anthropology
(Answer d; page 10)
33. __________ seeks to understand the genetic differences and similarities between
humans and non-human primates.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Molecular anthropology
Primatology
Anthropometry
none of these
(Answer a; page 10)
34. When was physical anthropology established as an academic discipline?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the second half of the nineteenth century
the mid twentieth century
the first half of the eighteenth century
the late twentieth century
(Answer a; page 10)
35. The earliest physical anthropologists focused mostly on __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
primate evolution
anthropometry and craniometry
the behavioral studies of non-human primates
ecology and genetics
(Answer b; page 11)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-36. Which of the following is NOT an element of the neo-Darwinian synthesis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the use of newly introduced dating techniques
a new focus on primate behavior and ecology
a new focus on human races as pigeonholed categories
the use of molecular genetics to reconstruct biological histories
(Answer c; pages 11)
37. The main architect of the “new physical anthropology” was __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Sherwood Washburn
Charles Darwin
Galen
none of these
(Answer a; page 11)
38. The neo-Darwinian synthesis emerged by the __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
second half of the nineteenth century
mid twentieth century
first half of the eighteenth century
late seventeenth century
(Answer b; page 11)
39. Which of the following best defines anthropology?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the study of non-human primates, their anatomy, and their evolution.
the study of ancient humans
a study of humanity focusing on its biological and genetic aspects
the study of humankind in all its forms
(Answer d; page 3)
40. Anthropology is unique is its __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
focus on biology
focus on race and disease
cultural and biological perspective
social focus
(Answer c; page 3)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-41. Culture can be defined as the sum total of
a.
b.
c.
d.
of a group of people.
learned traditions
genetically inherited behaviors
universal taboos
biological traits
(Answer a; page 3)
42. Culture is learned.
a. True
b. False
(Answer a; page 3)
43. Biocultural anthropology recognizes that __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
culture has no influence on biology
biology cannot influence culture
culture is purely biological
culture can influence biology
(Answer d; page 3)
44. Biology produced culture, but culture does not influence biology.
a. True
b. False
(Answer b; page 3)
45. Which of the following is NOT a subfield of anthropology?
a.
b.
c.
d.
biological anthropology
linguistic anthropology
biocultural anthropology
archaeology
(Answer c; pages 4, 5)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-46. Which of the following is a subfield of anthropology?
a.
b.
c.
d.
forensic anthropology
molecular anthropology
linguistic anthropology
ethnology
(Answer c; page 4, 5)
47. __________ is sometimes considered a fifth anthropological subfield.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Archaeology
Molecular biochemistry
Economic anthropology
Applied anthropology
(Answer d; page 3)
48. The majority of anthropologists in the United States are __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
cultural anthropologists
biological anthropologists
applied anthropologists
none of these
(Answer a; page 3)
49. Cultural anthropology is the study of __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
human societies in a cross-cultural perspective
the form and function of language
cultures that did not leave any recorded written history
how people used to live
(Answer a; page 3)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-50. Which of the following is most likely to be conducted by a cultural anthropologist?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a study of gorilla behavior
a comparison of wedding rituals
a study of ancient artifacts
an analysis of hominin fossils
(Answer b; page 3)
51. Some forms of cultural anthropology overlap with the humanities more so than the
social sciences.
a. True
b. False
(Answer a; page 4)
52. Which of the following could be defined as an effort to understand the workings of
another culture by comparing it to the culture of the investigator?
a.
b.
c.
d.
cultural resource preservation
ethnography
sociology
linguistic anthropology
(Answer b; page 4)
53. Ethnology is considered a subfield of __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
anthropology
linguistic anthropology
archaeology
cultural anthropology
(Answer d; page 4)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-54. Ethnologists differ from sociologists in the extent to which they immerse themselves
in the human lives they are studying.
a. True
b. False
(Answer a; page 3, 4)
55. __________ anthropology is the study of humans as biological organisms,
considered in an evolutionary framework.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Physical
Biological
Molecular
Osteological
(Answer a; page 11)
56. Today, biological anthropologists tend to focus their work in remote regions of the
globe.
a. True
b. False
(Answer b; page 10, 11)
57. An anthropologist studying past cultures through the investigation of artifacts is
belongs to which subfield?
a.
b.
c.
d.
applied anthropology
descriptive linguistics
biocultural anthropology
archaeology
(Answer d; page 5)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-58. The artifacts and implements of our daily lives are collectively referred to as
__________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ethnological culture
material culture
cultural resource preservation
culture
(Answer b; page 5)
59. Which of the following archaeologist is most likely to be at the excavation of a two
million year old site?
a.
b.
c.
d.
salvage archaeologist
prehistoric archaeologist
historical archaeologist
text-aided archaeologist
(Answer b; page 5)
60. Which of the following is NOT likely to be studied by an archaeologist?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ancient tools
the buildings left behind by an ancient civilization
the languages of the past
past climatic conditions
(Answer c; page 4)
61. Linguistic anthropologists study __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
language use
the role that language plays in shaping culture
the roots of human language
all of these
(Answer d; page 4)
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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ Test-Bank-for-BiologicalAnthropology-3-Edition-by-Stanford-62. __________ is perhaps the major human endeavor.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Language
Communication
Culture
Reproduction.
(Answer c; page 3)
Short Essays
63. Discuss the scope of biological anthropology using three related disciplines as
examples. What do these related disciplines have in common? How do they differ?
64. Provide a brief discussion of the roots of modern biological anthropology. Explain
the specific contribution of Sherwood Washburn.
65. Define anthropology. Describe the various subfields of anthropology. Using
examples from each, explain what they have all have in common.
66. What is cultural anthropology? Citing at least three cultural anthropology subfields,
explain the sorts of things cultural anthropologists study.
67. What is archaeology? Citing examples form least three types of archaeology, explain
the sorts of things archaeologists study.
68. Why is language so important to anthropologists? Describe the various research
areas for linguistic anthropologists.
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